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Title: Paraganglion  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sympathetic nervous system, Prolactin cell, Herring bodies, Basophil cell, Beta cell
Collection: Sympathetic Nervous System, Tissues (Biology)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Paraganglion of gallbladder
Gray's p.1277
Code TH H3.
Anatomical terminology

A paraganglion (pl. paraganglia) is a group of non-neuronal cells derived of the neural crest. They are named for being generally in close proximity to sympathetic ganglia. They are essentially of two types: chromaffin or sympathetic paraganglia made of chromaffin cells and nonchromaffin or parasympathetic ganglia made of glomus cells. They are neuroendocrine cells, the former with primary endocrine functions and the latter with primary chemoreceptor functions.[1]

Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.

External links

  1. ^ a b c d Anne Marie McNicol (2010). "Chapter 12: Adrenal medulla and paraganglia". Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advance (Springer ed.). p. 281. 
  2. ^ a b c  
  3. ^ a b Klöppel, G (July 2003). "Tumors of the adrenal medulla and the paraganglia]". Der Pathologe 24 (4): 280–6.  


Nonchromaffin paragangliomas are issued from glomus cells, also known as glomus tumors. They are usually benign.[3] They are generally present at the head and neck, most often at carotid body or jugulo-tympanic, they rarely secrete hormones and commonly have a familial history.[1][2]

Chromaffin paragangliomas are issued from chromaffin cells, and are known as pheochromocytomas. Adrenal pheochromocytomas are usually benign while extraadrenal ones are more malignant.[3] They are most of the time in the adrenals, and only rarely outside of the abdomen. They usually secrete hormones and estimates of a familial history vary.[1][2]

Tumors of the paraganglionic tissues are known as paragangliomas, though this term tends to imply the nonchromaffin type, and can occur at a number of sites throughout the body.


Nonchromaffin paraganglia include carotid bodies and aortic bodies, some are distributed in the ear, along the vagus nerve, in the larynx and at various other places.[2]


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