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Aberdeen Bestiary

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Aberdeen Bestiary

Folio 56 recto of the Aberdeen Bestiary has a miniature of the Phoenix

The Aberdeen Bestiary (Aberdeen University Library, Univ Lib. MS 24) is a 12th-century English illuminated manuscript bestiary that was first listed in 1542 in the inventory of the Old Royal Library at the Palace of Westminster.

Information about its origins and patron are circumstantial. It probably comes from the 12th century and was owned by an ecclesiastical patron of the north or south province. The Aberdeen Bestiary is related to other bestiaries of the Middle Ages and especially the Ashmole Bestiary. Some argue that the Aberdeen Bestiary might be the older of the two.

Creation

Folio 5 recto : Adam names the animals.
Folio 8 recto : Tiger (Tigris).
Folio 8 verso : Pard (Pardus).
Folio 9 recto : Panther (Panther).
Folio 11 verso : Hyena (Yena).
Folio 13 recto : Satyr (Satyrs).
Folio 15 recto : Monoceros (Monoceros).
Folio 21 recto : Ram (Aries).
Folio 21 recto : Lamb (Agnus).
Folio 35 verso : Night heron (Nicticorax).
Folio 55 verso : Phoenix (Fenix) rising from its ashes.
Folio 56 recto : Phoenix (Fenix).
Folio 65 recto : Perindens tree (Perindens).
  • Folio 1 (i.e., leaf) recto: Creation of heaven and earth (Genesis, 1: 1-5).
  • Folio 1 verso: Creation of the waters and the firmament (Genesis, 1: 6-8).
  • Folio 2 recto : Creation of the birds and fishes (Genesis, 1: 20-23).
  • Folio 2 verso : Creation of the animals (Genesis, 1: 24-25).
  • Folio 3 recto : Creation of man (Genesis, 1: 26-28, 31; 2: 1-2).
  • Folio 5 recto : Adam names the animals (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 1-2).
  • Folio 5 verso : Animal (Animal) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 3)
  • Folio 5 verso : Quadruped (Quadrupes) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 4)
  • Folio 5 verso : Livestock (Pecus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 5-6)
  • Folio 5 verso : Beast of burden (Iumentum) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 7)
  • Folio 5 verso : Herd (Armentum) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 8)

Beasts (Bestiae)

  • Folio 7 recto : Lion (Leo) (Physiologus, Chapter 1; Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, ii, 3-6)
  • Folio 8 recto : Tiger (Tigris) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, ii, 7)
  • Folio 8 verso : Pard (Pard) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, ii, 10-11)
  • Folio 9 recto : Panther (Panther) (Physiologus, Chapter 16; Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, ii, 8-9)

After folio 9 verso some leaves are missing which should have contained antelope (Antalops), unicorn (Unicornis), lynx (Lynx), griffin (Gryps) and part of elephant (Elephans).

  • Folio 10 recto : Elephant (Elephans) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, ii, 14; Physiologus, Chapter 43; Ambrose, Hexaemeron, Book VI, 35; Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, xxv, 1-7)
  • Folio 11 recto : Beaver (Castor)
  • Folio 11 recto : Ibex (Ibex) (Hugh of Fouilloy, II, 15)
  • Folio 11 verso : Hyena (Yena) (Physiologus, Chapter 24; Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, xxvii, 23-24)
    • Folio 12 recto : Crocotta (Crocotta) (Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, xxvii, 26)
  • Folio 12 recto : Bonnacon (Bonnacon) (Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, xl, 10-11)
  • Folio 12 verso : Ape (Simia)
  • Folio 13 recto : Satyr (Satyrs)
  • Folio 13 recto : Deer (Cervus)
  • Folio 14 recto : Goat (Caper)
  • Folio 14 verso : Wild goat (Caprea)
  • Folio 15 recto : Monoceros (Monoceros) (Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, lii, 39-40)
  • Folio 15 recto : Bear (Ursus)
  • Folio 15 verso : Leucrota (Leucrota) (Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, lii, 34)

After folio 15 verso some leaves are missing which should have contained crocodile (Crocodilus), manticore (Mantichora) and part of parandrus (Parandrus).

  • Folio 16 recto : Parandrus (Parandrus) (Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, xxx, 25)
  • Folio 16 recto : Fox (Vulpes)
  • Folio 16 verso : Yale (Eale) (Solinus, Collectanea rerum memorabilium, lii, 35)
  • Folio 16 verso : Wolf (Lupus)
  • Folio 18 recto : Dog (Canis)

Livestock (Pecora)

  • Folio 20 verso : Sheep (Ovis) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 9; Ambrose, Hexaemeron, Book VI, 20)
  • Folio 21 recto : Wether (Vervex) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 10)
    • Folio 21 recto : Ram (Aries) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 11)
  • Folio 21 recto : Lamb (Agnus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 12; Ambrose, Hexaemeron, Book VI, 28)
  • Folio 21 recto : He-goat (Hircus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 14)
    • Folio 21 verso : Kid (Hedus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 13)
  • Folio 21 verso : Boar (Aper) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 27)
  • Folio 21 verso : Bullock (Iuvencus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 28)
    • Folio 21 verso : Bull (Taurus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 29)

After folio 21 verso two leaves are missing which should have contained ox (Bos), camel (Camelus), dromedary (Dromedarius), ass (Asinus), onager (Onager) and part of horse (Equus).

  • Folio 22 recto : Horse (Equus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 41-56; Hugh of Fouilloy, III, xxiii)
    • Folio 23 recto : Mule (Mulus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, i, 57-60)

Small animals (Minuta animala)

  • Folio 23 verso : Cat (Musio) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, ii, 38)
  • Folio 23 verso : Mouse (Mus) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, iii, 1)
  • Folio 23 verso : Weasel (Mustela) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, iii, 2; Physiologus, Chapter 21)
  • Folio 24 recto : Mole (Talpa) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, iii, 5)
  • Folio 24 recto : Hedgehog (Ericius) (Isidore of Seville, Etymologiae, Book XII, iii, 7; Ambrose, Hexaemeron, VI, 20)
  • Folio 24 verso : Ant (Formica) (Physiologus, 12; Ambrose, Hexaemeron, Book VI, 16, 20)

Birds (Aves)

  • Folio 25 recto : Bird (Avis)
  • Folio 25 verso : Dove (Columba)
  • Folio 26 recto : Dove and hawk (Columba et Accipiter)
  • Folio 26 verso : Dove (Columba)
  • Folio 29 verso : North wind and South wind (Aquilo et Auster ventus)
  • Folio 30 recto : Hawk (Accipiter)
  • Folio 31 recto : Turtle dove (Turtur)
  • Folio 32 verso : Palm tree (Palma)
  • Folio 33 verso : Cedar (Cedrus)
  • Folio 34 verso : Pelican (Pellicanus)
  • Folio 35 verso : Night heron (Nicticorax)
  • Folio 36 recto : Hoopoe (Epops)
  • Folio 36 verso : Magpie (Pica)
  • Folio 37 recto : Raven (Corvus)
  • Folio 38 verso : Cock (Gallus)
  • Folio 41 recto : Ostrich (Strutio)
  • Folio 44 recto : Vulture (Vultur)
  • Folio 45 verso : Crane (Grus)
  • Folio 46 verso : Kite (Milvus)
  • Folio 46 verso : Parrot (Psitacus)
  • Folio 47 recto : Ibis (Ibis)
  • Folio 47 verso : Swallow (Yrundo)
  • Folio 48 verso : Stork (Ciconia)
  • Folio 49 verso : Blackbird (Merula)
  • Folio 50 recto : Eagle-owl (Bubo)
  • Folio 50 verso : Hoopoe (Hupupa)
  • Folio 51 recto : Little owl (Noctua)
  • Folio 51 recto : Bat (Vespertilio)
  • Folio 51 verso : Jay (Gragulus)
  • Folio 52 verso : Nightingale (Lucinia)
  • Folio 53 recto : Goose (Anser)
  • Folio 53 verso : Heron (Ardea)
  • Folio 54 recto : Partridge (Perdix)
  • Folio 54 verso : Halcyon (Alcyon)
  • Folio 55 recto : Coot (Fulica)
  • Folio 55 recto : Phoenix (Fenix)
  • Folio 56 verso : Caladrius (Caladrius)
  • Folio 57 verso : Quail (Coturnix)
  • Folio 58 recto : Crow (Cornix)
  • Folio 58 verso : Swan (Cignus)
  • Folio 59 recto : Duck (Anas)
  • Folio 59 verso : Peacock (Pavo)
  • Folio 61 recto : Eagle (Aquila)
  • Folio 63 recto : Bee (Apis)

Snakes and Reptiles (Serpentes)

  • Folio 64 verso : Perindens tree (Perindens)
  • Folio 65 verso : Snake (Serpens)
  • Folio 65 verso : Dragon (Draco)
  • Folio 66 recto : Basilisk (Basiliscus)
  • Folio 66 verso : Regulus (Regulus)
  • Folio 66 verso : Viper (Vipera)
  • Folio 67 verso : Asp (Aspis)
  • Folio 68 verso : Scitalis (Scitalis)
  • Folio 68 verso : Amphisbaena (Anphivena)
  • Folio 68 verso : Hydrus (Ydrus)
  • Folio 69 recto : Boa (Boa)
  • Folio 69 recto : Iaculus (Iaculus)
  • Folio 69 verso : Siren (Siren)
  • Folio 69 verso : Seps (Seps)
  • Folio 69 verso : Dipsa (Dipsa)
  • Folio 69 verso : Lizard (Lacertus)
  • Folio 69 verso : Salamander (Salamandra)
  • Folio 70 recto : Saura (Saura)
  • Folio 70 verso : Newt (Stellio)
  • Folio 71 recto : Of the nature of Snakes (De natura serpentium)

Worms (Vermes)

  • Folio 72 recto : Worms (Vermis)

Fish (Pisces)

  • Folio 72 verso : Fish (Piscis)
  • Folio 73 recto : Whale (Balena)
  • Folio 73 recto : Serra (Serra)
  • Folio 73 recto : Dolphin (Delphinus)
  • Folio 73 verso : Sea-pig (Porcus marinus)
  • Folio 73 verso : Crocodile (Crocodrillus)
    • Folio 73 verso : Mullet (Mullus)
  • Folio 74 recto : Fish (Piscis)

Trees and Plants (Arbories)

Nature of Man (Natura hominis)

  • Folio 80 verso : Isidorus on the nature of man (Ysidorus de natura hominis)
  • Folio 89 recto : Isidorus on the parts of man's body (Ysidorus de membris hominis)
  • Folio 91 recto : Of the age of man (De etate hominis)

Stones (Lapides)

  • Folio 93 verso : Fire-bearing stone (Lapis ignifer)
  • Folio 94 verso : Adamas stone (Lapis adamas)
  • Folio 96 recto : Myrmecoleon (Mermecoleon)
  • Folio 96 verso : Verse (Versus)
  • Folio 97 recto : Stone in the foundation of the wall (Lapis in fundamento muri)
    • Folio 97 recto : The first stone, Jasper
    • Folio 97 recto : The second stone, Sapphire
    • Folio 97 recto : The third stone, Chalcedony
    • Folio 97 verso : The fourth stone, Smaragdus
    • Folio 98 recto : The fifth stone, Sardonyx
    • Folio 98 recto : The sixth stone, Sard
    • Folio 98 verso : The seventh stone, Chrysolite
    • Folio 98 verso : The eighth stone, Beryl
    • Folio 99 recto : The ninth stone, Topaz
    • Folio 99 verso : The tenth stone, Chrysoprase
    • Folio 99 verso : The eleventh stone, Hyacinth
    • Folio 100 recto : The twelfth stone, Amethyst
  • Folio 100 recto : Of stones and what they can do (De effectu lapidum)

See also

External links

  • - University of AberdeenThe Aberdeen Bestiary Project, Online version of the bestiary.
  • )Aberdeen Bestiary : Manuscript: Univ. Lib. MS 24 (The Medieval BestiaryDavid Badke,
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