World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

History of Georgia (country)

Article Id: WHEBN0018868308
Reproduction Date:

Title: History of Georgia (country)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Collection: History of Georgia (Country)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

History of Georgia (country)

The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The current republic of tensions with Russia remain unresolved.

The history of Georgia is inextricably linked with the history of the

Kingdom of Georgia during King David the Builder in 1124.

The struggle against the Shirvan. Between 1110 and 1118 David took Lori, Samshvilde, Rustavi and other fortresses of lower Kartli and Tashiri, thus turning Tbilisi into an isolated Seljuq enclave.

Flag of Georgia during the reign of David the Builder

In 1118–1119, having considerable amounts of free, unsettled land as a result of the withdrawal of Turkish nomads, and desperately needing qualified manpower for the army, King David invited some 40,000

Queen Betania monastery)

In 1121, the Seljuq Sultan Mahmud declared

Shevardnadze narrowly survived a bomb attack in August 1995 that he blamed on his erstwhile paramilitary allies. He took the opportunity to imprison the paramilitary leader

On September 24, 1993, in the wake of the Abkhaz disaster, CIS as part of the price for military and political support.

Ethnic violence also flared in Ajaria came under the control of Aslan Abashidze, who managed to rule his republic from 1991 to 2004 as a personal fiefdom in which the Tbilisi government had little influence.

The new government invited Abkhazia escalated when government forces and paramilitaries were sent into the area to quell separatist activities. The Abkhaz fought back with help from paramilitaries from Russia's North Caucasus regions and alleged covert support from Russian military stationed in a base in Gudauta, Abkhazia and in September 1993 the government forces suffered a catastrophic defeat, which led to them being driven out and the entire Georgian population of the region being expelled. Around 14,000 people died and another 300,000 were forced to flee.

Eduard Shevardnadze, second President of Georgia (1995–2003)

Shevardnadze presidency (1992–2003)

Gamsakhurdia was elected president on May 26, 1991, with 86% of the vote. He was subsequently widely criticised for what was perceived to be an erratic and authoritarian style of government, with nationalists and reformists joining forces in an uneasy anti-Gamsakhurdia coalition. A tense situation was worsened by the large amount of ex-Soviet weaponry available to the quarreling parties and by the growing power of paramilitary groups. The situation came to a head on December 22, 1991, when armed opposition groups launched a violent military coup d'état, besieging Gamsakhurdia and his supporters in government buildings in central Tbilisi. Gamsakhurdia managed to evade his enemies and fled to the breakaway Russian republic of Chechnya in January 1992.

Opposition pressure on the communist government was manifested in popular demonstrations and strikes, which ultimately resulted in an open, multiparty and democratic parliamentary election being held on 28 October 1990 in which the Round Table/Free Georgia bloc captured 54 percent of the proportional vote to gain 155 seats out of the 250 up for election, while the communists gained 64 seats and 30 percent of the proportional vote.[85] The leading dissident referendum on independence, which was approved by 98.9% of the votes. Formal independence from the Soviet Union was declared on April 9, 1991, although it took some time before it was widely recognised by outside powers such as the United States and European countries. Gamsakhurdia's government strongly opposed any vestiges of Russian dominance, such as the remaining Soviet military bases in the republic, and (after the dissolution of the Soviet Union) his government declined to join the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

Leaders of Georgian independence movement in late 80s, Zviad Gamsakhurdia (left) and Merab Kostava (right)

Gamsakhurdia presidency (1991-1992)

Independent Georgia

Shevardnadze's appointment as Soviet Foreign Minister in 1985 brought his replacement in Georgia by South Ossetia). On April 9, 1989, Soviet troops were used to break up a peaceful demonstration at the government building in Tbilisi. Twenty Georgians were killed and hundreds wounded and poisoned. The event radicalised Georgian politics, prompting many—even some Georgian communists—to conclude that independence was preferable to continued Soviet rule.

Soviet power and Georgian nationalism clashed in 1978 when Moscow ordered revision of the constitutional status of the Georgian language as Georgia's official state language. Bowing to pressure from mass street demonstrations on April 14, 1978, Moscow approved Shevardnadze's reinstatement of the constitutional guarantee the same year. April 14 was established as a Day of the Georgian Language.

Photos of the April 9, 1989 Massacre victims (mostly young women) on billboard in Tbilisi

Although corruption was hardly unknown in the Soviet Union, it became so widespread and blatant in Georgia that it came to be an embarrassment to the authorities in Moscow. Eduard Shevardnadze, the country's interior minister between 1964 and 1972, gained a reputation as a fighter of corruption and engineered the removal of Vasil Mzhavanadze, the corrupt First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party. Shevardnadze ascended to the post of First Secretary with the blessings of Moscow. He was an effective and able ruler of Georgia from 1972 to 1985, improving the official economy and dismissing hundreds of corrupt officials.

[84] The decentralisation program introduced by Khrushchev in the mid-1950s was soon exploited by Georgian

Stalin's successful appeal for patriotic unity eclipsed Georgian nationalism during the war and diffused it in the years following. On March 9, 1956, Nikita Khrushchev's policy of de-Stalinization.

[82] During this period Stalin ordered the deportation of the

Reaching the Georgian Legion.

During the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Abkhazian Autonomous SSR, Adjara ASSR, and South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast.

Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1990)

In February 1921, the Guerrilla resistance in 1921–1924 was followed by a large-scale patriotic uprising in August 1924. Colonel Kakutsa Cholokashvili was one of the most prominent guerrilla leaders in this phase.

Red Army invasion (1921)

The Democratic Republic of Armenia over the parts of then disputed provinces of Lori, Javakheti, which had been historically bicultural Armenian-Georgian territories, but were largely populated by Armenians in the 19th century.

During the final stages of World War I, the Armenians and Georgians had been defending against the advance of the Uzunlar in the Lori region. Within days, hostilities commenced between the two republics.[81]

The conquest by the Soviet Union.

Georgian-Armenian War (1918)

The Menshevik faction of the Social Democratic Party, which established a multi-party system in sharp contrast with the "dictatorship of the proletariat" established by the Bolsheviks in Russia. It was recognised by Soviet Russia (Treaty of Moscow (1920)) and the major Western powers in 1921

The 25 February 1921

Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)

The last decades of the 19th century witnessed a Georgian literary revival in which writers emerged of a stature unequalled since the Golden Age of

The Georgian intelligentsia's support for Prince Chavchavadze and Georgian independence is shown in this declaration:

Between the years of 1855 to 1907, the Georgian patriotic movement was launched under the leadership of Prince Ivane Machabeli, Akaki Tsereteli, Niko Nikoladze, Alexander Kazbegi and Iakob Gogebashvili.

[79] Many Georgians were upset by the loss of independence of the

Prince Akaki Tsereteli, prominent Georgian poet and national liberation movement figure.

A large-scale peasant revolt occurred in 1905, which led to political reforms that eased the tensions for a period. During this time, the Marxist Bolshevik, became a leader of the revolutionary (and anti-Menshevik) movement in Georgia. He went on to control the Soviet Union.

The emancipation of the serfs pleased neither the serfs nor the nobles. The poverty of the serfs had not been alleviated while the nobles had lost some of their privileges. The nobles in particular also felt threatened by the growing power of the urban, Armenian middle class in Georgia, who prospered as Tsarist autocracy and Armenian economic domination [78] led to the development of a national liberation movement in the second half of the 19th century.

Prince Ilia Chavchavadze, leader of the Georgian national revival in the 1860s.

Growth of the national movement

Serfdom was abolished in Russian lands in 1861. The tsar also wanted to emancipate the serfs of Georgia, but without losing the loyalty of the nobility whose revenues depended on peasant labour. This called for delicate negotiations before serfdom was gradually phased out in the Georgian provinces from 1864 onwards.

The Russian and Georgian societies had much in common: the main religion was Orthodox Christianity and in both countries a land-owning aristocracy ruled over a population of serfs. The Russian authorities aimed to integrate Georgia into the rest of their empire, but at first Russian rule proved high-handed, arbitrary and insensitive to local law and customs, leading to a conspiracy by Georgian nobles in 1832 and a revolt by peasants and nobles in Guria in 1841.[77] Things changed with the appointment of Mikhail Vorontsov as Viceroy of the Caucasus in 1845. Count Vorontsov's new policies successfully won over the Georgian nobility, who became increasingly eager to abandon Islamic influences that had been forced upon Georgia in the preceding centuries and pursued, after the example of Russian nobility, a long-sought process of Europeanisation. Life for Georgian serfs was very different, however, since the rural economy remained seriously depressed. Georgian serfs lived in dire poverty, subject to the frequent threat of starvation. Few of them lived in the towns, where what little trade and industry there was, was in the hands of Armenians, whose ancestors had migrated to Georgia in the Middle Ages.

19th century Georgian noble family

Russian Empire

Modern history

In the summer of 1805 Russian troops on the river Askerani and near Zagam defeated the Qajar Persian army during the Batumi, Artvin, Akhaltsikhe, Poti, and Abkhazia) now represent the majority of the territory of the present state of Georgia. Georgia was reunified for the first time in centuries but had lost its independence.

A part of the Georgian nobility did not accept the decree until April 1802 when General Knorring compassed the nobility in Tbilisi's Sioni Cathedral and forced them to take an oath on the imperial crown of Russia. Those who disagreed were arrested temporarily.[75]

[74] In spite of failure to honour the terms of the Treaty of Georgievsk, Georgian rulers felt they had nobody else to turn to. After Erekle's death, a civil war broke out over the succession to the throne of Kartli-Kakheti and one of the rival candidates called on Russia to intervene and decide matters. On January 8, 1801, Tsar

[67][66] In 1762, Teimuraz II died while on a diplomatic mission to the court of

Yet, both Georgian kingdoms remained under heavy Persian tribute until Nadir was assassinated in 1747. Teimuraz and Heraclius took advantage of the ensuing political instability in Circassian mercenaries in order to invade Persia and install a pro-Russian government there. The embassy failed to yield any results, however, for the Russian court was preoccupied with European affairs.[49]

Following a civil war and the resulting chaos that happened in the whole Abdullah Beg of the Mukhrani dynasty, and helped Teimuraz suppress the aristocratic opposition to the Persian hegemony led by Givi Amilakhvari. As a reward, Nadir granted the kingship of Kartli to Teimuraz and of Kakheti to Heraclius, and also arranged the marriage of his nephew Ali-Qoli Khan, who eventually would succeed him as Adil Shah, to Teimuraz’s daughter Kethevan.[49]

King Erekle II

[60] In the early 18th century, Kartli, the most politically dominant region of all Georgian areas, saw a partial recovery under

King Solomon I

The 18th and 19th century: from a mainly Iranian-centred theatre to Russian annexation

After the Ottomans utter failure to gain permanent foothold in the eastern Caucasus,[46] Iranians immediately sought to strengthen their position and finally subject the rebellious Kingdoms of Eastern Georgia and making them integral parts of the empire.[47][48][49] During the next 150 years as Persian subjects, various Georgian kings and nobles rose into rebellion, while at many other times political activity was nothing but dormant, and many kings and aristocrats fully accepted Persian overlordship and converted to Islam as well,[50] for greater boons from their Iranian Shahs. On the maternal side of the Safavid (also Jean Chardin, who visited the region of Mingrelia in 1671, noted the wretchedness of the peasants, the arrogance of the nobles and the ignorance of the clergy.[59] The various rulers in Georgia were thus often split between acknowledging Ottoman or Iranian overlordship (which often entailed nominal conversion to Islam) or making a bid for independence. The emergence of a third imperial power to the north, Christian Russia, made the latter an increasingly tempting choice.

By the late 15th century the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18).[46]

Georgia after the dissolution of the unified state, 1490

As a result of these changes, the Georgian Kingdom suffered economic and political decline and in the 1460s the kingdom fractured into several kingdoms and principalities:[44]

By the middle of the 15th century, most of Georgia's old neighbor-states disappeared from the map within less than a hundred years. The Genoese colonies of the Crimea.

In the 15th century the whole area changed dramatically in all possible aspects: linguistic, cultural, political, etc. During that period the Kingdom of Georgia turned into an isolated, fractured Christian enclave, a relic of the faded East Roman epoch surrounded by a Muslim, predominantly Turco-Iranian world. During the three subsequent centuries, the Georgian rulers maintained their perilous autonomy as subjects under the Turkish Ottoman and Iranian Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar domination, although sometimes serving as little more than puppets in the hands of their powerful suzerains.

Georgian Kingdom just before fragmentation, 1460

Ottoman and Iranian domination

Early modern period

The period between 1259 and 1330 was marked by the struggle of the Georgians against the Mongol

In 1243, Queen Nakhichevan and some other territories and agreed to pay tribute to the Mongols as well as to let them occupy and de facto rule more than half of the remaining territory. Although Mongol-occupied Tbilisi remained an official capital of the kingdom, the Queen refused to return there and stayed in Kutaisi until her death in 1245. In addition to all the above hardships, even the part of the kingdom that remained free of the Mongols started disintegrating: The Crown started losing control over the warlords of Samtskhe (southern provinces of Georgia) who established their own relations with the Mongols and by the year 1266 practically seceded from Georgia.

In the 1220s, the South Caucasus and Asia Minor faced the invasion of the Mongols. In spite of fierce resistance by Georgian-Armenian forces and their allies, the whole area including most of Georgia, all Armenian lands and Central Anatolia eventually fell to the Mongols.

The Holy Martyr King Luarsab II

Mongol invasion and decline of the Georgian Kingdom

The period between the early 12th and the early 13th centuries, and especially the era of Tamar the Great, can truly be considered as the golden age of Georgia. Besides the political and military achievements, it was marked by the development of Georgian culture, including architecture, literature, philosophy and sciences.

The temporary fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1204 to the Crusaders left Georgia and Bulgarian Empire as the strongest Christian states in the whole East Mediterranean area. The same year Queen Tamar sent her troops to take over the former Byzantine Lazona and Paryadria with the cities of Atina,

Georgian Empire
Kingdom of Georgia during its Golden Age.

The reign of Karin, Erzinjan, Khelat, Muş and Van, came under Georgian control. Although it was not included in the lands of the Georgian Crown, and was left under the nominal rule of local Turkish Emirs and Sultans, Southern Armenia became a protectorate of the Kingdom of Georgia.

Queen Tamar the Great and the Golden Age 1184–1213

The war in Chechnya caused considerable friction with Russia, which accused Georgia of harbouring Chechen guerrillas. Further friction was caused by Shevardnadze's close relationship with the United States, which saw him as a counterbalance to Russian influence in the strategic Transcaucasus region. Georgia became a major recipient of Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline)

A powerful coalition of reformists headed by Burjanadze.

These results were annulled by the Georgia Supreme Court after the Rose Revolution on November 25, 2003, following allegations of widespread electoral fraud and large public protests, which led to the resignation of Shevardnadze.

Saakashvili presidency (2004-2013)

Mikheil Saakashvili with George W. Bush.
Location of Abkhazia and South Ossetia) and the Russian part of North Caucasus.
2004 elections

A new election was held on March 28, 2004. The National Movement - Democrats (NMD), the party supporting Mikheil Saakashvili, won 67% of the vote; only the Rightist Opposition (7.6%) also gained parliamentary representation passing the 7% threshold.

On January 4, Mikheil Saakashvili won the Zurab Zhvania was appointed Prime Minister. Nino Burjanadze, the interim President, became Speaker of Parliament.

First term (2004-2007)

The new president faced many problems on coming to office. More than 230,000 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, remained fragile.

The Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International improved dramatically from rank 133[88] in 2004 to 67 in 2008[89] and to 51 in 2012, surpassing several EU countries.[90][91] But such achievements could only result from the use of unilateral executive powers, failing to achieve consent and initiating a trade-off between democracy-building and state-building.[87]

After the Rose Revolution, relations between the Georgian government and semi-separatist Ajarian leader 2004 Adjara crisis).

Relations with Russia remained problematic due to Russia's continuing political, economic and military support to separatist governments in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Russian troops still remained garrisoned at two military bases and as peacekeepers in these regions. Saakashvili's public pledge to resolve the matter provoked criticism from the separatist regions and Russia. In August 2004, several clashes occurred in South Ossetia.

On October 29, 2004, the Train-and-Equip Program (GTEP).

In February 2005 Prime Minister Amnesty International have pushed serious concerns over human rights.[92] Discontent over unemployment, pensions and corruption, and the continuing dispute over Abkhazia, have greatly diminished Saakashvili's popularity in the country.

In 2006 Georgia's relationship with Russia was at nadir due to the anti-government protests, and Russia allegedly led a series of airspace violations against Georgia.

2007 crisis

Since the weakening of the democratic credentials of the Saakashvili cabinet after the police crackdown of the Lado Gurgenidze.[87]

Saakashvili called new parliamentary and presidential elections for January 2008. In order to contest the presidential election, Saakashvili announced his resignation effective 25 November 2007, with Nino Burjanadze becoming acting president for a second time (until the election returned Saakashvili to office on 20 January 2008).

Second term (2008-2013)

In August 2008 Russia and Georgia engaged in the 2008–2010 Georgia–Russia crisis, is still tense.

In October 2012, Saakashvili admitted defeat for his party in parliamentary elections. In his speech he said that "the opposition has the lead and it should form the government - and I as president should help them with this." This represented the first democratic transition of power in Georgia's post-Soviet history.

Margvelashvili presidency (2013-present)

On 17 November 2013, Prime Minister.[94] Margvelashvili's inauguration was not attended by his predecessor Mikheil Saakashvili, who cited disrespect by the new government towards its predecessors and opponents.[95]

Margvelashvili initially refused to move to the luxurious presidential palace built under Saakashvili in Tbilisi, opting for more modest quarters in the building of the State Chancellery until a 19th-century building once occupied by the U.S. embassy in Georgia is refurbished for him.[96] However, he later started to occasionally used the palace for official ceremonies.[97] This was one of the reasons for which Margvelashvili was publicly criticized, in a March 2014 interview with Imedi TV, by the ex-Prime Minister Ivanishvili, who said he was "disappointed" in Margvelashvili.[97]

See also

Further reading

  • Ammon, Philipp: Georgien zwischen Eigenstaatlichkeit und russischer Okkupation: Die Wurzeln des russisch-georgischen Konflikts vom 18. Jahrhundert bis zum Ende der ersten georgischen Republik (1921). Kitab (2015). ISBN 978-3902878458
  • Gvosdev, Nikolas K.: Imperial policies and perspectives towards Georgia: 1760–1819, Macmillan, Basingstoke 2000, ISBN 0-312-22990-9
  • Goltz, Thomas. Georgia Diary : A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus. Thomas Dunne Books (2003). ISBN 0-7656-1710-2
  • Maisuradze, Giorgi: "Time Turned Back: On the Use of History in Georgia" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 8


  1. ^ David Marshal Lang: The Georgians Origins
  2. ^ William Edward David Allen: A History of the Georgian People From the Beginning Down to the Russian Conquest in the Nineteenth Century
  3. ^ a b Aruchlo: An Early Neolithic Tell Settlement of the 6th Millennium BC Deutsches Archäologisches Institut
  4. ^ Georgia:History and Culture American Chamber of Commerce in Georgia
  5. ^ Georgia - History Century Travel
  6. ^ Anatolia and the Caucasus, 8000–2000 B.C.
  7. ^ C. Burney, Die Bergvölker Vorderasiens, Essen 1975, 274
  8. ^ Diaokhi
  9. ^ Georgia. (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 14, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service
  10. ^ A. G. Sagona. Archaeology at the North-East Anatolian Frontier, p. 30.
  11. ^ G. L. Kavtaradze. An Attempt to Interpret Some Anatolian and Caucasian Ethnonyms of the Classical Sources, p. 80f.
  12. ^ R. G. Suny. The Making of the Georgian Nation, p. 6.
  13. ^ История Грузии с древнейших времен до наших дней
  14. ^ a b Phoenix: The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus by Charles Burney, David Marshall Lang, Phoenix Press; New Ed edition (December 31, 2001)
  15. ^ Braund, D., Georgia in antiquity: a history of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC – AD 562, Oxford University Press, 1996
  16. ^ Oliver Wardrop, The Kingdom of Georgia: Travel in a Land of Women, Wine and Song (Kegan Paul Library of History and Archaeology)
  17. ^ Modern Hatreds, Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman p. 91.
  18. ^ a b Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War, Stuart J. Kaufman, p. 91
  19. ^ Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC–AD 562, David Braund Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. pp. 359
  20. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation, Ronald Grigor Suny, p. 13
  21. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69
  22. ^ One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, James Minahan, p. 282
  23. ^ : Значение слова "Колхи" в Большой Советской ЭнциклопедииThe Great Soviet Encyclopedia
  24. ^ CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84
  25. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd Ed, Ronald Grigor Suny, p 13
  26. ^ a b c d e f g accessdate=13 October 2015COLCHIS
  27. ^ Braund, D., Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC – AD 562, Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 36
  28. ^ History of the later Roman Empire: The Lazic war
  29. ^ GOCHA R. TSETSKHLADZE "Georgia" Encyclopædia Iranica, Columbia University [2] retrieved July 2, 2007
  30. ^ Theodor Dowling, Sketches of Georgian Church History, New York, 1912, p 37
  31. ^ Charles Burney and David Marshal Lang, The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus, p. 22
  32. ^ Allen, W.E.D.: A History of the Georgian People, 1932, p. 64
  33. ^ History of the Christian Church in Georgia, Besiki Sisauri, p. 34
  34. ^ The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity Up to 1300, E. Glenn Hinson, p 223
  35. ^ Georgian Reader, George Hewitt, p. xii
  36. ^ Ethiopia, the Unknown Land: A Cultural and Historical Guide, by Stuart Munro-Hay, p. 234
  37. ^ Prayers from the East: Traditions of Eastern Christianity, Richard Marsh, p. 3
  38. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation, Ronald Grigor Suny, p. 20
  39. ^ Simon Broughton, Mark Ellingham, Richard Trillo: World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East p347
  40. ^ George M Taber: In Search of Bacchus: Wanderings in the Wonderful World of Wine Tourism p250
  41. ^ "Christianity and the Georgian Empire". Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  42. ^ "The Making of the Georgian Nation". Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  43. ^ "The Making of the Georgian Nation". Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  44. ^ Suny, pp. 45–46
  45. ^ "Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  46. ^ a b Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi vol.III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, 43-44
  47. ^ "AMASYA, PEACE OF". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  48. ^ "KARTLI". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  49. ^ a b c "KAKHETI". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  50. ^ "The Caucasus: An Introduction". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  51. ^ "Georgia and Iran" (PDF). Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  52. ^ Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-056-0, pp. 130-1
  53. ^ "Ottoman". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  54. ^ Eskandar Beg, pp. 900-901, tr. Savory, II, p. 1116
  55. ^ Malekšāh Ḥosayn, p. 509
  56. ^ Stalin and the Turkish Crisis of the Cold War, 1945-1953, by Jamil Hasanli, 2011, p.167
  57. ^
  58. ^ Suny, pp. 46–52
  59. ^ Suny p.52
  60. ^ Assatiani and Bendianachvili p.209
  61. ^ Savory, Roger (1980). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 252.  
  62. ^ "A New, Royal, and Authentic System of Universal Geography, Antient and ...". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  63. ^ Suny pp.57-58
  64. ^ Anchabadze, George, Ph.D. History of Georgia. Georgia in the Beginning of Feudal Decomposition. (XVIII cen.). Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  65. ^ Suny, pp. 58–59
  66. ^ "Relations between Tehran and Moscow, 1797-2014". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  67. ^ "The Qajar Dynasty in Iran: The Most Important Occurence Evented in the Qajars Monarchy" (PDF). 
  68. ^ Gvosdev (2000), p. 85
  69. ^ Avalov (1906), p. 186
  70. ^ Gvosdev (2000), p. 86
  71. ^ Lang (1957), p. 249
  72. ^ Lang (1957), p. 251
  73. ^ Lang (1957), p. 247
  74. ^ "Russia and Britain in Persia: Imperial Ambitions in Qajar Iran". Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  75. ^ Lang (1957), p. 252
  76. ^ Anchabadze (2005), p. 29
  77. ^ Suny pp. 70–73
  78. ^ Stephen Jones, Socialism in Georgian Colors: The European Road to Social Democracy 1883–1917, p. 8
  79. ^ Dowling, Sketches from Georgian Church History, London 1912
  80. ^ D.M.Lang, A Modern History of Georgia, p. 109
  81. ^ Armenia: the Survival of a Nation, Christopher Walker pp. 267–268
  82. ^ Parrish, Michael (1996). The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939–1953. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 102.  
  83. ^ Gregory Grossman, "The 'Second Economy' of the USSR", Problems of Communism, vol. 26 no. 5, 1977, quoted from Cornell, Svante E., Autonomy and Conflict: Ethnoterritoriality and Separatism in the South Caucasus – Case in Georgia. Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Report No. 61. p. 149. University of Uppsala, ISBN 91-506-1600-5.
  84. ^  
  85. ^ "Georgia - GOVERNMENT". 1921-02-21. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  86. ^ "Georgian parliamentary elections marred by confusion over voter lists", OSCE, 3 November 2003; "Post-election interim report", OSCE, 25 November 2003
  87. ^ a b c d ESI, Georgia as a model, April 2010
  88. ^ Corruption Perceptions Index 2004. Transparency International.
  89. ^ Corruption Perceptions Index 2008. Transparency International.
  90. ^ Transparency International: Georgia 51st in 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index. Press release
  91. ^ Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. Transparency International.
  92. ^ "Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights". Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  93. ^ "EU presents findings into the South Ossetia War to US". RT. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  94. ^ Margvelashvili Sworn-in as New President. Civil Georgia. November 17, 2013.
  95. ^ Georgia's Saakashvili won't attend Margelashvili's inauguration. Vestnik Kavkaza. 16 November 2013.
  96. ^ Margvelashvili refuses to move to residence built for Saakashvili. Kyiv Post. 4 November 2013.
  97. ^ a b Ex-PM Ivanishvili 'Disappointed' in Margvelashvili. Civil Georgia. 18 March 2014.
  • Ammon, Philipp: Georgien zwischen Eigenstaatlichkeit und russischer Okkupation: Die Wurzeln des russisch-georgischen Konflikts vom 18. Jahrhundert bis zum Ende der ersten georgischen Republik (1921), Klagenfurt 2015, ISBN 978-3902878458
  • Avalov, Zurab: Prisoedinenie Gruzii k Rossii, Montvid, S.-Peterburg 1906
  • Anchabadze, George: History of Georgia: A Short Sketch, Tbilisi, 2005, ISBN 99928-71-59-8
  • Allen, W.E.D.: A History of the Georgian People, 1932
  • Assatiani, N. and Bendianachvili, A.: Histoire de la Géorgie, Paris, 1997
  • Braund, David: Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC–AD 562. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1994, ISBN 0-19-814473-3.
  • Bremmer, Jan, & Taras, Ray, "New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations",Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • Gvosdev, Nikolas K.: Imperial policies and perspectives towards Georgia: 1760–1819, Macmillan, Basingstoke 2000, ISBN 0-312-22990-9
  • Iosseliani, P.: The Concise History of Georgian Church, 1883
  • Lang, David M.: The last years of the Georgian Monarchy: 1658–1832, Columbia University Press, New York 1957
  • Lang, David M.: The Georgians, 1966
  • Lang, David M.: A Modern History of Georgia, 1962
  • Manvelichvili, A: Histoire de la Georgie, Paris, 1955
  • Salia, K.: A History of the Georgian Nation, Paris, 1983
  • Steele, Jon. "War Junkie: One Man`s Addiction to the Worst Places on Earth" Corgi (2002). ISBN 0-552-14984-5
  • Suny, R.G.: The Making of the Georgian Nation, 2nd Edition, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1994, ISBN 0-253-35579-6

External links

  • , Library of CongressGeorgia - A Country Study
  • List of rulers of Georgia
  • by Dr. Levan Z. UrushadzeKartuli Idea-The Georgian Idea
  • by Dr. Levan Z. Urushadze.- Issued by the International Academy for the Promotion of Historical Studies (IAPHS), 2005The Bagrationi Royal Dynasty of Georgia
  • 2002 Georgia timeline
  • 2003 Georgia timeline
  • 2004 Georgia timeline
  • 2005 Georgia timeline
  • Robert Bedrosian's page of Armenian and Georgian Historical Sources (e.g. The Georgian Chronicle)

King David IV the Builder and Georgian Reconquista

The second half of the 11th century was marked by the strategically significant invasion of the Abkhazia, Svaneti, Racha, and KheviKhevsureti remained out of Seljuq control and served as a relatively safe havens for numerous refugees. The rest of the country was dominated by the conquerors who destroyed the cities and fortresses, looted the villages, and massacred both the aristocracy and the farming population. In fact, by the end of the 1080s, Georgians were outnumbered in the region by the invaders.

The first united Georgian monarchy was formed at the end of the 10th century when Bagrat III inherited the Abkhazian throne. In 1001 Bagrat added Tao-Klarjeti (Curopalatinate of Iberia) to his domain as a result of David's death. In 1008–1010, Bagrat annexed Kakheti and Ereti, thus becoming the first king of a united Georgia in both the east and west.

Georgia during the Byzantine Empire, 1045 AD

The first decades of the 9th century saw the rise of a new Georgian state in Tao-Klarjeti. Ashot Courapalate of the royal family of Bagrationi liberated from the Arabs the territories of former southern Iberia. These included the Principalities of Tao and Klarjeti, and the Earldoms of Shavsheti, Khikhata, Samtskhe, Trialeti, Javakheti and Ashotsi, which were formally a part of the Byzantine Empire, under the name of "Curopalatinate of Iberia". In practice, however, the region functioned as a fully independent country with its capital in Artanuji. The hereditary title of Curopalates was kept by the Bagrationi family, whose representatives ruled Tao-Klarjeti for almost a century. Curopalate David Bagrationi expanded his domain by annexing the city of Theodossiopolis (Karin, Karnukalaki) and the Armenian province of Basiani, and by imposing a protectorate over the Armenian provinces of Kharqi, Apakhuni, Mantsikert, and Khlat, formerly controlled by the Kaysite Arab Emirs.

Bedia Cup of King Bagrat III of Georgia, 999 AD
First King of United Georgia Bagrationi dynasty.

Unification of the Georgian State

Medieval Georgia

During the 4th and most of the 5th centuries, Iberia (known also as the Kingdom of Kartli) was under Arab hegemony in the Caucasus.

However, after the Christianity.[43]

Before Constantine the Great. By the middle of the 4th century though, both Lazica (formerly the Kingdom of Colchis) and Iberia adopted Christianity as their official religion. This adoption of Christianity tied the kingdom to the Byzantine Empire, which exerted strong cultural influence over it.[41]

King state religion in 324.
Bagrationi dynasty, 10th century.

Adoption of Christianity as State Religion

However, in the Peace of Nisibis (298) while the Roman empire obtained control of Caucasian Iberia again as a vassal state and acknowledged the reign over all the Caucasian area, it recognized Mirian III, the first of the Chosroid dynasty, as king of Iberia.

Iberia became a tributary of the Sasanian state during the reign of Shapur I (241-272). Relations between the two countries seem to have been friendly at first, as Iberia cooperated in Persian campaigns against Rome, and the Iberian king Amazasp III (260-265) was listed as a high dignitary of the Sasanian realm, not a vassal who had been subdued by force of arms. But the aggressive tendencies of the Sasanians were evident in their propagation of Zoroastrianism, which was probably established in Iberia between the 260s and 290s.

In the 3rd century AD, the Lazi tribe came to dominate most of Colchis, establishing the kingdom of Lazica, locally known as Egrisi. Colchis was a scene of the protracted rivalry between the Eastern Roman/Byzantine and Sassanid empires, culminating in the Lazic War from 542 to 562.[28]

In the 2nd century AD, Iberia strengthened her position in the area, especially during the reign of King Byzantine Empire.

While the Georgian kingdom of Colchis was administered as a Roman province, Caucasian Iberia freely accepted the Roman Imperial protection. A stone inscription discovered at Mtskheta speaks of the 1st-century ruler Mihdrat I (AD 58–106) as "the friend of the Caesars" and the king "of the Roman-loving Iberians." Emperor Vespasian fortified the ancient Mtskheta site of Arzami for the Iberian kings in 75 AD.

The former Kingdom of Colchis became the Roman province of Parthians and Sassanids who were fighting long wars against each other for the domination in Western Asia including Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Albania, and Iberia.

During this time Armenia and Pontus were actively expanding at the expense of Rome, taking over its Eastern Mediterranean possessions. However, the success of the anti-Roman alliance did not last long. As a result of the brilliant Roman campaigns of Pompey and Lucullus from the west, and the Parthian invasion from the south, Armenia lost a significant part of its conquests by 65 BC, devolving into a Roman-Parthian dependency. At the same time, the Kingdom of Pontus was completely destroyed by the Romans and all its territory including Colchis were incorporated into the Roman Empire as her provinces.

Ashot Kurapalates, first Bagrationi King of Georgia, 829 AD

This close association with Armenia brought upon the country an invasion (65 BC) by the Roman general Pompey, who was then at war with Mithradates VI of Pontus, and Armenia; but Rome did not establish her power permanently over Iberia. Nineteen years later, the Romans again marched (36 BC) on Iberia forcing King Pharnavaz II to join their campaign against Caucasian Albania.[27]

Kingdom of Lazica

The Roman-Iranian rivalry and the Roman conquest of Colchis

Between the early 2nd century BC and the late 2nd century AD both Colchis and Iberia, together with the neighboring countries, became an arena of long and devastating conflicts between major and local powers such as Rome, Armenia and the short-lived Kingdom of Pontus. In 189 BC, the rapidly growing Kingdom of Armenia took over more than half of Iberia, conquering the southern and southeastern provinces of Gogarene, Taokhia and Genyokhia, as well as some other territories. Between 120 and 63 BC, Armenia's ally Mithridate VI Eupator of Pontus conquered all of Colchis and incorporated it into his kingdom, embracing almost all of Asia Minor as well as the eastern and northern Black Sea coastal areas.

At the end of the 4th century BC southern [26]

Between 653 and 333 BC, both Colchis and Iberia survived successive invasions by the Iranian [26]

The Iberia in the Greek-Roman literature) was founded around 300 BC by Parnavaz I, the first ruler of the Parnavazid dynasty.[25]

Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer, Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian (West Georgian) kingdom....It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the earliest Georgian formation.[24]

According to the scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff:

A second Georgian tribal union emerged in the 13th century BC on the Black Sea coast under the Kingdom of Black Sea.[17][18][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Early Georgian States of Colchis and Iberia.

Early Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia


Colchis and in the east as the Kingdom of Iberia.

Kingdom of Diauehi.

In the 1970s, archaeological excavations revealed a number of ancient settlements that included houses with galleries, carbon-dated to the Asia Minor were home to the Kura-Araxes culture, giving way in the second millennium BC. to the Trialeti culture. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of settlements at Beshtasheni and Ozni (4th–3rd millennium BC), and barrow burials (carbon dated to the 2nd millennium BC) in the province of Trialeti, at Tsalka (Eastern Georgia). Together, they testify to an advanced and well-developed culture of building and architecture.

Numerous excavations in tell settlements of the "Sulaveri-Somutepe-Group" have been conducted since the 1960s.[3]

Evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present-day Georgia goes back to c. 1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Neolithic occupation is dated sometime between 6000 and 5000 BC.[3][4][5] known as the Shulaveri-Shomu culture, where people used local obsidian for tools, raised animals such as cattle and pigs, and grew crops, including grapes.[6]

Prehistoric period


  • Prehistoric period 1
  • Antiquity 2
    • Early Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia 2.1
    • The Roman-Iranian rivalry and the Roman conquest of Colchis 2.2
    • Adoption of Christianity as State Religion 2.3
  • Medieval Georgia 3
    • Unification of the Georgian State 3.1
    • King David IV the Builder and Georgian Reconquista 3.2
    • Queen Tamar the Great and the Golden Age 1184–1213 3.3
    • Mongol invasion and decline of the Georgian Kingdom 3.4
  • Early modern period 4
    • Ottoman and Iranian domination 4.1
    • The 18th and 19th century: from a mainly Iranian-centred theatre to Russian annexation 4.2
  • Modern history 5
    • Russian Empire 5.1
      • Growth of the national movement 5.1.1
    • Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921) 5.2
      • Georgian-Armenian War (1918) 5.2.1
      • Red Army invasion (1921) 5.2.2
    • Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1990) 5.3
    • Independent Georgia 5.4
      • Gamsakhurdia presidency (1991-1992) 5.4.1
      • Shevardnadze presidency (1992–2003) 5.4.2
      • Saakashvili presidency (2004-2013) 5.4.3
      • Margvelashvili presidency (2013-present) 5.4.4
  • See also 6
  • Further reading 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.