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This article is about the single year 1000; see 1000s, 990s, 10th century, 11th century for events or processes with "approximate date" 1000.
Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries: 9th century10th century11th century
Decades: 970s  980s  990s  – 1000s –  1010s  1020s  1030s
Years: 997 998 99910001001 1002 1003
1000 by topic
State leadersSovereign states
Birth and death categories
Establishment and disestablishment categories
1000 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 1000
Ab urbe condita 1753
Armenian calendar 449
Assyrian calendar 5750
Bahá'í calendar −844 – −843
Bengali calendar 407
Berber calendar 1950
English Regnal year N/A
Buddhist calendar 1544
Burmese calendar 362
Byzantine calendar 6508–6509
Chinese calendar 己亥(Earth Pig)
3696 or 3636
    — to —
庚子年 (Metal Rat)
3697 or 3637
Coptic calendar 716–717
Discordian calendar 2166
Ethiopian calendar 992–993
Hebrew calendar 4760–4761
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1056–1057
 - Shaka Samvat 922–923
 - Kali Yuga 4101–4102
Holocene calendar 11000
Igbo calendar 0–1
Iranian calendar 378–379
Islamic calendar 390–391
Japanese calendar Chōhō 2
Juche calendar N/A
Julian calendar 1000
Korean calendar 3333
Minguo calendar 912 before ROC
Thai solar calendar 1543

Year 1000 (M) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It was also the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the 1st millennium of the Dionysian era ending on December 31st, but the first year of the 1000s decade.

The year falls well into the period of Old World history known as the Middle Ages; in Europe, it is sometimes and by convention considered the boundary date between the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages. The Muslim world was in its ""Golden Age". China was in its Song period, Japan was in its "classical" Heian period. India was divided into a number of lesser empires, such as the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Pala Empire (Kamboja Pala dynasty; Mahipala), Chola dynasty (Raja Raja Chola I), Yadava dynasty, etc. The New World and Sub-Saharan Africa were still in the prehistoric period (although Arab slave trade was beginning to be an important factor in the formation of the Sahelian kingdoms).

World population is estimated to have been between c. 250 and 310 million.[1]

Muslim world

The Caliphates, it was still dominated by the Abbasid Caliphate, with the Caliphate of Córdoba to the west, and ongoing campaigns in Africa and in India. Persia was a period of instability, with various polities seceding from Abassid rule, among whom the Ghaznavids would emerge as the most powerful.

The Islamic world was reaching the peak of its historical scientific achievements. Important scholars and scientists who flourished in the year 1000 include Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, Avicenna, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), Ibn Yunus (publishes his astronomical treatise Al-Zij al-Hakimi al-Kabir in Cairo in c. 1000), Abu Sahl al-Quhi (Kuhi), Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi, Abu Nasr Mansur, Abu al-Wafa, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Al-Muqaddasi, Ali Ibn Isa, and al-Karaji (al-Karkhi). Ibn al-Haytham (Book of Optics), Avicenna, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, and Abu al-Qasim (Al-Tasrif), who all flourished around the year 1000, are considered to be among the greatest scientists of the Middle Ages altogether.

The Turkic migration by this time had reached Eastern Europe, and most of the Turkic tribes (Khazars, Bulghars, Pechenegs etc.) had been Islamized.


Europe in 1000

In continental Europe, the Holy Roman Empire established itself as the most powerful state. Otto III made a pilgrimage from Rome to Aachen and Gniezno (Gnesen), stopping at Regensburg, Meissen, Magdeburg, and Gniezno. The Congress of Gniezno (with Bolesław I Chrobry) was part of his pilgrimage. In Rome, he built the basilica of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, to host the relics of St. Bartholomew.

In France, Robert II, the son of Hugh Capet, was the first of the Capetian kings.

The Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty was sorely pressed by the ongoing Muslim conquests, losing many of its eastern territories in the Byzantine–Arab wars (780–1180). At the same time, Byzantium was instrumental in the Christianization of the Kievan Rus' and of other medieval Slavic states.

In Great Britain, a unified kingdom of England had developed out of the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In Scandinavia, Christianization was in its early stages, with the Althingi of the Icelandic Commonwealth embracing Christianity in the year 1000.

On September 9, King Olaf Tryggvason was defeated by an alliance of his enemies in the Battle of Svolder. Sweyn I established Danish control over part of Norway. Oslo, Norway, was founded (the exact year is debatable, but the 1,000 year anniversary was held in the year 2000).

The papacy during this time was in a period of decline, in retrospect known as the saeculum obscurum ("Dark Age") or "pornocracy" ("rule of harlots"), a state of affairs that would result in the Great Schism later in the 11th century.

Hungary was established in 1000 as a Christian state. In the next centuries, the Kingdom of Hungary became the pre-eminent cultural power in the Central European region. On December 25, Stephen I was crowned as the first King of Hungary in Esztergom.

Sancho III of Navarre became King of Aragon and Navarre. The Reconquista was gaining some ground, but the southern Iberian peninsula would still be dominated by Islam for centuries to come; Córdoba at this time was the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants.

It is believed that in or around this year, Norse explorer Leif Ericson became the first European and to land in the Americas, at L'Anse aux Meadows, probably in modern-day Newfoundland.




  1. ^ 310 million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 254 million: Jean-Noël Biraben, 1980, "An Essay Concerning Mankind's Evolution", Population, Selected Papers, Vol. 4, pp. 1–13.
  • Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium (1999) ISBN 0-316-55840-0
  • John Man Atlas of the Year 1000 (1999) ISBN 0-14-051419-8

See also

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