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Indian Railways

Indian Railways
Type Public sector undertaking
Industry Railways
Founded 16 April 1853  (1853-04-16)[1]
Headquarters New Delhi, India
Area served India (also limited service to Pakistan, Nepal & Bangladesh)
Key people
Services Passenger railways
Freight services
Parcel carrier
Catering and Tourism Services
Parking lot operations
Other related services
Revenue Increase 1441.6 billion (US$23 billion) (2013–14)[2]
Profit Increase 157.8 billion (US$2.6 billion) (2013–14)[2]
Owners Government of India (100%)
Employees 1.307 million (2013)[3]
Parent Ministry of Railways through Railway Board (India)
Divisions 17 Railway Zones
Indian Railways
Reporting mark IR
Locale India
Dates of operation 16 April 1853 (1853-04-16)–Present
Track gauge 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
762 mm (2 ft 6 in)
610 mm (2 ft)
Headquarters New Delhi, India

Indian Railways (reporting mark IR / भा. रे) is an Indian state-owned enterprise, owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. It is one of the world's largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km (71,000 mi) of track over a route of 65,436 km (40,660 mi) and 7,172 stations.[4] In 2013–14, IR carried 8,425 million passengers annually or more than 23 million passengers daily (roughly half of which were suburban passengers) and 1050.18 million tons of freight in the year.[5] In 2013–2014 Indian Railways had revenues of 1441.67 billion (US$23 billion) which consists of 940.0 billion (US$15 billion) from freight and 375.0 billion (US$6.1 billion) from passengers tickets.[6]

Railways were first introduced to India in the year 1853 from Bombay to Thane. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India and are assigned codes identifying their gauge, kind of power and type of operation. Its operations cover twenty nine states and seven union territories and also provides limited international services to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

Indian Railways is the world's seventh largest commercial or utility employer, by number of employees, with over 1.307 million employees. As for rolling stock, IR holds over 239,281 Freight Wagons, 62,924 Passenger Coaches and 9,013 Locomotives (43 steam, 5,345 diesel and 4,568 electric locomotives).[7] The trains have a 5 digit numbering system and runs 12,617 passenger trains and 7421 freight trains daily.[8] As of 31 March 2013, 20,884 km (12,977 mi) (31.9%) of the total 65,436 km (40,660 mi) route length was electrified.[9] Since 1960, almost all electrified sections on IR use 25,000 Volt AC traction through overhead catenary delivery.


  • History 1
  • Organisational structure 2
    • Railway zones 2.1
    • Recruitment and training 2.2
    • Production units 2.3
    • Other subsidiaries 2.4
  • Rolling stock 3
    • Locomotives 3.1
    • Goods wagons or freight cars 3.2
    • Passenger coaches 3.3
  • Freight 4
    • Wagon types 4.1
  • Technical details 5
    • Track and gauge 5.1
    • Research and development 5.2
  • Railway links to adjacent countries 6
  • Types of passenger services 7
  • Accommodation classes 8
  • UNESCO World Heritage Sites 9
  • Notable trains 10
    • Tourist trains 10.1
    • Other trains 10.2
  • Problems and issues 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • Notes 14
  • External links 15


India's first train run between Bombay and Thane
The B.B. & C.I. Railway Head Offices, 1905
Indian Railways headquarters, Delhi
Map of the completed and planned railway lines in India in 1871, thirteen years after the end of Company rule.

The history of rail transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. The core of the pressure for building Railways In India came from London. In 1848, there was not a single kilometre of railway line in India. The country's first railway, built by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR), opened in 1853, between Bombay and Thane.[10] A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the expansion of the railways from 1857 onwards. The Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line of the East Indian Railway had been opened in June 1867. Brereton was responsible for linking this with the GIPR, resulting in a combined network of 6,400 km (4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta. This route was officially opened on 7 March 1870 and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that “it was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system”.[11]

By 1875, about £95 million were invested by British companies in India guaranteed railways.[12] By 1880 the network had a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 mi), mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896, sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railways.

In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to the modern day states of Ahom Kingdom, Rajputhana and Madras Presidency and soon various autonomous kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. In 1905, an early Railway Board was constituted, but the powers were formally vested under Lord Curzon.[13] It served under the Department of Commerce and Industry and had a government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.

In 1907 almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government. The following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. With the arrival of World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. With the end of the war, the railways were in a state of disrepair and collapse.

In 1920, with the network having expanded to 61,220 km (38,040 mi), a need for central management was mooted by Sir William Acworth. Based on the East India Railway Committee chaired by Acworth, the government took over the management of the Railways and detached the finances of the Railways from other governmental revenues.

The period between 1920 and 1929, was a period of economic boom; there were 41,000 mi (66,000 km) of railway lines serving the country; the railways represented a capital value of some 687 million sterling; and they carried over 620 million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods each year.[14] Following the Great Depression, the railways suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second World War severely crippled the railways. Starting 1939, about 40% of the rolling stock including locomotives and coaches was taken to the Middle East, the railways workshops were converted to ammunitions workshops and many railway tracks were dismantled to help the Allies in the war. By 1946, all rail systems had been taken over by the government.

On 23 April 2014, Indian Railways introduced a mobile app system to track train schedules.[15]

Organisational structure

Indian Railway zonal map.

Railway zones

Indian Railways is divided into several zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952 and sixteen in 2003.[16][17] Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions.[18][19]

Each of the seventeen zones is headed by a general manager who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of divisional railway managers (DRM). The divisional officers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating, commercial, security and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the station masters who control individual stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations' administration.

Zonal railway details
Sl. No Name Abbr. Date Established Route km Headquarters Divisions Image
1. Southern SR 14 April 1951 5098 Chennai Chennai, Tiruchirappalli, Madurai and Salem,[20] Palakkad, Thiruvananthapuram
2. Central CR 5 November 1951 3905 Mumbai Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur and Nagpur
3. Western WR 5 November 1951 6182 Mumbai Mumbai Central, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar Gandhidham and Vadodara
4. Eastern ER 14 April 1952 2414 Kolkata Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol and Malda
5. Northern NR 14 April 1952 6968 Delhi Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow, Moradabad and Udhampur
6. North Eastern NER 14 April 1952 3667 Gorakhpur Izzatnagar, Lucknow and Varanasi
7. South Eastern SER 1955 2631 Kolkata Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur and Ranchi
8. South Central SCR 2 October 1966 5951 Secunderabad Vijayawada, Secunderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Hyderabad and Nanded
9. Northeast Frontier NFR 15 January 1958 3907 Guwahati Alipurduar, Katihar, silchar, Rangia, Lumding and Tinsukia
10. East Central ECR 1 October 2002 3628 Hajipur Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur and Sonpur
11. North Western NWR 1 October 2002 5459 Jaipur Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur
12. East Coast ECoR 1 April 2003 2677 Bhubaneswar Khurda Road, Sambalpur and Waltair
13. North Central NCR 1 April 2003 3151 Allahabad Allahabad, Agra and Jhansi
14. South East Central SECR 1 April 2003 2447 Bilaspur Bilaspur, Raipur and Nagpur
15. South Western SWR 1 April 2003 3177 Hubli Hubli, Bangalore and Mysore
16. West Central WCR 1 April 2003 2965 Jabalpur Jabalpur, Bhopal and Kota
17 Konkan Railway KR 26 January 1998 736 CBD Belapur Navi Mumbai Ratnagiri, Kudal,Madgaon, Karwar,Udipi Total 64991
A pantograph on an IR train.

Recruitment and training

Staff are classified into gazetted (Group 'A' and 'B') and non-gazetted (Group 'C' and 'D') employees.[21] The recruitment of Group 'A' gazetted employees is carried out by the Union Public Service Commission through exams conducted by it.[22] The recruitment to Group 'C' and 'D' employees on the Indian Railways is done through 20 Railway Recruitment Boards and Railway Recruitment Cells which are controlled by the Railway Recruitment Control Board (RRCB).[23] The training of all cadres is entrusted and shared between six centralised training institutes.

Sapt Kranti Express waiting for departure for Anand Vihar Terminal(T) (ANVT) at Muzaffarpur Junction (MFP)

Production units

CLW made WAP-5 30022(CLW made WAP-5 locos don't have fluted body shell) rests at Bhopal
WDP4 Diesel Locomotive Baaz which is now at New Jalpaiguri

Indian Railways manufactures much of its rolling stock and heavy engineering components at its six manufacturing plants, called Production Units, which are managed directly by the Ministry. Popular rolling stock builders such as CLW and DLW for electric and diesel locomotives; ICF and RCF for passenger coaches are Production Units of Indian Railways. Over the years, Indian Railways has not only achieved self-sufficiency in production of rolling stock in the country but also exported rolling stock to other countries. Each of these production units is headed by a general manager, who also reports directly to the Railway Board. The production units are:-

Name Abbr. Year Established Location Main products
Bharat Wagon and Engineering Muzaffarpur BWEL 1978 Muzaffarpur Passenger Coaches (manufacturing + maintenance).
Jamalpur Locomotive Workshop JLW 1862 Jamalpur Diesel/Electric Loco maintenance.
Golden Rock Railway Workshop GOC 1928 Trichy Diesel-electric Locomotives
Chittaranjan Locomotive Works CLW 1947 Chittaranjan, Asansol Electric Locomotives
Diesel Locomotive Works DLW 1961 Varanasi Diesel Locomotives
Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works DMW 1981 Patiala Diesel-electric Locomotives
Integral Coach Factory ICF 1952 Chennai Passenger coaches
Rail Coach Factory RCF 1986 Kapurthala Passenger coaches
Rail Spring Karkhana RSK 1988 Gwalior Passenger coach springs
Rail Wheel Factory RWF 1984 Bangalore Railway wheels and axles
Rail Wheel Factory RWF 2012 Chhapra Railway wheels
Rail Coach Factory, Raebareli RCF 2012 Raebareli Passenger coaches

Other subsidiaries

There also exist independent organisations under the control of the Railway Board for electrification, modernisation, research and design and training of officers, each of which is headed by an officer of the rank of general manager. A number of Public Sector Undertakings, which perform railway-related functions ranging from consultancy to ticketing, are also under the administrative control of the Ministry of railways.

There are fourteen public undertakings under the administrative control of the Ministry of Railways,[24] viz.

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (Kolkata Metro in Kolkata) are not connected to the Indian Railways.

Rolling stock


Two historical steam engines at water refilling station at Agra station
A Beyer Garratt 6594 Engine seen at the National Rail Museum

Locomotives in India consist of electric and diesel locomotives. Biodiesel locomotives are also being used on experimental basis.[26] Steam locomotives are no longer used, except in heritage trains. In India, locomotives are classified according to their track gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. The class name includes this information about the locomotive. It comprises 4 or 5 letters. The first letter denotes the track gauge. The second letter denotes their motive power (Diesel or Alternating - on Electric) and the third letter denotes the kind of traffic for which they are suited (goods, passenger, Multi or shunting). The fourth letter used to denote locomotives' chronological model number. However, from 2002 a new classification scheme has been adopted. Under this system, for newer diesel locomotives, the fourth letter will denote their horsepower range. Electric locomotives don't come under this scheme and even all diesel locos are not covered. For them this letter denotes their model number as usual.

A locomotive may sometimes have a fifth letter in its name which generally denotes a technical variant or subclass or subtype. This fifth letter indicates some smaller variation in the basic model or series, perhaps different motors, or a different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locomotives (as mentioned above) the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100 hp increments: 'A' for 100 hp, 'B' for 200 hp, 'C' for 300 hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a 3100 hp loco, while a WDM-3D would be a 3400 hp loco and WDM-3F would be 3600 hp loco.

Note: This classification system does not apply to steam locomotives in India as they have become non-functional now. They retained their original class names such as M class or WP class.

Diesel Locomotives are now fitted with Auxiliary Power Units which saves nearly 88% of Fuel during the idle time when train is not running.[27]

Goods wagons or freight cars

The number of freight car or goods wagons was 205,596 on 31 March 1951 and reached the maximum number 405,183 on 31 March 1980 after which it started declining and was 239,321 on 31 March 2012. The number is far less than the requirement and the Indian Railways keeps losing freight traffic to road. Indian Railways carried 93 million tonnes of goods in 1950–51 and it increased to 1010 million tonnes in 2012–13.[28]

However, its share in goods traffic is much lower than road traffic. In 1951, its share was 65% and the share of road was 35%. Now the shares have been reversed and the share of railways has declined to 30% and the share of road has increased to 70%.

Passenger coaches

Indian railways has several types of passenger coaches.

Electric Multiple Unit (EMU) coaches are used for suburban traffic in large cities – mainly Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Pune, Hyderabad and Bangalore. These coaches numbered 7,793 on 31 March 2012. They have second class and first class seating accommodation.

Passenger coaches numbered 46,722 on 31 March 2012. Other coaches (luggage coach, parcel van, guard's coach, mail coach, etc.) numbered 6,560 on 31 March 2012.


Indian Railways earns about 70% of its revenues from freight traffic (Rs. 686.2 billion from freight and Rs. 304.6 billion from passengers in 2011–12). Most of its profits come from transporting freight, and this makes up for losses on passenger traffic. It deliberately keeps its passenger fares low and cross-subsidises the loss-making passenger traffic with the profit-making freight traffic.

Since the 1990s, Indian Railways has stopped single-wagon consignments and provides only full rake freight trains

Wagon types

Wagon types include:[29]


Technical details

Track and gauge

Indian railways uses four gauges, the 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge which is wider than the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge; the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge; and two narrow gauges, 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft). Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 75 to 160 km/h (47 to 99 mph).

The total length of track used by Indian Railways is about 115,000 km (71,000 mi) while the total route length of the network is 65,000 km (40,000 mi).[30] About 23,541 km (14,628 mi) or 36% of the route-kilometre was electrified as on 31 March 2013.[31]

Narrow Gauge Train at Rajim, Chhattisgarh
Indian gauge is the predominant gauge used by Indian Railways.

Broad gauge is the predominant gauge used by Indian Railways. Indian broad gauge1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)—is the most widely used gauge in India with 105,000 km (65,000 mi) of track length (91% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 56,000 km (35,000 mi) of route-kilometre (86% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges).

In some regions with less traffic, the metre gauge (1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)) is common, although the Unigauge project is in progress to convert all tracks to broad gauge. The metre gauge has about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of track length (7% of entire track length of all the gauges) and 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of route-kilometre (10% of entire route-kilometre of all the gauges).

The Narrow gauges are present on a few routes, lying in hilly terrains and in some erstwhile private railways (on cost considerations), which are usually difficult to convert to broad gauge. Narrow gauges have 2,000 route-kilometre. The Kalka-Shimla Railway, the Kangra Valley Railway and the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway are three notable hill lines that use narrow gauge, but the Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a metre gauge track.[32] These four rail lines will not be converted under the Unigauge project.

Map of Indian Railways network with population density

The share of broad gauge in the total route-kilometre has been steadily rising, increasing from 47% (25,258 route-km) in 1951 to 86% in 2012 whereas the share of metre gauge has declined from 45% (24,185 route-km) to 10% in the same period and the share of narrow gauges has decreased from 8% to 3%. About 21,500 route-km of Indian railways is electrified.

Sleepers (ties) are made up of prestressed concrete, or steel or cast iron posts, though teak sleepers are still in use on a few older lines. The prestressed concrete sleeper is in wide use today. Metal sleepers were extensively used before the advent of concrete sleepers. Indian Railways divides the country into four zones on the basis of the range of track temperature. The greatest temperature variations occur in Rajasthan.

Research and development

Indian Railways have a full-fledged organisation known as Research Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO), located at Lucknow for all research, designs and standardisation tasks.

In August 2013, Indian Railways entered into a partnership with Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) to develop technology to tap solar energy for lighting and air-conditioning in the coaches. This would significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependency for Indian Railways.[33]

Recently it ingeniously developed and tested the Improved Automated Fire Alarm System in Rajdhani Express Trains. This System would now be applied to AC coaches of all regular trains.[34]

Railway links to adjacent countries

Existing rail links:

Under construction / Proposed links:

Types of passenger services

Trains are classified by their average speed.[38] A faster train has fewer stops ("halts") than a slower one and usually caters to long-distance travel.

Accommodation classes

Air-conditioned Chair Car (CC) coaches in an Shatabdi Express.

Indian Railways has several classes of travel with or without airconditioning. A train may have just one or many classes of travel. Slow passenger trains have only unreserved seating class whereas Rajdhani, Duronto, Shatabdi, garib rath and yuva trains have only airconditioned classes. The fares for all classes are different with unreserved seating class being the cheapest. The fare of Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains includes food served in the train but the fare for other trains does not include food that has to be bought separately. In long-distance trains a pantry car is usually included and food is served at the berth or seat itself. Luxury trains such as Palace on Wheels have separate dining cars but these trains cost as much as or more than a five-star hotel room.

A standard passenger rake generally has four unreserved (also called "general") compartments, two at the front and two at the end, of which one may be exclusively for ladies. The exact number of other coaches varies according to the demand and the route. A luggage compartment can also exist at the front or the back. In some mail trains a separate mail coach is attached. Lavatories are communal and feature both the Indian style as well as the Western style.

The following table lists the classes in operation. A train may not have all these classes.
Seen here is the Mumbai Rajdhani Express. Rajdhanis are long-distance high-speed and high-priority trains connecting major state capitals with New Delhi
Seen here is the Secunderabad Yeshwanthpur Garib-Rath Express. Garib-Rath's are low cost A/c trains
Interior of a First Class(1A) compartment in the Rajdhani Express
Interior of an air-conditioned Chair Car coach(CC) in an Jan Shatabdi Express.
Inside a 3-tier AC Compartment of the Dakshin Express
A typical sleeper class coach

At the rear of the train is a special compartment known as the guard's cabin. It is fitted with a transceiver and is where the guard usually gives the all clear signal before the train departs.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on Indian Railways. – The Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus[41] and the Mountain Railways of India. The latter consists of three separate railway lines located in different parts of India:[42]

A tight loop (Agony Point) on the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway in West Bengal

Notable trains

Tourist trains

Other trains

  • Samjhauta Express is a train that runs between India and Pakistan. However, hostilities between the two nations in 2001 saw the line being closed. It was reopened when the hostilities subsided in 2004. Another train connecting Khokhrapar (Pakistan) and Munabao (India) is the Thar Express that restarted operations on 18 February 2006; it was earlier closed down after the 1965 Indo-Pak war.
  • Lifeline Express is a special train popularly known as the "Hospital-on-Wheels" which provides healthcare to the rural areas. This train has a carriage that serves as an operating room, a second one which serves as a storeroom and an additional two that serve as a patient ward. The train travels around the country, staying at a location for about two months before moving elsewhere.
A view of the Pamban Railway Bridge that links Rameshwaram to the mainland
  • Fairy Queen is the oldest operating locomotive in the world today, though it is operated only for specials between Delhi and Alwar. John Bull, a locomotive older than Fairy Queen, operated in 1981 commemorating its 150th anniversary. Gorakhpur railway station also has the distinction of being the world's longest railway platform at 4,483 ft (1,366 m). The Ghum station along the Darjeeling Toy Train route is the second highest railway station in the world to be reached by a steam locomotive.[51] The Mumbai–Pune Deccan Queen has the oldest running dining car in IR.
  • Vivek Express, between Dibrugarh and Kanyakumari, has the longest run in terms of distance and time on Indian Railways network. It covers 4,286 km (2,663 mi) in about 82 hours and 30 minutes.
  • Bhopal Shatabdi Express is the fastest train in India today having a maximum speed of 160 km/h (99 mph) on the FaridabadAgra section. The fastest speed attained by any train is 184 km/h (114 mph) in 2000 during test runs.
  • Double-decker AC trains have been introduced in India. The first double decker train was Pune-Mumbai Sinhagad express plying between Pune and Mumbai[52] while the first double-decker AC train in the Indian Railways was introduced in November 2010, running between the Dhanbad and Howrah stations having 10 coaches and 2 power cars.[53] On 16 April 2013, Indian Railways celebrated its 160 years of nationwide connectivity with a transportation of 23 million passengers in a day.[54]

Problems and issues

Indian Railways is cash strapped and reported a loss of 30,000 crores in the passenger segment for the year ending March 2014. Operating Ratio, a key metric used by Indian railways to gauge financial health, deteriorated to 93.5% in the same year. Railways carry a social obligation of over 20,000 crores ($3.5bn). The loss per passengerKM increased to 23 paise by the end of March 2014. Indian Railways is left with a surplus cash of just INR 690crores ($115mn) by the end of March 2014. [55]

It is estimated that over 5 lakh crores (about $85 bn at 2014 exchange rates) is required to complete the ongoing projects alone. Railways is consistently losing market share to other modes of transport both in Freight and Passenger Segment.[56]

New railway line projects are often announced during the Railway Budget annually without securing additional funding for them. In the last 10 years, 99 New Line projects worth 60,000 crore were sanctioned out of which only one project is complete till date. In fact, there are 4 projects that are as old as 30 years, but are still not complete for one reason or another.[8]

Sanjay Dina Patil a member of the Lok Sabha recently accused that additional tracks, height of platforms are still a problem and rise in tickets, goods, monthly passes has created an alarming situation where common man is troubled.[57]

See also


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  2. ^ a b "Railways Fiscal Budget 2013". Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
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  7. ^,1,304,366,554,1451,1452
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  10. ^ "About Indian Railways-Evolution". Ministry of Railways website. 
  11. ^ "R.P. Saxena, Indian Railway History Timeline". Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  12. ^ Shyam Rungta (1970). The Rise of Business Corporations in India, 1851–1900. Cambridge U.P. p. 17.  
  13. ^ "History of Indian Railways". Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  14. ^ Sandes, Lt Col E.W.C. (1935). The Military Engineer in India, Vol II. Chatham: The Institution of Royal Engineers. 
  15. ^ "Mobile Application to track train schedules". Times of India. 2014-04-23. Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
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  17. ^ Singh, Vijay Pratap (27 February 2010). "SMS complaint system: A Northern Railway brainwave spreads".  
  18. ^ Indian Railways Facts and Figures (2011–2012).  
  19. ^ "Zones and their Divisions in Indian Railways" (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  20. ^ "Salem railway division formed (in 2005)". Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  21. ^ "Railway Board Directorates". INDIAN RAILWAY ESTABLISHMENT CODE. Indian Railways. 
  22. ^ "Indian Railways level which constitutes the Governing Council of Association". 
  23. ^ "Indian Railways Establishment Manual". 
  24. ^ "administrative control of the railways". indianrailways. 
  25. ^ "set up as a registered society to design and implement various railway computerization projects.". CENTRE FOR RAILWAY INFORMATION SYSTEMS. 
  26. ^ "Indian Railways starts using Bio-Diesel as Fuel in Engines". Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  27. ^ "New Technology allows Railways to save Rs 20 Lakhs Diesel per Engine". Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  28. ^ Indian Railways joins 1 billion tonne club in freight loading - Yahoo! News India. (2013-04-02). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  29. ^ "BLC-A Container Flat Wagon". Titagarh Wagons Limited. Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  30. ^ Compiled and edited by Research, Reference and Training Division. (2011). India Yearbook 2011. Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Govt. of India. Table 19.1.  
  31. ^ "Electrification work of Itarsi-Jabalpur—Manikpur also taken at CORE conference". 2013-04-07. 
  32. ^ "Toy Trains of India". Our Trips – Royal Train Tours. India Calling Tours (P) Limited. Retrieved 12 May 2007. 
  33. ^ Railways, IIT-Madras tie up to power AC coaches with solar energy | News | Eco-Business - Asia's Cleantech & Sustainable Business Community. Eco-Business (2013-08-05). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  34. ^ "Indian Railways develops Automatic Fire and Smoke Detection System". Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  35. ^ "India approves new railway link with Bangladesh". Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
  36. ^ "Rail link from Manipur to Vietnam on cards: Tharoor". The Times of India (India). 9 April 2010. 
  37. ^ "Neighbours to the west get closer | Bangkok Post: news". Bangkok Post. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 
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  39. ^ a b "General Information on travelling by IR". Indian Railways Fan Club. Retrieved 3 June 2007. 
  40. ^ "Class of Travel". S.D. Enterprises Ltd. Retrieved 3 June 2007. 
  41. ^ "Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)". World Heritage List.  
  42. ^ "Mountain Railways of India". World Heritage List.  
  43. ^ "100 years of pine-scented travel". Retrieved 14 February 2009. 
  44. ^ "Train Route". Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  45. ^ "Royal Rajasthan on Wheels Itinerary | Tour Program for 2014–15". Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  46. ^ "The Maharajas’ Express Train Journeys Season 2014–2015". Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
  47. ^ Ministry of Railways (Railway Board)
  48. ^ "Tour Itinerary - Tour Itinerary of Golden Chariot Train, Itinerary of Golden Chariot Train". Retrieved 2014-04-27. 
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  • Aguiar, Marian. Tracking Modernity: India's Railway and the Culture of Mobility (2011)
  • Bear, Laura. Lines of the Nation: Indian Railway Workers, Bureaucracy, and the Intimate Historical Self (Columbia University Press, 2007); 360 pp. ISBN 978-0-231-14002-7.
  • Tiwari, Ramswarup D. Railways In Modern India (1941) excerpt and text search
  • V.M. Govind Krishnan NMR (Nilgiri Mountain Railway)- From Lifeline to Oblivion

External links

  • Ministry of Indian Railways, Official website
  • Indian Railways Live Information, Official website
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