World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0012257985
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hematometra  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hematocolpos, Medical abortion, Vulvitis, Theca lutein cyst, Kraurosis vulvae
Collection: Noninflammatory Disorders of Female Genital Tract
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Classification and external resources
ICD-10 N85.7
ICD-9 621.4
DiseasesDB 29597
MeSH D006409

Hematometra or hemometra is a medical condition involving collection or retention of blood in the uterus. It is most commonly caused by an imperforate hymen or a transverse vaginal septum.


  • Signs and symptoms 1
  • Pathophysiology 2
  • Diagnosis 3
  • Management 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Signs and symptoms

Hematometra typically presents as cyclic, cramping pain in the midline of the pelvis or lower abdomen.[1] Patients may also report urinary frequency and urinary retention.[2] Premenopausal women with hematometra often experience abnormal vaginal bleeding, including dysmenorrhea (pain during menstruation) or amenorrhea (lack of menstruation), while postmenopausal women are more likely to be asymptomatic.[3] Due to the accumulation of blood in the uterus, patients may develop low blood pressure or a vasovagal response.[4] When palpated, the uterus will typically feel firm and enlarged.[4]


Hematometra develops when the uterus becomes distended with blood secondary to obstruction or atresia of the lower reproductive tract—the uterus, cervix or vagina—which would otherwise provide an outflow for menstrual blood.[2] It is most commonly caused by congenital abnormalities, including imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum or vaginal hypoplasia. Other causes are acquired, such as cervical stenosis, intrauterine adhesions, endometrial cancer, and cervical cancer.[3]

Transvaginal ultrasonography of a hematometra after childbirth, seen as a hypoechoic (darker) area within the uterine cavity. The cervix is located to the left in the image, and the fundus is located to the right.

Additionally, hematometra may develop as a complication of uterine or cervical surgery such as endometrial ablation, where scar tissue in the endometrium can "wall off" sections of endometrial glands and stroma causing blood to accumulate in the uterine cavity.[1] It can also develop after abortion,[4] as well as after childbirth.


Although hematometra can often be diagnosed based purely on the patient's history of amenorrhea and cyclic abdominal pain, as well as a palpable pelvic mass on examination, the diagnosis can be confirmed by ultrasound, which will show blood pooled in the uterus and an enlargement of the uterine cavity.[4][5] A pyelogram or laparoscopy may assist in diagnosing any congenital disorder that is suspected to be the underlying cause of the hematometra.[2]


Hematometra is usually treated by surgical cervical dilation to drain the blood from the uterus.[3] Other treatments target the underlying cause of the hematometra; for example, a hysteroscopy may be required to resect adhesions that have developed following a previous surgery.[1] If the cause of the hematometra is unclear, a biopsy of endometrial tissue can be taken to test for the presence of a neoplasm (cancer).[5] Antibiotics may be given as prophylaxis against the possibility of infection.[3]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Bradley, Linda D.; Falcone, Tommasco (2008). Hysteroscopy: Office Evaluation and Management of the Uterine Cavity.  
  2. ^ a b c Conry, Jeanne A. (2002). "The Enlarged Uterus". Manual of Outpatient Gynecology (4th edition ed.).  
  3. ^ a b c d Smith, Roger (2008). Netter's Obstetrics and Gynecology.  
  4. ^ a b c d Ogburn, Tony; Taylor, Betsy (2013). Procedures in the Office Setting, An Issue of Obstetric and Gynecology Clinics.  
  5. ^ a b Lentz, Gretchen M.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Gershenson, David M.; Katz, Vern L. (2012). Comprehensive Gynecology (6th edition ed.).  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.