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Neutrosophic Logic (X)

       
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Neutrosophic Interpretation of Tao Te Ching

By: Florentin Smarandache

Our book will update the old Chinese thinking in Tao Te Ching to the modern way of life, where contradictions are accepted and two opposite ideas 'A' and 'nonA' and their neutrality 'neutA' can all three be true at the same time. Firstly, we are willing to point out that 'Tao Te Ching' already has some limitation, because many questions we are interested in cannot be answered within 'Tao Te Ching'. For example, 'Tao Te Ching' basically discussed the matters in China, however considering all possible situations it should matter in foreign countries as well, i.e. the “global village”. This was impossible in Lao Tzu’s time. Secondly, if the original “Tao Te Ching” is regarded as “Positive Tao Te Ching”, its opposite is “Negative Tao Te Ching”, while the intermediate or compound state is “Neutral Tao Te Ching”. Thus, our book presents the way to extend the original “Tao Te Ching” in various neutrosophic interpretations....

Positive (Original) Chapter 1 The Way that can be followed is not the eternal Way. The name that can be called is not the eternal name. The Principle that can be explained is not the eternal Principle. “Nonexistence” is the name of the origin of heaven and earth; “Existence” is the name of creating the myriad things. Therefore, the essence of Principle always can be seen from “Nonexistence”; The operation of Principle always can be seen from “Existence”. These two are profound and from the same origin, while their titles are different. More and more profound, that is the general door to all essences. Negative Chapter 1 The Way that cannot be followed is the Eternal Way. The name that cannot be called is the eternal name. The Principle that cannot be explained is the eternal Principle. ‘Nonexistence’ is not the name of the origin of heaven and earth; ‘Existence’ is not the name of creating the myriad things. Therefore, the essence of Principle cannot ever be seen from ‘Nonexistence’; The operation of Principle cannot ever be seen from ‘Existence’. These two are simple and from the different origins, while their ti...

Brief Introduction……………………………………………………..……….3 Foreword………………………………………………………………..………6 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 1…………………………….14 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 2…………………………….16 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 3…………………………….18 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 4…………………………….19 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 5…………………………….20 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 6…………………………….21 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 7…………………………….22 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 8…………………………….23 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 9…………………………….24 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 10…………………….……..24 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 11…………………….……..26 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 12…………………….……..26 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 13…………………….……..27 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 14………………….………..28 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 15………………….………..29 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 16……………….…………..30 Positive, Negative and Neutrosophic Chapter 17………………….………..31 Positive, ...

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New Classes of Neutrosophic Linear Algebras

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book is organized into seven chapters. Chapter one is introductory in content. The notion of neutrosophic set linear algebras and neutrosophic neutrosophic set linear algebras are introduced and their properties analysed in chapter two. Chapter three introduces the notion of neutrosophic semigroup linear algebras and neutrosophic group linear algebras. A study of their substructures are systematically carried out in this chapter. The fuzzy analogue of neutrosophic group linear algebras, neutrosophic semigroup linear algebras and neutrosophic set linear algebras are introduced in chapter four of this book. Chapter five introduces the concept of neutrosophic group bivector spaces, neutrosophic bigroup linear algebras, neutrosophic semigroup (bisemigroup) linear algebras and neutrosophic biset bivector spaces. The fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in chapter six. An interesting feature of this book is it contains nearly 424 examples of these new notions. The final chapter suggests over 160 problems which is another interesting feature of this book....

Now we proceed onto define the notion of neutrosophic subgroup of a neutrosophic group. DEFINITION 1.2: Let N(G) = (GuI) be a neutrosophic group generated by G and I. A proper subset P(G) is said to be a neutrosophic subgroup if P(G) is a neutrosophic group i.e. P(G) must contain a (sub) group. Example 1.3: Let N(Z2) = 􀂢Z2 􀂉 I􀂲 be a neutrosophic group under addition. N(Z2) = {0, 1, I, 1 + I}. Now we see {0, I} is a group under + in fact a neutrosophic group {0, 1 + I} is a group under ‘+’ but we call {0, I} or {0, 1 + I} only as pseudo neutrosophic groups for they do not have a proper subset which is a group. So {0, I} and {0, 1 + I} will be only called as pseudo neutrosophic groups (subgroups). We can thus define a pseudo neutrosophic group as a neutrosophic group, which does not contain a proper subset which is a group. Pseudo neutrosophic subgroups can be found as a substructure of neutrosophic groups. Thus a pseudo neutrosophic group though has a group structure is not a neutrosophic group and a neutrosophic group cannot be a pseudo neutrosophic group. Both the concepts are different. Now we see a neutrosophic group ...

Preface 5 Chapter One INTRODUCTION 7 Chapter Two SET NEUTROSOPHIC LINEAR ALGEBRA 13 2.1 Type of Neutrosophic Sets 13 2.2 Set Neutrosophic Vector Space 16 2.3 Neutrosophic Neutrosophic Integer Set Vector Spaces 40 2.4 Mixed Set Neutrosophic Rational Vector Spaces and their Properties 52 Chapter Three NEUTROSOPHIC SEMIGROUP LINEAR ALGEBRA 91 3.1 Neutrosophic Semigroup Linear Algebras 91 3.2 Neutrosophic Group Linear Algebras 113 Chapter Four NEUTROSOPHIC FUZZY SET LINEAR ALGEBRA 135 Chapter Five NEUTROSOPHIC SET BIVECTOR SPACES 155 Chapter Six NEUTROSOPHIC FUZZY GROUP BILINEAR ALGEBRA 219 Chapter Seven SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 247 FURTHER READING 277 INDEX 280 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 286 ...

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Neutrosophic Rings

By: Florentin Smarandache; W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

This book has four chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature, for it recalls some basic definitions essential to make the book a self-contained one. Chapter two, introduces for the first time the new notion of neutrosophic rings and some special neutrosophic rings like neutrosophic ring of matrix and neutrosophic polynomial rings. Chapter three gives some new classes of neutrosophic rings like group neutrosophic rings, neutrosophic group neutrosophic rings, semigroup neutrosophic rings, S-semigroup neutrosophic rings which can be realized as a type of extension of group rings or generalization of group rings. Study of these structures will throw light on the research on the algebraic structure of group rings. Chapter four is entirely devoted to the problems on this new topic, which is an added attraction to researchers. A salient feature of this book is that it gives 246 problems in Chapter four. Some of the problems are direct and simple, some little difficult and some can be taken up as a research problem....

Now we proceed onto define the notion of neutrosophic subgroup of a neutrosophic group. DEFINITION 1.1.2: Let N(G) = 〈G ∪ I〉 be a neutrosophic group generated by G and I. A proper subset P(G) is said to be a neutrosophic subgroup if P(G) is a neutrosophic group i.e. P(G) must contain a (sub) group. Example 1.1.3: Let N(Z2) = 〈Z2 ∪ I〉 be a neutrosophic group under addition. N(Z2) = {0, 1, I, 1 + I}. Now we see {0, I} is a group under + in fact a neutrosophic group {0, 1 + I} is a group under ‘+’ but we call {0, I} or {0, 1 + I} only as pseudo neutrosophic groups for they do not have a proper subset which is a group. So {0, I} and {0, 1 + I} will be only called as pseudo neutrosophic groups (subgroups). We can thus define a pseudo neutrosophic group as a neutrosophic group, which does not contain a proper subset which is a group. Pseudo neutrosophic subgroups can be found as a substructure of neutrosophic groups. Thus a pseudo neutrosophic group though has a group structure is not a neutrosophic group and a neutrosophic group cannot be a pseudo neutrosophic group. Both the concepts are different. Now we see a neutrosophi...

Preface 5 Chapter One INTRODUCTION 1.1 Neutrosophic Groups and their Properties 7 1.2 Neutrosophic Semigroups 20 1.3 Neutrosophic Fields 27 Chapter Two NEUTROSOPHIC RINGS AND THEIR PROPERTIES 2.1 Neutrosophic Rings and their Substructures 29 2.2 Special Type of Neutrosophic Rings 41 Chapter Three NEUTROSOPHIC GROUP RINGS AND THEIR GENERALIZATIONS 3.1 Neutrosophic Group Rings 59 3.2 Some special properties of Neutrosophic Group Rings 73 3.3 Neutrosophic Semigroup Rings and their Generalizations 85 Chapter Four SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 107 REFERENCES 135 INDEX 149 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 154 ...

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Neutrosophic Book Series : Neutrosophic Methods in General Relativity : Volume 10

By: Florentin Smarandache; Dmitri Rabounski

In this work the authors apply concepts of Neutrosophic Logic to the General Theory of Relativity to obtain a generalisation of Einstein’s four dimensional pseudo-Riemannian differentiable manifold in terms of Smarandache Geometry (Smarandache manifolds), by which new classes of relativistic particles and non-quantum teleportation are developed....

1.2 The basics of neutrosophy Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. It considers that every idea tends to be neutralized, balanced by ideas; as a state of equilibrium. Neutrosophy is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic set which generalizes the fuzzy set, and of neutrosphic probability and neutrosophic statistics, which generalize the classical and imprecise probability and statistics respectively. Neutrosophic Logic is a multiple-valued logic in which each proposition is estimated to have percentages of truth, indeterminacy, and falsity in T, I, and F respectively, where T, I, F are standard or non-standard subsets included in the non-standard unit interval ] −0, 1+[. It is an extension of fuzzy, intuitionistic, paraconsistent logics. ...

Preface of the Editor 4 Chapter 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT . THE BASICS OF NEUTROSOPHY 1.1 Problem statement 5 1.2 The basics of neutrosophy 8 1.3 Neutrosophic subjects 13 1.4 Neutrosophic logic. The origin of neutrosophy 14 1.5 Definitions of neutrosophic 16 Chapter 2 TRAJECTORIES AND PARTICLES 2.1 Einstein’s basic space-time 18 2.2 Standard set of trajectories and particles. A way to expand the set 22 2.3 Introducing trajectories of mixed isotropic/non-isotropic kind 28 2.4 Particles moving along mixed isotropic/non-isotropic trajectories 31 2.5 S-denying the signature conditions. Classification of the expanded spaces 35 2.6 More on an expanded space-time of kind IV 45 2.7 A space-time of kind IV: a home space for virtual photons 52 2.8 A space-time of kind IV: non-quantum teleportation of photons 55 2.9 Conclusions 59 Chapter 3 ENTANGLED STATES AND QUANTUM CAUSALITY THRESHOLD 3.1 Disentangled and entangled particles in General Relativity. Problem statement 61 3.2 Incorporating entangled states into General Relativity 64 3.3 Quantum Causality Threshold in General Relativity 69 3.4 Conclusions 72 Biblio...

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