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Laminopathy

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Laminopathy

Normal nuclear lamina (a and b) and mutant nuclear lamina (c and d) from a patient with HGPS, visualized by immunofluorescence - note the irregular and bumpy shape of the laminopathic nuclei[1]

Laminopathies (lamino- + -opathy) are a group of rare genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the nuclear lamina. They are included in the more generic term nuclear envelopathies that was coined in 2000 for diseases associated with defects of the nuclear envelope.[2] Since the first reports of laminopathies in the late 1990s, increased research efforts have started to uncover the vital role of nuclear envelope proteins in cell and tissue integrity in animals.

Contents

  • Symptoms 1
  • Genetics 2
  • Molecular action 3
    • Nonsense and missense mutations 3.1
    • Point mutations 3.2
    • Splicing defects 3.3
    • Processing defects 3.4
    • Gene dosage effects 3.5
    • Autoimmune antibodies 3.6
  • Treatment and drug development 4
  • List of known laminopathies and other nuclear envelopathies 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Symptoms

Laminopathies and other nuclear envelopathies have a large variety of clinical symptoms including skeletal and/or cardiac muscular dystrophy, lipodystrophy and diabetes, dysplasia, dermo- or neuropathy, leukodystrophy, and progeria (premature aging). Most of these symptoms develop after birth, typically during childhood or adolescence. Some laminopathies however may lead to an early death, and mutations of lamin B (LMNB1 gene) may be lethal before or at birth.[3]

Genetics

Patients with classical laminopathy have mutations in the gene coding for lamin A/C (LMNA gene).

More recently, mutations in lamin B (LMNB2 gene) or genetic defects leading to changes in lamin B abundance were identified as cause for laminopathies.

Mutations implicated in other nuclear envelopathies were found in genes coding for lamin-binding proteins such as lamin B receptor (LBR gene), emerin (EMD gene) and LEM domain-containing protein 3 (LEMD3 gene) and prelamin-processing enzymes such as the zinc metalloproteinase STE24 (ZMPSTE24 gene).

Mutations causing laminopathies include recessive as well as dominant alleles with rare de novo mutations creating dominant alleles that do not allow their carriers to reproduce before death.

The nuclear envelopathy with the highest frequency in human populations is Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy caused by an X-linked mutation in the EMD gene coding for emerin and affecting an estimated 1 in 100,000 people.

Molecular action

Lamins are plants or fungi do not have lamins[4] and the symptoms of many laminopathies include muscle defects. Mutations in these genes might lead to defects in filament assembly and/or attachment to the nuclear envelope and thus jeopardize nuclear envelope stability in physically stressed tissues such as muscle fibers, bone, skin and connective tissue.[5]

Messenger RNA produced from the LMNA gene undergoes alternative splicing and is translated into lamins A and C. Lamin A undergoes farnesylation to attach a membrane anchor to the protein. This version of the protein is also referred to as prelamin A. Farnesylated prelamin A is further processed into mature lamin A by a metalloproteinase removing the last 15 amino acids and its farnesylated cysteine. This allows lamin A to dissociate from the nuclear envelope membrane and fulfill nuclear functions. Mutations causing laminopathies interfere with these processes on different levels.

Nonsense and missense mutations

Missense mutations in the lamin A/C rod and tail domains are the cause for a wide array of genetic disorders, suggesting that lamin A/C protein contains distinct functional domains that are essential for the maintenance and integrity of different cell lineages. Interaction between lamin A and the nuclear envelope protein emerin appears to be crucial in muscle cells, with certain mutations in lamin mimicking mutations in emerin and causing Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Different mutations lead to dominant-negative and recessive alleles. Mutations in the lamin rod domain leading to mislocalization of both lamin A and emerin occur in patients with autosomal dominant forms of muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy.

Most lamin B mutations appear to be lethal with mutations in lamin B1 causing death at birth in mice.[3] In 2006, lamin B2 missense mutations were identified in patients with acquired partial lipodystrophy.[6]

Point mutations

The most common mutation in the lamin A/C is the homozygous Arg527His (arginine replaced by histidine at position 527) substitution in exon 9 of the LMNA gene[7] Other know mutations are Ala529Val and Arg527His/Val440Met.[8] Additionally, some mutations such as Arg527Cys, Lys542Asn, Arg471Cys, Thr528Met/Met540Thr, and Arg471Cys/Arg527Cys, Arg527Leu result in mandibuloacral dysplasia with progeria-like features.[9]

Splicing defects

Mutations causing progeria are defective in splicing LMNA mRNA, therefore producing abnormal lamin A protein, also known as progerin. The mutations activate a cryptic splice site within exon 11 of the gene, thereby causing the deletion of the processing site on prelamin A.[10] This results in an accumulation of progerin that is unable to mature into lamin A, leading to misshapen nuclei. Missplicing also leads to the complete or partial loss of exon 11 and results in a truncated prelamin A protein in the neonatal lethal tight skin contracture syndrome.[11]

Processing defects

Since the metalloproteinase STE24 is required to process prelamin A into mature lamin A, mutations in this gene abolishing protease activity cause defects similar to laminopathies caused by prelamin A with truncated processing sites. Symptoms in patients with ZMPSTE24 mutation range from mandibuloacral dysplasia, progeroid appearance, and generalized lipodystrophy to infant-lethal restrictive dermopathy.

Gene dosage effects

In the case of autosomal dominant leukodystrophy, the disease is associated with a duplication of the lamin B gene LMNB1. The exact dosage of lamin B in cells appears to be crucial for nuclear integrity as increased expression of lamin B causes a degenerative phenotype in fruit flies and leads to abnormal nuclear morphology.[12]

Autoimmune antibodies

Antibodies against lamin B have been implicated in autoimmune diseases and are possibly involved in multiple sclerosis.[12]

Treatment and drug development

Currently, there is no cure for laminopathies and treatment is largely symptomatic and supportive. Physical therapy and/or corrective orthopedic surgery may be helpful for patients with muscular dystrophies. Cardiac problems that occur with some laminopathies may require a pacemaker. Treatment for neuropathies may include medication for seizures and spasticity.

The recent progress in uncovering the molecular mechanisms of toxic progerin formation in laminopathies leading to premature aging has opened up the potential for the development of targeted treatment. The farnesylation of prelamin A and its pathological form progerin is carried out by the enzyme farnesyl transferase. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) can be used effectively to reduce symptoms in two mouse model systems for progeria and to revert the abnormal nuclear morphology in progeroid cell cultures. Two oral FTIs, lonafarnib and tipifarnib, are already in use as anti-tumor medication in humans and may become avenues of treatment for children suffering from laminopathic progeria. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphate drugs used in the treatment of osteoporosis reduce farnesyldiphosphate production and thus prelamin A farnesylation. Testing of these drugs may prove them to be useful in treating progeria as well. The use of antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit progerin synthesis in affected cells is another avenue of current research into the development of anti-progerin drugs.[13][14]

List of known laminopathies and other nuclear envelopathies

Syndrome OMIM ID Symptoms Mutation in Identified in
Atypical Werner syndrome Progeria with increased severity compared to normal Werner syndrome Lamin A/C 2003[15]
Barraquer-Simons syndrome Lipodystrophy Lamin B 2006[6]
Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome Skeletal dysplasia, skin lesions LEM domain containing protein 3 (lamin-binding protein) 2004[16]
Cardiomyopathy Lamin A/C 1999[17]
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, with quadriceps myopathy Cardiomyopathy Lamin A/C 2003[18]
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2B1 Neuropathy Lamin A/C 2002[19]
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, X-linked (EDMD) Skeletal and cardiac muscular dystrophy Emerin (lamin-binding protein) 1996,[20] 2000[21]
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, autosomal dominant (EDMD2) Skeletal and cardiac muscular dystrophy Lamin A/C 1999[22]
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, autosomal recessive (EDMD3) Skeletal and cardiac muscular dystrophy Lamin A/C 2000[23]
Familial partial lipodystrophy of the Dunnigan type (FPLD) Lipoatrophic diabetes Lamin A/C 2002[24]
Greenberg dysplasia Skeletal dysplasia Lamin B receptor 2003[25]
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) Progeria Lamin A/C 2003[10]
Leukodystrophy, demyelinating, adult-onset, autosomal dominant (ADLD) Progressive demyelinating disorder affecting the central nervous system Lamin B (tandem gene duplication) 2006[12]
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B (LGMD1B) Muscular dystrophy of hips and shoulders, cardiomyopathy Lamin A/C 2000[26]
Lipoatrophy with diabetes, hepatic steatosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and leukomelanodermic papules (LDHCP) Lipoatrophic diabetes, fatty liver, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skin lesions Lamin A/C 2003[27]
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) Dysplasia and lipodystrophy Lamin A/C 2002[7]
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy (MADB) Dysplasia and lipodystrophy Zinc metalloprotease STE24 (prelamin-processing enzyme) 2003[28]
Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA) Myelodysplasia Lamin B receptor 2002[29]
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, adult-onset, autosomal dominant Leukodystrophy Lamin B 2006[12]
Tight skin contracture syndrome, lethal Dermopathy Lamin A/C or Zinc metalloprotease STE24 (prelamin-processing enzyme) 2004[11]

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
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External links

  • GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on LMNA-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
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