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List of Norwegian monarchs

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Title: List of Norwegian monarchs  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Christian II of Denmark, Charles XV of Sweden, Charles XIV John of Sweden, Oscar II of Sweden, Margaret I of Denmark
Collection: Lists of Monarchs, Lists of Norwegian People, Norwegian Monarchs
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of Norwegian monarchs

The list of Norwegian monarchs (Norwegian: kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872, the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord, after which the victorious Harald Fairhair merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father. Harald's realm was later to be known as the Kingdom of Norway.

In 970 the Fairhair dynasty became patrilineally extinct upon the death of Harald I's grandson Harald II.[1] After short periods under the kings of Denmark in the late 10th and early 11th century, Norway was ruled by native dynasties, including kings such as Olaf II, Harald III, and Sverre, until the 14th century. During the civil war era (1130–1240), several pretenders fought each other. Some rulers from this era are not traditionally considered lawful kings and are usually omitted from lists of monarchs.

In 1387 Norway entered the personal union with Denmark and Sweden, known as the Kalmar Union. Sweden left the union in 1523, but Norway and Denmark remained under the same crown. Between 1450 and 1814, the kings of Norway were Oldenburgs residing in Copenhagen. Absolute monarchy was adopted in 1660.[2]

In 1814 Norway gained political independence and introduced constitutional monarchy. Christian Frederick, then heir presumptive to the throne, was elected king following the abdication of Frederick VI. He was soon forced to abdicate in favour of Charles XIII of Sweden, creating a new personal union between Norway and Sweden.[3]

When Oscar II was dethroned in 1905, the union with Sweden dissolved. The House of Oldenburg regained the throne upon the subsequent election of Haakon VII, whose heirs have held it ever since.[2]

The kings of Norway used many additional titles between 1450 and 1905, such as

Established in the 9th century the Kingdom is over 1,100 years old and as such one of the oldest in Europe today. King Harald V, who has reigned since 1991, is the 64th monarch.[4]


  • Key 1
  • Fairhair dynasty 2
  • House of Knýtlinga/Earl of Lade 3
  • Non-dynastic 4
  • House of Knýtlinga/Earls of Lade (restored) 5
  • St. Olaf dynasty 6
  • House of Knýtlinga/Earl of Lade (restored, second time) 7
  • St. Olaf dynasty (restored) 8
  • Hardrada dynasty 9
  • Gille dynasty 10
  • Hardrada dynasty (restored), cognatic branch 11
  • Sverre dynasty 12
  • Gille dynasty, cognatic branch 13
  • Sverre dynasty 14
  • House of Bjelbo 15
  • House of Estridsen 16
  • House of Pomerania 17
  • House of Palatinate-Neumarkt 18
  • House of Bonde 19
  • House of Oldenburg 20
    • House of Holstein-Gottorp 20.1
  • House of Bernadotte 21
  • House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg 22
  • See also 23
  • Notes and references 24
  • External links 25


P Period of rulership
 I  Independent period
 D  Union with Denmark
 S  Union with Sweden
 DS  Union with Denmark and Sweden (Kalmar Union)
 R  Interregnum

Fairhair dynasty

Besides becoming sole king after his father's death, Eric Bloodaxe was king jointly with his father for three years before the latter's death. After Harald's death, Eric ruled as "overking" of his brothers, who also held status as kings and had control over certain regions.[5] Harald Greycloak also ruled as "overking" of his brothers.[6] All dates for the kings of the Fairhair dynasty are approximate and/or just scholarly estimates. Slight differences might therefore occur between different sources. The following table uses the dates given in Norsk biografisk leksikon/Store norske leksikon.
P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Harald I Halfdansson
Harald Fairhair
c. 872–932

c. 850/860
Son of Halfdan the Black and Ragnhild
At least nine sons
c. 932
I Eric I Haraldsson
Eric Bloodaxe
c. 929–934
c. 895
Son of Harald I and Ragnhild Eriksdotter
Gunnhild Gormsdóttir
Eight children
c. 952/4
I Haakon I Haraldsson
Haakon the Good
c. 934–960

c. 915–920
Son of Harald I and Tora Mosterstong
Never married c. 960/1
Håkonshella (near Bergen)
I Harald II Ericsson
Harald Greycloak
c. 961–970
c. 935
Son of Eric I and Gunnhild Gormsdóttir
Never married c. 970
Limfjord, Denmark

House of Knýtlinga/Earl of Lade

The Danish king Harald Bluetooth had himself hailed as king of Norway after the Battle of Fitjar (c. 961). Besides gaining direct control of Viken in south-eastern Norway, he let Harald Greycloak rule the rest of Norway as king, nominally under himself. Harald Bluetooth later switched his support to Harald Greycloak's rival, Haakon Sigurdsson, Earl of Lade, who eventually captured Harald Greycloak's kingdom. Haakon thereafter ruled Norway (except Viken), at first nominally under Harald. All dates are estimates and subject to interpretations.[10] Haakon is generally held as the ruler of Norway from 970 to 995.[11]
P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
D Harald Bluetooth
961 – c. 980[12]
(de jure)

c. 925/35
Son of Gorm the Old and Thyra
Gyrid of Sweden
Four or six children
Tove of the Obotrites
No issue
987 latest
 R  Earl Haakon Sigurdsson
(de facto)

c. 935
Son of Sigurd Haakonsson and Bergljot Toresdatter
Tora Skagesdatter
Nine children


P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Olaf I Tryggvason
Son of Tryggve Olafsson and Astrid Eiriksdottir
Various c. 1000

House of Knýtlinga/Earls of Lade (restored)

After the Battle of Svolder, the Danes recaptured Norway under Sweyn Forkbeard. As before, the Danes controlled the petty kingdoms of Viken as vassals, while the two Earls of Lade, Eric Haakonsson and Sweyn Haakonsson, ruled Western Norway and Trøndelag, nominally as earls under Sweyn.[16] Eric is generally held as the de facto ruler of Norway from 1000 to 1015, together with his brother Sweyn, a lesser known figure, with whom he shared his power.[17]
P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
D Sweyn Forkbeard
(de jure)
c. 960
Son of Harald Bluetooth and Tove of the Obotrites
(1 & 2) Gunhild of Wenden or Sigrid the Haughty
Eight or more children
3 February 1014
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire
 R  Earl Eric Haakonsson
(de facto)
c. 964
Son of Haakon Sigurdsson and Gunhild Mieszcosdatter
Gytha Svendsdatter
One son
c. 1024
 R  Earl Sweyn Haakonsson
(de facto)
c. 970
Son of Haakon Sigurdsson and Thora Skagesdatter
Holmfrid Eriksdatter
Two daughters
c. 1016

St. Olaf dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Olaf II Haraldsson
Saint Olaf
(Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae)
c. 995
Son of Harald Grenske and Åsta Gudbrandsdatter
Astrid Olofsdotter
One daughter
29 July 1030
aged 44–45

House of Knýtlinga/Earl of Lade (restored, second time)

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
D Cnut the Great
c. 995
Son of Sweyn Forkbeard
(1) Ælfgifu of Northampton
Two children
(2) Emma of Normandy
Two children
12 November 1035
 R  Earl Haakon Ericsson
(de facto)
c. 998
Son of Eric Haakonsson and Gytha Svendsdatter
One daughter
Pentland Firth
D Sweyn Knutsson (with Ælfgifu)
c. 1015
Son of Cnut and Ælfgifu of Northampton
Never married c. 1035 [12][28]

St. Olaf dynasty (restored)

P Name, reign Portrait Birth Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Magnus I Olafsson
Magnus the Good
c. 1024
Illegitimate son of Olaf II and Alfhild
Never married 25 October 1047
aged 25

Hardrada dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Harald III Sigurdsson
Harald Hardrada
c. 1015
Son of Sigurd Syr and Åsta Gudbrandsdatter
(1) Elisiv of Kiev
Two daughters
(2) Tora Torbergsdatter (bigamously)
Two sons
25 September 1066
Stamford Bridge, England
aged 50–51
I Magnus II Haraldsson
c. 1049
Eldest son of Harald III and Tora Torbergsdatter
Never married 28 April 1069
aged 19–20
I Olaf III Haraldsson
Olaf Kyrre
c. 1050
Youngest son of Harald III and Tora Torbergsdatter
Ingerid of Denmark
No issue
22 September 1093
Haukbø, Ranrike (now Håkeby, Sweden)
aged 42–43
I Haakon (II) Magnusson
Haakon Toresfostre
c. 1069
Illegitimate son of Magnus II
Never married 1095
aged 25–26
I Magnus III Olafsson
Magnus Barefoot
c. 1073
Illegitimate son of Olaf III and Tora Arnesdatter
Margaret Fredkulla
No issue
24 August 1103
aged 29–30
I Olaf (IV) Magnusson
c. 1098
Illegitimate son of Magnus III and Sigrid Saxesdatter
Never married 22 December 1115
aged 16–17
I Eystein I Magnusson
c. 1088
Illegitimate son of Magnus III
Ingebjørg Guttormsdatter
Two children
29 August 1123
Hustad, Fræna
aged 34–35
I Sigurd I Magnusson
Sigurd the Crusader
c. 1089
Illegitimate son of Magnus III and Tora
(1) Blathmin Ní Briain
No issue
(2) Malmfred of Kiev
One daughter
(3) Cecilia
No issue
26 March 1130
aged 40–41
I Magnus IV Sigurdsson
Magnus the Blind
c. 1115
Illegitimate son of Sigurd I and Borghild Olavsdatter
Christina of Denmark
c. 1133
No issue
12 November 1139
aged 23–23

Gille dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Harald IV Magnusson
Harald Gille
c. 1102
Alleged illegitimate son of Magnus III
Ingrid of Sweden
c. 1134
One son
14 December 1136
aged 32–33
I Sigurd II Haraldsson
Sigurd Munn
c. 1133
Illegitimate son of Harald IV and Thora Guttormsdatter
Never married 10 June 1155
aged 21–22
I Inge I Haraldsson
Inge the Hunchback
c. 1135
Only son of Harald IV and Ingrid of Sweden
Never married 4 February 1161
aged 25–26
I Eystein II Haraldsson
c. 1125
Illegitimate son of Harald IV and Biadoc
Ragna Nikolasdatter
No issue
21 August 1157
Ranrike (now Bohuslän)
aged 31–32
I Magnus (V) Haraldsson
c. 1135
Illegitimate son of Harald IV
Never married c. 1145
I Haakon II Sigurdsson
Haakon the Broadshouldered
c. 1147
Illegitimate son of Sigurd II and Thora
Never married 7 July 1162
Sekken, Romsdalen
aged 14–15

Hardrada dynasty (restored), cognatic branch

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriages, issue Death Sources
I Magnus V Erlingsson
c. 1156
Son of Erling Skakke and Kristin Sigurdsdatter
Estrid Bjørnsdotter (possible)
Two daughters
15 June 1184
aged 27–28

Sverre dynasty

P Name, reign Portrait Birth, parents Marriage Death Sources
I Sverre Sigurdsson
c. 1151
Alleged illegitimate son of Sigurd II and Gunnhild
Margaret of Sweden
9 March 1202
aged 50–51
I Haakon III Sverresson
Before 1185
Illegitimate son of Sverre
Never married 1 January 1204
I Guttorm Sigurdsson
c. 1199
Illegitimate son of Sigurd Lavard
Never married 11 August 1204
aged 4–5

Gille dynasty, cognatic branch

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Inge II Bårdsson
c. 1185
son of Bård Guttormsson and Cecilia Sigurdsdatter
never married 23 April 1217
aged 31–32

Sverre dynasty

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Haakon IV Haakonsson
Haakon the Old
c. 1204
illegitimate son of Haakon III and Inga of Varteig
Margrete Skulesdatter
25 May 1225
four children
16 December 1263
aged 58–59
I Haakon Haakonsson
Haakon the Young
10 November 1232
second son of Haakon IV and Margrete Skulesdatter
Rikissa Birgersdotter
c. 1251
one son
5 May 1257
aged 24
I Magnus VI Haakonsson
Magnus the Law-mender
1 May 1238
third son of Haakon IV and Margrete Skulesdatter
Ingeborg of Denmark
11 September 1261
four sons
9 May 1280
aged 42
I Eric II Magnusson
c. 1268
third son of Ingeborg of Denmark
(1) Margaret of Scotland
September 1281
one daughter
(2) Isabel Bruce
bef. 25 September 1293
one daughter
15 July 1299
aged 30–31
I Haakon V Magnusson
10 April 1270
fourth son of Ingeborg of Denmark
(1) Isabelle de Joigny
no issue
(2) Euphemia of Rügen
c. 1299
one daughter
8 May 1319
aged 49

House of Bjelbo

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Magnus VII Eriksson
August 1319–
15 August 1343
c. 1316
Norway or Stockholm
only son of Ingeborg of Norway
Blanche of Namur
5 November 1335
Bohus Castle
two sons
1 December 1374
aged 58
S Haakon VI Magnusson
15 August 1340
second son of Magnus IV and Blanche of Namur
Margaret of Denmark
9 April 1363
Church of Our Lady
one son
11 September 1380
Akershus Castle
aged 40
D Olaf IV Haakonsson

December 1370
Akershus Castle
only son of Haakon VI of Norway and Margaret I
never married 23 August 1387
Falsterbo Castle
aged 16

House of Estridsen

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
DS Margaret
1380–1412 (de facto)
c.  1353
Vordingborg Castle
youngest daughter of Valdemar IV and Helvig of Schleswig
Haakon VI of Norway
9 April 1363
Church of Our Lady
one son
28 October 1412
Ship on Flensburg Fjord
aged 58–59

House of Pomerania

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Eric III
8 September
with Sigurd Jonsson
c. 1381/82
Rügenwalde Castle
only son of Wartislaw VII, Duke of Pomerania and Mary of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Philippa of England
26 October 1406
Lund Cathedral
no issue
3 May 1459
Rügenwalde Castle
aged 76–78

House of Palatinate-Neumarkt

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
DS Christopher
4 June 1442–
5/6 January 1448
26 February 1416
Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz
fifth son of John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt and Catherine of Pomerania
Dorothea of Brandenburg
12 September 1445
no issue
5/6 January 1448
Kärnan Castile
aged 31
 R  Interregnum (1448–1449)
Sigurd Jonsson as regent

House of Bonde

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Charles I
20 November 1449–
June 1450
5 October 1409
Ekholmen Castle
only son of Knut Tordsson Bonde and Margareta Karlsdotter Sparre
(1) Birgitta Bielke
before 1 March 1429
two children
(2) Katarina Gumsehuvud
5 October 1438
nine children
(3) Christina Abrahamsdotter
c. 1470
Stockholm Castle
two children
14 May 1470
Stockholm Castle
aged 60

House of Oldenburg

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
DS Christian I
2 August 1450–
21 May 1481
February 1426
eldest son of Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg and Helvig of Schauenburg
Dorothea of Brandenburg
28 October 1449
Church of Our Lady
five children
21 May 1481
Copenhagen Castle
aged 55
 R  Interregnum (1481–1483)
Jon Svaleson Smør as regent
DS John
20 July 1483–
20 February 1513
2 February 1455
Aalborghus Castle
third son of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
Christina of Saxony
6 September 1478
five children
20 February 1513
Aalborghus Castle
aged 58
DS Christian II
22 July
1 July 1481
Nyborg Castle
second son of John and Christina of Saxony
Isabella of Austria
12 August 1515
six children
25 January 1559
Kalundborg Castle
aged 77
D Frederick I
7 October 1471
Haderslevhus Castle
fourth son of Christian I and Dorothea of Brandenburg
(1) Anna of Brandenburg
10 April 1502
two children
(2) Sophie of Pomerania
9 October 1518
Kiel Castle
six children
10 April 1533
Gottorp Castle
aged 61
 R  Interregnum (1533–1537)
Olav Engelbrektsson as regent
D Christian III
1 January 1559
12 August 1503
Gottorp Castle
only son of Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg
Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 October 1525
Lauenburg Castle
five children
1 January 1559
Koldinghus Castle
aged 55
D Frederick II
1 July 1534
Haderslevhus Castle
eldest son of Christian III and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
20 July 1572
eight children
4 April 1588
Antvorskov Castle
aged 53
D Christian IV
4 April 1588–
28 February 1648
12 April 1577
Frederiksborg Palace
eldest son of Frederick II and Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
(1) Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
27 November 1597
Haderslevhus Castle
seven children
(2) Kirsten Munk
31 December 1615
twelve children
28 February 1648
Rosenborg Castle
aged 70
D Frederick III
1 May 1648–
9 February 1670
18 March 1609
Haderslevhus Castle
third son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1 October 1643
Glücksburg Castle
eight children
9 February 1670
Copenhagen Castle
aged 60
D Christian V
9 February 1670–
25 August 1699
15 April 1646
Duborg Castle
eldest son of Frederick III and Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
25 June 1667
Nykøbing Castle
eight children
25 August 1699
Copenhagen Castle
aged 53
D Frederick IV
25 August 1699–
12 October 1730
11 October 1671
Copenhagen Castle
eldest son of Christian V and Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
(1) Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
5 December 1695
five children
(2) Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg
6 September 1703
one son
(3) Anne Sophie Reventlow
4 April 1721
three children
12 October 1730
Odense Palace
aged 59
D Christian VI
12 October 1730–
6 August 1746
30 November 1699
Copenhagen Castle
second son of Frederick IV and Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
7 August 1721
Pretzsch Castle
three children
6 August 1746
Hirschholm Palace
aged 46
D Frederick V
6 August 1746–
14 January 1766
31 March 1723
Copenhagen Castle
only son of Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
(1) Louise of Great Britain
11 December 1743
five children
(2) Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 July 1752
Frederiksborg Palace
one son
14 January 1766
Christiansborg Palace
aged 42
D Christian VII
14 January 1766–
13 March 1808
29 January 1749
Christiansborg Palace
second son of Frederick V and Louise of Great Britain
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
8 November 1766
Christiansborg Palace
two children
13 March 1808
aged 59
D Frederick VI
13 March 1808–
7 February 1814
28 January 1768
Christiansborg Palace
only son of Christian VII and Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
31 July 1790
Gottorp Castle
eight children
3 December 1839
Amalienborg Palace
aged 70
 R  Interregnum (7 February 1814–17 May 1814)
Christian Frederick as regent
I Christian Frederick
17 May 1814–
14 August 1814
18 September 1786
Christiansborg Palace
eldest son of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Denmark and Norway and Sophia Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
(1) Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
21 June 1806
Ludwigslust Castle
two sons
(2) Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
22 May 1815
Augustenborg Palace
no issue
20 January 1848
Amalienborg Palace
aged 61
 R  Interregnum (14 August 1814–4 November 1814)
Marcus Gjøe Rosenkrantz as Prime Minister

House of Holstein-Gottorp

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Charles II
4 November 1814–
5 February 1818
7 October 1748
Stockholm Palace
second son of Adolf Frederick of Sweden and Louisa Ulrika of Prussia
Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
7 July 1774
Stockholm Cathedral
two children
5 February 1818
Stockholm Palace
aged 69

House of Bernadotte

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
S Charles III John
5 February 1818–
8 March 1844
26 January 1763
son of Jean Henri Bernadotte and Jeanne de Saint Vincent
Désirée Clary
17 August 1798
one son
8 March 1844
Stockholm Palace
aged 81
S Oscar I
8 March 1844–
8 July 1859
4 July 1799
only son of Charles III John and Désirée Clary
Josephine of Leuchtenberg
19 June 1823
Stockholm Cathedral
five children
8 July 1859
Stockholm Palace
aged 60
S Charles IV
8 July 1859–
18 September 1872
3 May 1826
Stockholm Palace
eldest son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Louise of the Netherlands
19 June 1850
Stockholm Cathedral
two children
18 September 1872
aged 46
S Oscar II
18 September 1872–
7 June 1905 or
26 October 1905
21 January 1829
Stockholm Palace
third son of Oscar I and Josephine of Leuchtenberg
Sophia of Nassau
6 June 1857
Biebrich Palace
four children
8 December 1907
Stockholm Palace
aged 78
 R  Interregnum (7 June/26 October 1905–18 November 1905)
Christian Michelsen as Prime Minister

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

In 1905, Carl of Denmark was elected King of Norway and took the name Haakon VII. With him the House of Oldenburg was again sitting on the throne of Norway.

P Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
I Haakon VII
18 November 1905–
21 September 1957
3 August 1872
Charlottenlund Palace
second son of Frederick VIII of Denmark and Louise of Sweden
Maud of Wales
22 July 1896
Buckingham Palace
one son
21 September 1957
Royal Palace, Oslo
aged 85
I Olav V
21 September 1957–
17 January 1991
2 July 1903
Sandringham House
only son of Haakon VII and Maud of Wales
Märtha of Sweden
21 March 1929
Oslo Cathedral
three children
17 January 1991
The Royal Lodge, Holmenkollen
aged 87
I Harald V
17 January 1991–
21 February 1937
only son of Olav V and Märtha of Sweden
Sonja Haraldsen
29 August 1968
Oslo Cathedral
two children

See also

Notes and references

General references
  • "List of Norwegian kings" (in Norwegian). The Royal Court. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  • Carlyle, Thomas (1875). The Early Kings of Norway: Also an Essay on the Portraits of John Knox. Chapman and Hall.  
  1. ^ Aschehougs Norgeshistorie, vol. 2, p. 92.
  2. ^ a b "History". The Royal Court. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  3. ^ "Union with Sweden in 1814". The Royal Court. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b Krag, Claus. "Eirik 1 Haraldsson Blodøks". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Krag, Claus. "Harald 2 Eiriksson Gråfell". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  7. ^ Krag, Claus. "Harald 1 Hårfagre". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  8. ^ Krag, Claus. "Håkon 1 Adalsteinsfostre". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  9. ^ "Harald 2 Gråfell". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  10. ^ Krag, Claus (1995). Vikingtid og rikssamling: 800-1130. Aschehougs norgeshistorie 2. pp. 99–101.  
  11. ^ a b Sandnes, Jørn. "Håkon Sigurdsson". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Krag, Claus (1995). Vikingtid og rikssamling: 800-1130. Aschehougs norgeshistorie 2. p. 101.  
  13. ^ Blom, Grethe Authen. "Harald 1 Blåtand". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  14. ^ "Harald 1. Blåtand". Den store danske (in Danish). Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  15. ^ Krag, Claus. "Olav 1 Tryggvason". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  16. ^ Krag, Claus (1995). Vikingtid og rikssamling: 800-1130. Aschehougs norgeshistorie 2. p. 103.  
  17. ^ a b  
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ a b
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ Helle, Knut (1995). Aschehougs norgeshistorie : 1130-1350. 3 : Under kirke og kongemakt 1130-1350, p. 14. Aschehoug.
  45. ^  
  46. ^  
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^

External links

  • Official site of the Norwegian Royal House
  • Aftenposten: The Royals (News.)
  • History of the Norwegian royal titles based on contemporary documents
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