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Automorphism Groups of Maps, Surfaces and Smarandache Geometries

By: Linfan Mao

...ACES AND SMARANDACHE GEOMETRIES American Research Press Rehoboth, NM 2005 Linfan MAO Institute of Systems Science Academy of Mathematics and Systems ... ...D SMARANDACHE GEOMETRIES American Research Press Rehoboth, NM 2005 Linfan MAO Institute of Systems Science Academy of Mathematics and Systems Chinese... ...ty, Mansfield, PA 16933, USA. Copyright 2005 by American Research Press and Linfan Mao Rehoboth, Box 141 NM 87322, USA Many books can be downloaded fro... ...sfield, PA 16933, USA. Copyright 2005 by American Research Press and Linfan Mao Rehoboth, Box 141 NM 87322, USA Many books can be downloaded from the f... ...l presented here. Any suggestions for improving this book are welcome. L.F.Mao AMSS, Beijing June, 2005 Contents Preface................................ ...ometry of Curves and Surfaces, Pearson Education asia Ltd (2004). [43] L.F.Mao, A census of maps on surface with given underlying graph, A doctor thes... ..., A doctor thesis in Northern Jiaotong University, Beijing, 2002. [44] L.F.Mao and Y.P.Liu, New automorphism groups identity of trees, Chinese Advance... ...ormization theorem 104 voltage map 33 walk 5 y-linear 24 About the Author LinfanMaoisapost-doctorintheAcademyofMathematicsandSystemsofChinese Academy...

A combinatorial map is a connected topological graph cellularly embedded in a surface. As a linking of combinatorial configuration with the classical mathematics, it fascinates more and more mathematician’s interesting. Its function and role in mathematics are widely accepted by mathematicians today. On the last century, many works are concentrated on the combinatorial properties of maps. The main trend is the enumeration of maps, particularly the rooted maps, pioneered by W. Tutte, and today, this kind of papers are still appeared on the journals frequently today. All of those is surveyed in Liu’s book [33]. To determine the embedding of a graph on surfaces, including coloring a map on surfaces is another trend in map theory. Its object is combinatorialization of surfaces, see Gross and Tucker [22], Mohar and Thomassen [53] and White [70], especially the [53] for detail. The construction of regular maps on surfaces, related maps with groups and geometry is a glimmer of the map theory with other mathematics....

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Combinatorial Geometry with Applications to Field Theory : Second Edition

By: Linfan Mao

In The 2nd Conference on Combinatorics and Graph Theory of China (Aug. 16-19, 2006, Tianjing), I formally presented a combinatorial conjecture on mathematical sciences (abbreviated to CC Conjecture), i.e., a mathematical science can be reconstructed from or made by combinatorialization, implicated in the foreword of Chapter 5 of my book Automorphism groups of Maps, Surfaces and Smarandache Geometries (USA, 2005). This conjecture is essentially a philosophic notion for developing mathematical sciences of 21st century, which means that we can combine different fields into a union one and then determines its behavior quantitatively. It is this notion that urges me to research mathematics and physics by combinatorics, i.e., mathematical combinatorics beginning in 2004 when I was a post-doctor of Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science. It finally brought about me one self-contained book, the first edition of this book, published by InfoQuest Publisher in 2009. This edition is a revisited edition, also includes the development of a few topics discussed in the first edition....

1.5 ENUMERATION TECHNIQUES 1.5.1 Enumeration Principle. The enumeration problem on a finite set is to count and find closed formula for elements in this set. A fundamental principle for solving this problem in general is on account of the enumeration principle: For finite sets X and Y , the equality |X| = |Y | holds if and only if there is a bijection f : X → Y . Certainly, if the set Y can be easily countable, then we can find a closed formula for elements in X....

Contents Preface to the Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i Chapter 1. Combinatorial Principle with Graphs . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Multi-sets with operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.1.1 Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.3 Boolean algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.4 Multi-Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1.2 Multi-posets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2.1 Partially ordered set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 1.2.2 Multi-Poset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3 Countable sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.1 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.3.2 Countable set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1.4 Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.4.1 Graph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 1.4.2 Subgraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.4.3 Labeled graph. . . . . . ...

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Theory and Practice in Construction Project Bidding & Purchase

By: Linfan Mao

A how to book on Chinese construction, in theory and practice.

Abstract: A tendering is a negotiating process for a contract through by a tenderer issuing an invitation, bidders submitting bidding documents and the tenderer accepting a bidding by sending out a notification of award. It is a main measure for completing market economy in China. According to laws and new regulations, rulers and codes new issued, this book introduces fundamental knowledge and techniques in theory and practice for a construction contract by bids, such as those of macro-economic policies, investing and constructing management, the tendering and bidding law with its regulations and how to compile a qualification document for a designing, consulting, constructing, purchasing project or a corporate body of a project management. By Smarandache multi-spaces, a mathematical evaluation model for bids is established and examples are included. The Tendering and Bidding Law of China, 5 regulations related and 100 answers for tendering and bidding in China can be found in the attachment. It is referable to researchers on theory or persons working in purchasing and students in universities....

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, June 2011

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Duality Theorems of Multiobjective Generalized Disjunctive Fuzzy Nonlinear Fractional Programming Abstract: This paper is concerned with the study of duality conditions to convex-concave generalized multiobjective fuzzy nonlinear fractional disjunctive programming problems for which the decision set is the union of a family of convex sets. The Lagrangian function for such problems is defined and the Kuhn-Tucker Saddle and Stationary points are characterized. In addition, some important theorems related to the Kuhn-Tucker problem for saddle and stationary points are established. Moreover, a general dual problem is formulated together with weak; strong and converse duality theorems are proved. Key Words: Generalized multiobjective fractional programming; Disjunctive programming; Convexity; Concavity; fuzzy parameters Duality. ...

Contents Duality Theorems of Multiobjective Generalized Disjunctive Fuzzy Nonlinear Fractional Programming BY E.E.AMMAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 Surface Embeddability of Graphs via Joint Trees BY YANPEI LIU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Plick Graphs with Crossing Number 1 BY B.BASAVANAGOUD AND V.R.KULLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Effects of Foldings on Free Product of Fundamental Groups BY M.El-GHOUL, A. E.El-AHMADY, H.RAFAT AND M.ABU-SALEEM. . . . . . . 29 Absolutely Harmonious Labeling of Graphs BY M.SEENIVASAN AND A.LOURDUSAMY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 The Toroidal Crossing Number of K4n BY SHENGXIANG LV, TANG LING AND YUANGQIU HUANG . . . . . . . . . . 52 On Pathos Semitotal and Total Block Graph of a Tree BY MUDDEBIHAL M. H. AND SYED BABAJAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Varieties of Groupoids and Quasigroups Generated by Linear-Bivariate Polynomials Over Ring Zn BY E.ILOJIDE, T.G.JAIYEOLA AND O.O.OWOJORI . . . . . 79 New Characterizations for Bertrand Curves in Minkowski 3-Space BY BAHADDIN BUKCU, MURAT K...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 1, April 2010

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

x4: Radio labeling of P3n for n is less than or equal to 5 or n = 7 In this section we determine radio numbers of cube path of small order as a special case....

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, July 2009

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Contents Tangent Space and Derivative Mapping on Time Scale BY EMIN ¨OZYILMAZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 Basic Properties Of Second Smarandache Bol Loops BY T.G.JA´IY´E O. L´A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Smarandachely Precontinuous maps and Preopen Sets in Topological Vector Spaces BY SAYED ELAGAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Path Double Covering Number of Product Graphs BY A. NAGARAJAN, V. MAHESWARI, S. NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN. . . . . . 27 Some Remarks on Fuzzy N-Normed Spaces BY SAYED ELAGAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 σ-Coloring of the Monohedral Tiling BY M. E. BASHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 The Forcing Domination Number of Hamiltonian Cubic Graphs BY H.ABDOLLAHZADEH AHANGAR AND PUSHPALATHA L. . . . . . . . . . 53 Permutation Polynomials modulo n, n 6= 2w and Latin Squares BY VADIRAJA BHATTA G. R. and SHANKAR B. R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Graphoidal Tree d - Cover BY S.SOMASUNDARAM, A.NAGARAJAN AND G.MA...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 4, December 2010

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

On (∈ vq)-Fuzzy Bigroup Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the concept of fuzzy singleton to bigroup, and uses it to define (∈ v q)- fuzzy bigroup and discuss its properties. We investigate whether or not the fuzzy point of a bigroup will belong to or quasi coincident with its fuzzy set if the constituent fuzzy points of the constituting subgroups both belong to or quasi coincident with their respective fuzzy sets, and vise versa. We also prove that a fuzzy bisubset μ is an (∈ vq)-fuzzy subbigroup of the bigroup G if its constituent fuzzy subsets are (∈ vq)-fuzzy subgroups of their respective subgroups among others. Key Words: Bigroups, fuzzy bigroups, fuzzy singleton on bigroup, (∈ vq)- fuzzy subgroups, (∈ vq)- fuzzy bigroup ...

Contents On (∈ vq)- Fuzzy Bigroup BY AKINOLA L.S. and AGBOOLA A.A.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 Connectivity of Smarandachely Line Splitting Graphs BY B.BASAVANAGOUD and VEENA MATHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 Separation for Triple-Harmonic Di?erential Operator in Hilbert Space BY E.M.E.ZAYED and S.A.OMRAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Classification of Differentiable Graph BY A. El-Abed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 On Equitable Coloring of Helm Graph and Gear Graph BY KALIRAJ.K and VERNOLD VIVIN.J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 On the Roman Edge Domination Number of a Graph BY K. EBADI, E. KHODADADI and L. PUSHPALATHA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The Upper Monophonic Number of a Graph BY J.JOHN and S.PANCHALI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Some Results on Pair Sum Labeling of Graphs BY R. PONRAJ, J.VIJAYA XAVIER PARTHIPAN and R.KALA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Weierstrass Formula for Minimal Surface in the Special Three-Dimensional Kenmotsu Manifold K with _-...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, October 2008

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Extending Homomorphism Theorem to Multi-Systems Abstract: The multi-laterality of WORLD implies multi-systems to be its best candidate model for ones cognition on nature, which is also included in an ancient book of China, TAO TEH KING written by Lao Zi, an ancient philosopher of China. Then how it works to mathematics, not suspended in thought? This paper explains this action by mathematical logic on mathematical systems generalized to Smarandache systems, or such systems with combinatorial structures, i.e., combinatorial systems, and shows how to extend the homomorphism theorem in abstract algebra to multi-systems or combinatorial systems. All works in this paper are motivated by a combinatorial speculation of mine which is reformed on combinatorial systems and can be also applied to geometry. Key Words: Homomorphism theorem, multi-system, combinatorial system. ...

...Contents Extending Homomorphism Theorem to Multi-Systems BY LINFAN MAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 A Double Cryptography Using the Smarandache Keedwell Cross Inverse Quasigroup BY T. G. JA´IY´EOL´A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 1, January 2008

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandachemulti-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,· · · , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretic...

Abstract: Let G be a group having a partially closed subset S such that S contains the identity element of G and each element in S has an inverse in S. Such subsets of G are called halfsubgroups of G. If a halfsubgroup S generates the group G, then S is called a halfsubgroup generating the group or hsgg in short. In this paper we prove some results on hsggs of a group. Order class of a group are special halfsubgroupoids. Elementary abelian groups are characterized as groups with maximum special halfsubgroupoids. Order class of a group with unity forms a typical halfsubgroup. Key words: halfsubgroup, hsgg, order class of an element. AMS(2000): 20Kxx, 20L05....

... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 Curvature Equations on Combinatorial Manifolds with Applications to Theoretical Physics BY LINFAN MAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 A Pair of Smarandachely Isotopic Quasigroups and Loops of the Same Variety BY T. G. JA´IY´EOL´A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, July 2010

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Contents On the Crypto-Automorphism of the Buchsteiner Loops BY J.O.AD´EN´IRN and Y.T.OYEBO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 Generalizations of Poly-Bernoulli Numbers and Polynomials BY HASSAN JOLANY, M.R.DARAFSHEH AND R.EIZADI ALIKELAYE . . . . 07 Open Alliance in Graphs BY N.JAFARI RAD AND H.REZAZADEH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Forcing Weak Edge Detour Number of a Graph BY A.P.SANTHAKUMARAN AND S.ATHISAYANATHAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Special Smarandache Curves in the Euclidean Space BY AHMAD T. ALI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The H-Line Signed Graph of a Signed Graph BY R.RANGARAJAN, M. S. SUBRAMANYA AND P. SIVA KOTA REDDY. . . .37 Min-Max Dom-Saturation Number of a Tree BY S. ARUMUGAM AND S. SUDHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Embeddings of Circular graph C(2n + 1, 2) (n ≥ 2) on the Projective Plane BY XINQIU LIU, YUANQIU HUANG AND JING WANG. . . . . . . . . . . . .53 A Note On Jump Symmetric n-Sigraph BY H. A.MALATHI AND H. C.SAVITHRI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 New Families of Mean Graphs ...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 1, April 2009

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Abstract: In this paper we find the interrelations and the hidden pattern of the problems faced by the PWDs and their caretakers using Fuzzy Relational Maps (FRMs). Here we have taken the problems faced by the rural persons with disabilities in Melmalayanur and Kurinjipadi Blocks, Tamil Nadu, India. This paper is organized with the following four sections. Section one is introductory in nature giving the overall contents from the survey made about PWDs in the above said Blocks. Section two gives description of FRM models and the attributes taken for the study related with the PWDs and the caretakers, the FRM model formed using these attributes and their analysis. The third section gives the suggestions and conclusions derived from the survey as well as the FRM model. Key Words: FRM model, fixed point, hidden pattern, relational matrix, limit cycle. AMS(2000): 04A72....

...ns with Disability (PWD) Using FRMs BY W.B.VASANTHA KANDASAMY, A.PRAVEEN PRAKASH AND K.THIRUSANGU 01 Topological Multi-groups and Multi-fields BY LINFAN MAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 Shortest Co-cycle Bases of Graphs BY HAN REN AND JING HAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 On Involute a...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 1, March 2011

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

...Sequences on Graphs with Symmetries Linfan Mao Chinese Academy of Mathematics and System Science, Beijing, 10080, P.R.China Beijing Institute of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 100044, P.R.China E-mail: maolinfan@163.com Abstract: An interestin...

... Lucas Graceful Labeling for Some Graphs BY M.A.PERUMAL, S.NAVANEETHAKRISHNAN AND A.NAGARAJAN . . . . . 01 Sequences on Graphs with Symmetries BY LINFAN MAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Supermagic Coverings of Some Simple Graphs BY P.JEYANTHI AND P.SELVAGOPAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Elementary Abelia...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, October 2009

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

§1. Why is the WORLD a Combinatorial One? The multiplicity of the WORLD results in modern sciences overlap and hybrid, also implies its combinatorial structure. To see more clear, we present two meaningful proverbs following. Proverb 1. Ames Room An Ames room is a distorted room constructed so that from the front it appears to be an ordinary cubic-shaped room, with a back wall and two side walls parallel to each other and perpendicular to the horizontally level floor and ceiling. As a result of the optical illusion, a person standing in one corner appears to the observer to be a giant, while a person standing in the other corner appears to be a dwarf. The illusion is convincing enough that a person walking back and forth from the left corner to the right corner appears to grow or shrink. ...

...Contents Combinatorial Fields - An Introduction BY LINFAN MAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 A Spacetime Geodesics of the Schwarzschild Space and Its Deformation Retract BY H. RAFAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 1, October 2007

By: Linfan Mao

Generally, combinatorics deals with twofold: Question 1.1. to determine or find structures or properties of configurations, such as those structure results appeared in graph theory, combinatorial maps and design theory,..., etc.. Question 1.2. to enumerate configurations, such as those appeared in the enumeration of graphs, labeled graphs, rooted maps, unrooted maps and combinatorial designs,...,etc.....

...Combinatorial Speculation and Combinatorial Conjecture for Mathematics BY LINFAN MAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Structures of Cycle Bases with Some Extremal Properties BY HAN REN and YUN BAI . . . ...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 3, October 2010

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

Smarandache-Zagreb Index on Three Graph Operators Abstract: Many researchers have studied several operators on a connected graph in which one make an attempt on subdivision of its edges. In this paper, we show how the Zagreb indices, a particular case of Smarandache-Zagreb index of a graph changes with these operators and extended these results to obtain a relation connecting the Zagreb index on operators. Key Words: Subdivision graph, ladder graph, Smarandache-Zagreb index, Zagreb index, graph operators. ...

... S.PANAYAPPAN and VERNOLD VIVIN.J . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Labeling, Covering and Decomposing of Graphs – Smarandache’s Notion in Graph Theory BY LINFAN MAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 4, January 2010

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

On the Bicoset of a Bivector Space Abstract: The study of bivector spaces was first intiated by Vasantha Kandasamy. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of bicoset of a bivector space and obtain some of its elementary properties. Key Words: bigroup, bivector space, bicoset, bisum, direct bisum, inner biproduct space, biprojection. ...

Contents On the Bicoset of a Bivector Space BY AGBOOLA A.A.A. AND AKINOLA L.S.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .01 Smarandachely Bondage Number of a Graph BY KARAM EBADI AND L.PUSHPALATHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 Domination Number in 4-Regular Graphs BY H.Abdollahzadeh Ahangar AND Pushpalatha L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Computing Smarandachely Scattering Number of Total Graphs BY AYSUN AYTAC AND ELGIN KILIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 On the 3ψ3 Basic Bilateral Hypergeometric Series Summation Formulas BY K. R.VASUKI AND G.SHARATH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Minimal Retraction of Space-time and Their Foldings BY A. E. El-AHMADY aND H. RAFAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Efficient Domination in Bi-Cayley Graphs BY T. TAMIZH CHELVAM AND SIVAGNANAM MUTHARASU. . . . . . . . . .56 Independent Complementary Distance Pattern Uniform Graphs BY GERMINA K.A. AND BEENA KOSHY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 On Smarandachely Harmonic Graphs BY D.D.SOMASHEKARA AND C.R.VEENA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 S...

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International Journal of Mathematical Combinatorics : Volume 2, April 2008

By: Linfan Mao

Aims and Scope: The International J.Mathematical Combinatorics (ISSN 1937-1055) is a fully refereed international journal, and published quarterly comprising 100-150 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces,. . . , etc.. Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitatio...

The Characterization of Symmetric Primitive Matrices with Exponent n − 2 Junliang Cai Abstract: In this paper the symmetric primitive matrices of order n with exponent n − 2 are completely characterized by applying a combinatorial approach, i.e., mathematical combinatorics ([7]). Key words: primitive matrix, primitive exponent, graph....

... Minkowski Space-time BY MELIH TURGUT AND SUHA YILMAZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Combinatorially Riemannian Submanifolds BY LINFAN MAO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Smarandache Half-Groups BY ARUN S.MUKTIBODH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 On Smarandache Bryant Schnei...

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