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S-400 (missile)

S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
Type Mobile surface-to-air missile system
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service 28 April 2007[1]
Used by Russia
Production history
Designer Almaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Number built 2015 152+ Launchers 19 division[2]


400 km (40N6 missile)
250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96E2 missile)

40 km (9M96E missile)

Mach 6.2 (48N6)
Mach 2.9 (9M96E2)

Mach 2.3 (9M96E)

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф»; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is a new generation anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It is currently in service with the Russian Armed Forces.

The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile. Each one has different capabilities.


  • Development 1
  • Structure 2
    • Components 2.1
    • Missiles 2.2
    • Morpheus defense system 2.3
  • Base statistics 3
  • Deployment 4
  • Foreign interest 5
    • China 5.1
  • Operators 6
    • Current operators 6.1
    • Potential operators 6.2
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


  • The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.[3]

In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, but in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.[3]

Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.[4][5] Officially accepted for service in 2007[6]

  • According to the media site price 1st Battalion (division(about 7-8 launchers)) in 2014, is $200 million,[7] $500 million (unknown number of other components).[8]


  • 30K6E administration system: manages 8 divisions (battalions)[9][10][11]
    • 55K6E command and control centre based on Ural-532301.
  • 91N6E[12] Panoramic radar detection system (range of 600 km) with protection against jamming. Mounted on an MZKT-7930. 300 targets. Decimetric band (S).[13]
  • 6 battalions of 98ZH6E Surface-to-air missile systems consisting of (an independent combat system for autonomous operation):[14] Each battalion can hit no more than 6 goals on their own.[15]+2 another battalions if they are within range 40 km.
    • 92N6(or 2)E Multi-functional radar (range of 400 km). 100 targets.[16]
    • 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer (up to 12 launchers).
    • Surface-to-air missiles allowed by Russian Presidential decree: 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2 and ultra distance 40N6E.[17]
  • Own the radars system S-400 this is Active electronically scanned array (official government statement)[18]

Possible elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E):[14][19] 15I6ME - for moving the to the distance 98ZH6E 30/60/90 km away from 30K6E. 96L6E[20] - universal complex (all functions), the detection range of 300 km. 40B6M - tower for radar 92N6E or 96L6E. Anti - stealth: Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Orion[21] passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 1 out of 3), Avtobaza-M passive sensor (locator) for target designation on the air defense system (coordinates 2 out of 3)[22] and Orion+ Avtobaza=the exact location. 1RL220BE[14] classified information[23] (or outdated), older versions (supposedly) were used for interference/anti-jamming[24] (inside/within passive sensor (locator)). Possible to apply the S-200D "Dubna" (SA-5c) missiles (400 km), well as various radars system S-300 (Air Defence versions (P family)) without the participation additional command and control centers.[25] Possible to apply the S-300 (SA-20A/SA-20B) missiles.[26] A-50/A-50U[9] aircraft early warning, command and control transfer target designation[27]

The 30К6Е control system can control:[14]

  • S-400 Triumph 98ZH6E system;
  • S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system);
  • S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system);
  • Tor-M1 through Ranzhir-M battery command post;
  • Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle;

Triumf kets – when carrying out additional works using the 30K6E administration system; reception of the route information from an additional integrated 92Н6Е radar system;

Radar type 96L6E/30K6E administration system, Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE. Optional integration with the 92H6E radar system ensure communication between each battery with:

  • Baikal-E senior command posts and other similar types;
  • nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е, and 83М6Е2 administration systems ;
  • Polyana-D4М1 command post;
  • command post for Russian fighter aircraft.

For export supply in coordination with foreign customers, with the purpose of integration in the system of defence from the customer are additional work on improvement of the 30K6E administration system for information technology pairing with anti-kets.


The maximum range for targeting (detection radius more).

  • For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a radar cross-section of 0.4 square meters): 230 km.
  • For a target with RCS of 4 square meters: 390 km.
  • For targeting of strategic planes: 570 km.
  • 96L6


  • 96L6E radar and equipment separately (100 meters), 96L6E2 export version. 100 targets. In mountainous terrain work without reflections. Replaces the radar to detect low-level radar and radar sector review Omnidirection appointed against any purpose without excluding stealth (but not against ballistic missiles). Can perform the functions a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B)[31] or S-400. 96L6-1[32] of S-400 and S-500. Maximum height for the detection of the target 100 km away and from all directions. Can use a special tower 966AA14. It has opportunities against cruise missiles and stealth. It serves as the command post for the battalions. Phased-array radar and the multipath[31]
  • Command Center PBU 55K6E[33]

Automatic operation, serves as the command center for the entire system (all battalions and all external resources including passive). The maximum distance between the command center and the battalion 98ZH6E with the use retransmitters up to 100 km.

  • 5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer

5P85TE2 launchers and/or 5P85SE2 on the trailer in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. In 2014 we received a new car. The possibility of free movement on the ground. The fuel consumption - 35%. The total cost of launcher - 25% (The cost of cars in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles (approximately 240 thousand dollars)).[34]


  • The 40N6 very long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 400 km (250 mi). Active radar homing head. (expected in 2012)[35] To engage targets out of sight from the ground (for homing missile can) is designed to find the target.[26] System S - 400 can hit targets at a height of 185 km.[36]
  • The 48N6DM long range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 250 km (160 mi). Semi-active radar homing head.
  • The 48H6E3/48H6E2 – The 250/200 km, target speed 4,800 metres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)/2,800 metres per second (10,000 km/h; 6,300 mph; Mach 8.2), rocket speed 2,000 metres per second (7,200 km/h; 4,500 mph; Mach 5.9).[14]
  • The 9M96E2[37] extended range missile is capable of destroying airborne targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi), flying altitude 5 m to 30 km,. It has the highest hit probability against fast, manoeuvrable targets such as fighter aircraft. Weight 420 kg. Active radar homing head. The probability for single missile to destroy the target without taking into account the operational reliability is: (piloted stealth / UAV) of is actively maneuvering = 0.9 / 0.8.[12]
  • The 9M96E medium range missile (40 km), flying altitude 20 km, weight 333 kg. Active radar homing head.[38]
  • The 9M96(not for exporting) medium range missile. Range more 120 km, a high probability of target destruction 1 rocket (0.9 for the aircraft and UAV maneuvering – 0.8). Can maneuver at a height of 35[39] km with an overload of more than 20 g, which greatly increases the efficiency of destruction of ballistic missiles medium and short range.[25]
  • The ABM capabilities are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.[40] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.[41]

Only 1 system comprising up to eight divisions (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384[42] missiles (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km).[43][44] The missile is fired by a gas system from the launch tube and sent off more than 30 meters into the air before the rocket motor ignites.This increases the maximum range, and decreases the minimum.[26] In practical shooting 9M96 versions using Active Radar Homing has reached a height of 56 km .[45][46] All the missiles are directed explosion warhead, it increases the chance of complete destruction goals.[47] In April 2015 a successful test of the missile at a range of 400 km, the target is destroyed at maximum range.[48][49]

Morpheus defense system

  • A separate independent air defense system 42С6"Morfey"(Morpheus). 42C6(Morfey) must act together with the S-350E as a supplement of the SA-21 Growler. Together, these systems form part of the Aerospace Defence Forces[50][51]
  • It is supposed to be introduced in 2015[52] Development started in 2007.[53][54] Locator works on all directions simultaneously. The short range missile (5-10 km). The ammunition 36 missiles.[50] 29YA6 radar station and infrared radar.[55] The height of the shooting up to 3500 m.[56]

Base statistics

Main characteristics of the S-400[57]
Max target speed 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)[19]
Target detection distance (km) 600
Range of aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

27[19](easily)/30[44] up to 56[59][60] km (9m96e2)[61]
Range of tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full cast WRU) 80[9][43][62][63] earlier in stage of development was 36 (2012)[64]
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full cast give target designation) 160[43][44][65][66]
Ready for operation on a signal while driving on the march (by the signal strength before the start fight) (min) 5[64][67] in the development stage been 10-15[63]
Detection to Launch time (min) ready and enabled 0,6 / ready 3[28]
Time between major overhauls (h) 10 000
Service life (Years)
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

at least 20
  • Types of targets:[68][69]
  • Strategic bombers such as the B-1, FB-111 and B-52H
  • Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A and EA-6
  • Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
  • Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
  • Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16, F-35[70] and F-22
  • Stealth airplanes such as the B-2 and F-117A
  • Strategic cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk
  • Ballistic missiles (range up to 3,500 km[38]).
  • All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14) (absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15)[38]), the minimum is zero.[14]
  • System response time less than 10 seconds.[71]
  • The complex can move on roads (60 km/h) and off road (ground) at speeds up to 25 km/h.[62]


A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[72] On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007.[73] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[74]

On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast' near the town of Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[75]

On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[76]

In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–2015. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400's.[77]

On March 17, 2009 Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[78]

On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[72]

In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles.[79] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[80]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012 and these went into operational status in April 2012.[81][82] One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.[83]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[84] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.[85]

As of September 2013, the Russian Army has five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. Beginning in 2014, the army will receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year.[86] Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas.[87]

Foreign interest

On August 23, 2007 RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia would not export the S-400 for the next few years.[88]

During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul Turkey expressed interest in buying the system.[89]

Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.[90]

On August 24, 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.[91]

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a $2 billion dollar arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.[92][93]

South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz (Russian). The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales (French).[94] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[95] and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan.[96] LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.[97]


In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin gave authorization to sell the S-400 system to the People's Republic of China.[98] If China should acquire the S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, it would significantly improve China's ability to defend its own air space and serve as an effective stand-off weapon against air attacks. With a 400 km (250 mi) coverage range, aircraft in disputed areas off the coast could be targeted by SAMs from the mainland; all of Taiwan would be covered from Fujian Province, and the Diaoyu Islands would be covered from Shandong Province, making it difficult for the US and Japan to deploy combat aircraft over those airspaces. Taiwan seeks to address these potential advantages by locating S-400 batteries once activated using extensive SIGINT units and destroying them with stand-off weapons, cruise and ballistic missiles, and anti-radiation missiles.[99]

On April 13, 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport has confirmed that China clinched a contract with his company for the purchase of the S-400 air defense systems.[100][101]

Although China's acquisition of the S-400 system has been viewed as a "game changer" in the region, several factors may constrain its effectiveness in East Asia. Though the 40N6 missile has a range of 400 km, it is not known if such a missile is available for export. Even if China does acquire the missile, the disputed Senkaku Islands would be at the limit of its range if stationed along the coast, as would the Indian capital New Delhi if stationed right on the border and moved into the Himalaya Mountains. Against Taiwan, only the 40N6 could bring all its airspace in range, but deploying it along the coast of Fujian Province at sea level would prevent it from locating low-level aircraft at long range due to the Earth's curvature; the shorter-range 48N6 would be even less useful against maneuvering targets at long range. These issues, along with dangers of misidentifying and engaging friendly aircraft at such great distances, may restrict Chinese S-400 use to mainly defensive purposes.[102]


Current operators

  •  Russia – 19 battalions (in 9 regiments)[83][103][104][105][106]
  • Moscow region
    • In Dmitrov 210th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment 2 battalions.[107]
    • In Elektrostal 606th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment 2 battalions.[104]
    • In Zvenigorod 93rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment 2 battalions
    • In Podolsk 549th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment 2 battalions
  • 2 battalion of 183rd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District Kaliningrad.[104]
  • 2 battalion of 589th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District Nakhodka.
  • 3 battalion of 1532nd Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Eastern Military District Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.[108][109]
  • 2 battalion of 1537th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Southern Military District Novorossiysk.[110]
  • 2 battalion of 531st Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment in the Western Military District in the Murmansk[111]

Potential operators

  •  India - In October 2015, it was reported that India's defence acquisition committee was set to clear Indian Air Force proposal of buying 12 S-400 systems.[112]
  •  Egypt – Egypt has expressed its interest in buying S-400 systems[113]
  •  Kazakhstan – started planning creation of a joint air defense system that helped Astana buy S-400 complexes from Moscow after 2015[114]
  •  Belarus – announced its intention to purchase S-400 systems in September 2011.[114] Deliveries will start in 2015 (official statement).[115][116]
  •  Vietnam – Vietnam will buy 4–6 S-400 complexes after 2015 when Russia exports this system[117][118]
  •  Armenia – Armenia showed interest to Russian S-400 in 2011[119]
  •  Saudi Arabia – has expressed its interest in buying 12 unit S-400 systems
  •  Turkey – has expressed interest in S-400 system instead of Russian offered S-300 system[120] However, Turkey is currently debating purchase of Chinese HQ-9, and the S-300PMU2 was first to be eliminated from the competition.
  •  Serbia – Serbia has shown interest in buying S-400 system to upgrade Serbian Air Defence capabilities.[121][122]
  •  People's Republic of China - Interested in 6 battalions.[8][123][124]

See also


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External links

  • English: www.almaz-antey
  • English: Radar S-400 (basic and potential as Protivnik-GE, Gamma-DE) their exact specifications and photos, indicated target size, height and distance, resistance to interference and anti-stealth capabilities, time to deployment, and other details.
  • Almaz S-400 Triumf
  • German: S-400 at
  • A lot of photos of all elements S-400 from various foreshortenings (copy prohibited). Photos can be enlarged fullscreen
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