World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Amritaghateswarar-Abirami Temple,Thirukkadaiyur

Article Id: WHEBN0004137562
Reproduction Date:

Title: Amritaghateswarar-Abirami Temple,Thirukkadaiyur  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kari Nayanar, Kungiliya Kalaya Nayanar
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Amritaghateswarar-Abirami Temple,Thirukkadaiyur

Amritaghateswarar Temple
Amritaghateswarar Temple is located in Tamil Nadu
Amritaghateswarar Temple
Amritaghateswarar Temple
Location in Tamil Nadu
Proper name: Amritaghateswarar Temple
Country: India
State: Tamil Nadu
District: Nagapattinam district
Location: Thirukkadaiyur
Temple Details
Primary Deity: Amritaghateswarar (Shiva)
Poets: Appar, Campantar, Cuntarar
Appeared For: Markandeyar
Architecture and culture
Architectural styles: Dravidian architecture

Amritaghateswarar Abhirami Temple (Tamil: அமிர்தகடேஸ்வரர் - அபிராமி கோயில்) is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Shiva in his manifestation as Kalantaka (Sanskrit: "Destroyer of Death") and his wife Parvati in her form as Abhirami (Sanskrit: "Lovely One") located in Thirukkadaiyur, 21 km East of Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu in India. This temple is particularly associated with Shiva saving his devotee Markendeya from death and the tale of saint Abirami Pattar, a devotee of the presiding goddess.

It is one of the 275 Paadal Petra Sthalams, where three of the most revered Nayanars (Saivite Saints), Appar, Suntharar and Tirugnana Sambhandar [1] have sung the glories of this temple.


  • Name origin 1
  • Architecture 2
  • Legends 3
    • Formation 3.1
    • Markandeya 3.2
    • Abhirami Pattar 3.3
    • Relation to the Nayanars 3.4
  • Worship and festivals 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Name origin

Thirukkadaiyur derives its name from the ambrosia pot, called Gatam in Tamil. Vishnu, Indra, and the other Devas needed a clean place to consume the ambrosia that had been created during the Samudra manthan and, therefore, brought the ambrosia pot here.


The temple, in line with the temple architecture of the Chola dynasty, occupies a very vast area of 11 acres (45,000 m2), with five courtyards, several imposing temple towers, and large and spacious mandapas. Though the details of the king who consecrated the temple are uncertain, it can be ascertained from inscriptions in the temple that it has been in existence since at least the tenth or eleventh century, during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I.

It was during the period of Kulothunga Chola I (1075–1120) that the brick walls of the temple were replaced with stone walls and the mandapam in the front was constructed. The rajagopuram, or the front entryway of the temple, is replete with images made of mortar, depicting various legends associated with the temple.

There are three temple tanks, or teerthams, known as 'Amrita Pushkarini', 'Kaala Theertham' and 'Maarkandeya Theertham'. There is a separate shrine dedicated to Abhirami. The Shakta saint Abhirami Pattar is believed to have rendered the Abhirami Anthathi in the front hall of the shrine. The temple also maintains a separate shrine for Markandeya worshipping Kalasamhara Murti. Although Thirukadaiyur is a Shaiva temple, it contains an old Vaishnava temple. The gods in this temple are Amrita Narayana (Vishnu) and his consort Amrita Valli (Lakshmi).



Shortly after the creation of the universe, when the Ganesha, who is to be worshiped before any great undertaking. Ganesha, hurt and offended at the unintentional slight by the devas, stole the pot of Amrita and hid it at Tirukkadaiyur. While there, Ganesha created a Shiva Lingam, dedicated to his father and mother, and poured some of the Amrita over it. Therefore, it is believed that the Shiva Lingam in this temple has the power to grant longevity to its worshipers. For this reason, the Shiva Lingam at this temple is known as Amrita Ghat Eshwarar, which, translated from Sanskrit literally means "Lord that leads to immortality" ('Immortality' (Amrita) 'Step' (Ghat) 'Lord' (Eshwarar)). It is also believed that Abhirami incarnated here by the power of Vishnu.


Long ago, near the temple of Tirukkadaiyur, there lived a sage named Mrikandu and his wife Marudmati. They were both devotees of Lord Shiva and worshiped him day and night for many years, asking to be graced with a child. After many years of penance, Shiva appeared to Mrikandu and Marudmati. He told them that he heard their prayers and would give them a choice: they could either have a gifted son who would live to be only sixteen, or a son of low intelligence who would live a long life. Mrikandu and Marudmati chose the former, and were blessed with Markandeya, an exemplary son, destined to die at the age of sixteen.

Shiva saving Markendeya from Yama

As Markandeya grew, so did his devotion to Lord Shiva. As advised by his father, Markandeya worshipped the Shiva Lingam at Tirukkadaiyur, even bringing water from the Ganges to the temple via an underground passage. On the day he was destined to die, Yama, the deity of death, appeared with his noose to tie around the soul of Markandeya and drag it to the hell. Markandeya sought refuge in the Lord and embraced the Siva Lingam. Lord Shiva appeared and warned Yama not to touch Markandeya, as he was under his protection. Yama refused to listen and threw the noose anyway, binding Markandeya and the Lingam together. Angered by Yama's extraordinary arrogance, Lord Shiva kicked him and held him under his foot, making Yama inactive. Markandeya was blessed by Lord Shiva to remain sixteen years old eternally. It is for this reason that Lord Shiva is also called "Kala-samhara" (Sanskrit: "Destroyer of Time") at this temple.

Meanwhile, with Yama being rendered inactive, there were no deaths on earth, but people were still being born. Burdened by the weight of so many people and unable to sustain their hunger, the earth-goddess, Bhumi Devi, appealed to Lord Shiva for help. Lord Shiva, feeling compassionate for the earth-goddess, released Yama, allowing death to occur again. However, in order to remind Yama never to try to kill someone while they are worshiping Shiva again, the icon of Lord Shiva in this temple depicts the Lord with his forefinger raised in warning.

Since it is believed that Lord Siva subdued Yama in Thirukkadaiyur, the Lord is called Mrityunjaya (Sanskrit: "Conqueror of Death" or "Victorious over Death").

Abhirami Pattar

At this temple, many years ago, there lived a staunch devotee of the goddess Abhirami named Subramanian. He loved the goddess so much that he saw her everywhere and in everyone, but especially in all women. Any woman that entered the temple he would offer flowers to, worshiping her as the living embodiment of the goddess.

One day, King Saraboji visited the temple as Subramanian was meditating on the glories of Abhirami. Seeing that Subramanian did not bow before him as he entered the temple, the king became irritated. He asked one of the devotees in the temple who this man was that refused to recognize him. One priest told the king that Subramanian was mad, worshiping all women as the Divine Mother and showering them with flowers. However, another priest of the temple overheard this and corrected the man, saying that Subramanian was truly a saint and a great devotee of Mother Abhirami.

The king, confused by the two conflicting accounds of who this man was, decided to put Subramanian to the test. Therefore, he asked Subramanian whether today was a full moon day or a new moon day. At that time, Subramanian was still absorbed in meditation on the Divine Mother, seeing her shining face in his mind. Subramanian, seeing the Goddess' face and mistaking it for the moon, responded to the king saying that it was a full moon day when it was actually a new moon day. The king, deciding that Subramanian must be mad, ordered that he be burnt at dusk if the moon failed to appear.

After some time, the king’s army awakened Subramanian and ordered him to come with them to be executed for his madness. On returning to ordinary consciousness, Subramanian realized that he had mistaken the face of the Divine Mother for the full moon, making him say it was a full moon day when, in actuality, it was a new moon day.

Standing at the pyre, with the flames rising all around him, Subramanian realized that only the Divine Mother could save him now. He began singing a song of one-hundred praises to Abhirami (the so-called Abhirami Antati or "Song to Abhirami"), begging her to come to his rescue.

While singing the seventy-ninth verse of his song, which states that the Divine Mother is an ocean of blessing without limit whose merciful eyes grant liberation, Mother Abhirami appeared before Subramanian, his executioners, and the unbelieving king. Throwing her earring into the sky, it took the form of the full moon.

The king, having realized his mistake and immensely pleased by his devotion, released Subramanian. From that day forward, Subramanian was called Abhirami Pattar, which translates to "priest of Abhirami", and the king became his disciple. To this day, Abhirami Pattar is still celebrated at Thirukadaiyur on the new moon day in the Tamil month of Tai (mid-January to mid-February).

Relation to the Nayanars

The 3 foremost Nayanars with Manikkavacakar - collectively called the Nalvars: (from left) Sambandar, Appar, Sundarar, Manikkavacakar.

Among the sixty-three Shaiva poet-saints, collectively known as the Nayanars, Kungili Nayanar and Kari Nayanar both worshiped and attained liberation from the cycle of birth and death here. The Nayanars Appar, Cuntarar and Tirugnana Sambandar have also sung of the glories of this shrine.

Worship and festivals

Worship is offered six times a day at this temple. Almost every day at the temple begins with one celebration or other, as hundreds of pilgrims throng the temple to celebrate their sixtieth or eightieth birthdays. Based on the legend of Markandeya, it is alleged that worshipping at this temple will give longevity to couples who have reached age sixty or eighty-one. A service called Sashtiaptha poorthi (Tamil: "completion of sixty [years]") is celebrated in honor of a husband's sixtieth birthday and Sadhabishegam (Sanskrit: "Eighty-One") is celebrated in honor of his eighty-first birthday. The annual Brahmotsavam is celebrated in the month of Chithirai (April–May) here. The Shankha-abhisheka, a festival of the Divine Mother celebrated in the month of Kartikai (November–December), is also of great importance here. Other festivals celebrated at this temple in honor of the Divine Mother include Navaratri and Aadi Pooram, a festival celebrating the day that Abhirami attained her menarche.


  1. ^ "Sambhantar tEvAram -2". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  • P. V. Jagadisa Ayyar (1920). South Indian shrines: illustrated. Madras Times Printing and Pub. Co. pp. 360–369. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.