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Tula, Russia

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Tula, Russia

Tula (English)
Тула (Russian)
-  City[1]  -

Views of Tula

Location of Tula Oblast in Russia
Tula is located in Tula Oblast
Tula
Tula
Location of Tula in Tula Oblast
Coordinates:
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tula Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Administrative center of Tula Oblast,[1] Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
Municipal status (as of June 2014)
Urban okrug Tula Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Tula Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[3] Yuri Tskipuri[4]
Representative body City Duma[5]
Statistics
Area 153.52 km2 (59.27 sq mi)[6]
Population (2010 Census) 501,169 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 37th
Density 3,265/km2 (8,460/sq mi)[8]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[9]
First mentioned 1146 (disputed)
Postal code(s)[10] 300000–300999
Dialing code(s) +7 4872[11]
Official website

Tula (Russian: Тула; IPA: ) is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, Russia, located 193 kilometers (120 mi) south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: 501,169 (2010 Census);[7] 481,216 (2002 Census);[12] 539,980 (1989 Census).[13]

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Administrative and municipal status 3
  • Mayors 4
  • Economy 5
  • Culture 6
  • Education 7
  • Transportation 8
  • Religion 9
  • Sports 10
  • Notable people 11
  • Climate 12
  • Twin towns and sister cities 13
  • References 14
    • Notes 14.1
    • Sources 14.2
  • Further reading 15
  • External links 16

Etymology

The name of the city is of pre-Russian, probably Baltic, origin.[14]

History

Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle in relation to a military operation conducted in 1146. As the chronicle was written in the 16th century, the date is disputed. The first confirmed mention of Tula dates to 1382.

In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. As soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521.[15] It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and successfully resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin was built as late as 1764.

In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of matériel.

In the 1890s, Ivan Savelyev, a medical orderly, became the founder of social democracy in Tula and set up a workers' study circle.[16]

The city grew rapidly in the early 20th century as a result of arms production during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Tula's factories also manufactured weapons for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921.

During the Great Patriotic War (World War II) of 1941–1945, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between October 24 and December 5, 1941. The heavily fortified city held out, however, and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976. It is home to the Klokovo air base and the Tula Arms Plant.

Administrative and municipal status

Tula serves as the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the territories of Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction and of Leninsky District are incorporated as Tula Urban Okrug.[2][17]

Mayors

  • Sergey Kazakov (1997–2005)
  • Vladimir Mogilnikov (2005–2010)
  • Alisa Tolkachyova (2010–2011)
  • Yevgeny Avilov (2011–2012)
  • Aleksandr Prokopuk (2012-2014)
  • Yuri Tskipuri (2014-present)

Economy

For more than four centuries Tula has been known as a center of crafts and metalworking. Tula is a developed industrial center. Importance in the industrial structure of Tula are metallurgy, machinery and metal with a high share of the military-industrial complex and food manufacturing.

Culture

A musical instrument, the Tula accordion, is named after the city, which is a center of manufacture for such instruments sold throughout Russia and the world. Tula is also renowned for traditional Russian pryaniki (gingerbread), cookies made with honey and spices (see Tula gingerbread). In the West, Tula is perhaps best known as the center of samovar production: the Russian equivalent of "coals to Newcastle" is "You don't take a samovar to Tula". (The saying is falsely ascribed to the writer and playwright Anton Chekhov, whose made a satirical portrait of one of his characters saying "Taking your wife to Paris is the same as taking your own samovar to Tula".)

The most popular tourist attraction in Tula Oblast is Yasnaya Polyana, the home and burial place of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is situated 14 kilometres (9 miles) south-west of the city. It was here that Tolstoy wrote his celebrated novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina.

Education

Tula is home to:

  • Tula State University
  • Tula State Pedagogical University[18]
  • The Tula artillery and Engineering Institute
  • A branch of the All Russia Economic and Finance Institute
  • A branch of The Moscow Economics and Management Institute

Transportation

Since 1867, there has been a railway connection between Tula and Moscow.[19] Tula is a major railway junction with trains to Moscow, Oryol, Kursk and Kaluga. The Moscow to Simferopol M2 motorway runs past the city. City transport is provided by trams, trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas. Tula trams, trolleybuses, and bus routes are operated by "Tulgorelectrotrans" (Tula city electrotransport company).

Religion

Most of Tula's churches are Muslims, Jews, Hare Krishna, Buddhists and Taoists.

All Orthodox organizations in Tula and the Tula Oblast are included in the Diocese of Tula and Yefremov. Among the Tula Orthodox churches should be mentioned Saints Cathedral (1776-1800), the oldest church in Tula - Annunciation (1692) and the Assumption Cathedral of the Tula Kremlin (1762-1764). In Tula also Old Believers' community services which are performed in the church of St. John Chrysostom.

In Tula there is the only Catholic church in the area, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. Since the 1990s, Tula has several Protestant denominations, the largest church of which is a Baptist church with a prayer house in Tula. Representatives of other Protestant churches in Tula are Seventh-day Adventists, Presbyterians (Church of the Holy Trinity, The Glorious Jesus the Lord, the Good News), Pentecostals (Tula Christian Center, Church of the New Testament) and other evangelical churches (Word of Life, the Vine Gypsy Church).

Also the city has a synagogue and the Jewish Community House.

Sports

In Russian fist fighting, Tula was considered to have some of the most famous fighters.[20][21]

The city association football club, FC Arsenal Tula, plays in the Russian Premier League in 2014/2015 season.

Notable people

Climate

Tula has a humid continental climate.[22] This is pronounced by warm summers and cold but not severe winters by Russian standards.

Climate data for Tula
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
7.1
(44.8)
19.0
(66.2)
29.0
(84.2)
33.2
(91.8)
35.0
(95)
39.0
(102.2)
39.2
(102.6)
29.7
(85.5)
23.6
(74.5)
16.9
(62.4)
9.3
(48.7)
39.2
(102.6)
Average high °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.3
(36.1)
11.9
(53.4)
19.1
(66.4)
22.6
(72.7)
25.2
(77.4)
23.2
(73.8)
17.0
(62.6)
9.4
(48.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.6
(25.5)
10.1
(50.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−7.3
(18.9)
−1.7
(28.9)
6.9
(44.4)
13.3
(55.9)
16.9
(62.4)
19.5
(67.1)
17.5
(63.5)
11.7
(53.1)
5.6
(42.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
5.8
(42.4)
Average low °C (°F) −9.7
(14.5)
−10.8
(12.6)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.8
(35.2)
7.4
(45.3)
11.4
(52.5)
13.9
(57)
12.0
(53.6)
7.1
(44.8)
2.3
(36.1)
−3.4
(25.9)
−8.7
(16.3)
1.5
(34.7)
Record low °C (°F) −34.3
(−29.7)
−36.1
(−33)
−32.2
(−26)
−15.0
(5)
−4.3
(24.3)
1.9
(35.4)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.1
(30)
−6.8
(19.8)
−13.0
(8.6)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−33.2
(−27.8)
−36.1
(−33)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42
(1.65)
35
(1.38)
30
(1.18)
40
(1.57)
43
(1.69)
76
(2.99)
79
(3.11)
66
(2.6)
59
(2.32)
58
(2.28)
42
(1.65)
44
(1.73)
614
(24.17)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[23]

Twin towns and sister cities

Tula is twinned with:[24]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #954-ZTO
  2. ^ a b c Law #553-ZTO
  3. ^ http://myslo.ru/news/politics/novim-merom-tuli-stal-uriy-tskipuri
  4. ^ http://myslo.ru/news/politics/novim-merom-tuli-stal-uriy-tskipuri
  5. ^ Official website of the Tula City Duma (Russian)
  6. ^ Генеральный план города Тулы
  7. ^ a b
  8. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ Почтовые индексы России
  11. ^ Деловой город: Телефонный код Тулы
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва: Русские словари, 1998, p. 423: "The earliest etymologies derived the place name from Russian dialectal tulá 'hidden, unreachable place'... The pre-Russian origin of the name of the river and town is no longer doubted [Maiorova 1985].... Since the name of the river Upa is certainly Baltic..., its tributary *Tula [the presumed earlier form of Tulitsa] may also be of Baltic origin, which is supported by a series of parallels in Lithuanian toponymy: the river Tule, the Tulis swamp, the Tulyte field, the meadow Tulejos, the valley Tulija, etc. [Vanagas, 1981]; the meaning of these toponyms is not entirely clear...."
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ All rural localities included as a part of Tula Urban Okrug in Law #553-ZTO are listed as a part of Leninsky District in OKATO.
  18. ^ http://www.tspu.tula.ru/
  19. ^ Train Station in Tula (Russian)
  20. ^ Русский кулачный бой: "Tula's fighters were always glorious, but every place had its heroes."
  21. ^ Сказания о русских народных играх "Tula's fighters were considered the best one on one."
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^

Sources

  • Тульская областная Дума. Закон №954-ЗТО от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2131-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области" и Закон Тульской области "Об установлении границ административно-территориальных единиц – районов в городе Туле"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Тульской областной Думы", №11–12(142–143), часть 4, ноябрь–декабрь 2007 г.. (Tula Oblast Duma. Law #954-ZTO of December 27, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tula Oblast, as amended by the Law #2131-ZTO of June 11, 2014 On Amending the Law of Tula Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tula Oblast" and the Law of Tula Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Administrative-Territorial Units–the Districts in the City of Tula". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.).
  • Тульская областная Дума. Закон №553-ЗТО от 11 марта 2005 г. «О переименовании "муниципального образования город Тула Тульской области", установлении границы муниципального образования город Тула и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №2133-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Ленинского района Тульской области, с муниципальным образованием город Тула, о внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "О переименовании "муниципального образования город Тула Тульской области", установлении границы муниципального образования город Тула и наделении его статусом городского округа" и признании утратившими силу отдельных законодательных актов (положений законодательных актов) Тульской области». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тульские известия", №66–69, 22 марта 2005 г. (Tula Oblast Duma. Law #553-ZTO of March 11, 2005 On Renaming "Municipal Formation of the City of Tula of Tula Oblast", Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #2133-ZTO of June 11, 2014 On the Merger of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Leninsky District of Tula Oblast with the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, on Amending the Law of Tula Oblast "On Renaming "Municipal Formation of the City of Tula of Tula Oblast", Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of the City of Tula, and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status", and on Abrogating Various Legislative Acts (Clauses of Legislative Acts) of Tula Oblast. Effective as of the day ten days after the official publication.).
  • Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 71», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 71, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).

Further reading

External links

  • Map: Battle of Tula 1941
  •  
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