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Grade II* listed buildings in Brighton and Hove

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Title: Grade II* listed buildings in Brighton and Hove  
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Subject: Buildings and architecture of Brighton and Hove, Grade II* listed buildings in East Sussex, West Blatchington Windmill, Saltdean Lido, Grade I listed buildings in Brighton and Hove
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Grade II* listed buildings in Brighton and Hove

The north side of Regency Square, a "set piece" by prolific local architects Amon Wilds and his son, displays typical features of Brighton's 19th-century residential development: verandas, stucco, pediments and bow-fronts.[1]
Mathematical tiles—glazed black tiles, laid to resemble brickwork—are another characteristic local feature. Patcham Place, built in 1764, is faced with them.[2]

There are 70 Grade II* listed buildings in the city of Brighton and Hove, England. The city, on the English Channel coast approximately 52 miles (84 km) south of London, was formed as a unitary authority in 1997 by the merger of the neighbouring towns of Brighton and Hove. Queen Elizabeth II granted city status in 2000.

In England, a building or structure is defined as "listed" when it is placed on a statutory register of buildings of "special architectural or historic interest" by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, a Government department, in accordance with the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990.[3] English Heritage, a non-departmental public body, acts as an agency of this department to administer the process and advise the department on relevant issues.[4] There are three grades of listing status. Grade I, the highest, is defined as being of "exceptional interest"; Grade II* is used for "particularly important buildings of more than special interest"; and Grade II, the lowest, is used for buildings of "special interest".[5]

Brighton was founded on top of the sea-facing cliffs where the South Downs meet the English Channel. A series of valleys allowed transport routes to develop towards Lewes, London and other important settlements. Although Neolithic settlement has been confirmed, the Anglo-Saxons were the first permanent settlers; the population was about 400 by the time of the Domesday survey in 1086.[6] Its neighbour Hove, on flatter, more fertile land to the west, developed concurrently but independently: its existence was recorded in 1288,[7] and two separate prebends (similar to benefices) existed by 1291.[8] Fishing, farming and smuggling drove the economy,[9] but decline set in during the Middle Ages and persisted until the 19th century. Coastal flooding destroyed buildings on many occasions, the parish church fell into ruins, and the population—almost all poor—numbered about 100 in 1801.[7][10][11]

Brighton became fashionable as a holiday destination and health resort in the mid-18th century, and royal patronage (particularly by the flamboyant Prince Regent) increased its popularity with high society and the upper classes. Day-trippers and longer-term visitors from other social classes soon followed, and by the early 19th century the town was Britain's foremost seaside resort.[12][13] Developments such as Royal Crescent, Regency Square, Oriental Place and Park Crescent characterised the bold architectural vision of the town's new residents; the design triumvirate of Amon Wilds, Amon Henry Wilds and Charles Busby were instrumental in realising these plans.[14] Hove's fortunes improved in line with Brighton's success, and developments such as Palmeira Mansions and Sir Isaac Goldsmid's Adelaide Crescent covered the fields between the ancient village of Hove and Brighton's continuous westward expansion.[11][15][16]

The Vicar of Brighton, Rev. Henry Michell Wagner—a wealthy, progressive clergyman with strong Anglo-Catholic views and an interest in architecture—and his son and successor Rev. Arthur Wagner were responsible for an array of new churches throughout Brighton and Hove (especially in poorer residential areas); many are listed at Grade I, and the Grade II*-listed examples of St Martin's and St Paul's merely add to a stock of Victorian places of worship which has been described as one of the best outside London.[17] Elsewhere during the Victorian era, the former parish churches of both Brighton and Hove were rebuilt; an elaborate synagogue was provided for the Jewish population; Roman Catholic worship became established at the Classical-style St John the Baptist's Church; a new parish church was established in the form of Charles Barry's St Peter's; and several other churches were established.[18][19][20]

Both towns were incorporated as boroughs: Brighton in 1854,[21] Hove in 1898.[11] Expansion in the 20th century, as the urban area became a large regional centre, resulted in ancient villages being absorbed into the boroughs. Hangleton, West Blatchington, Ovingdean, Rottingdean and others had historic buildings and long-established churches of their own; by 1928, Acts of Parliament had brought them into "Greater Brighton and Hove".[11][21] In 1997, the towns were officially united as a unitary authority;[22] three years later, city status was secured.[23]

Some listings include contributory fixtures such as surrounding walls or railings in front of the building. These are summarised by notes alongside the building name.

Listed buildings

Name Image Completed Location Notes Refs
All Saints Church 12th century Patcham
The present nave and parts of the chancel remain from the Norman-era church, which replaced a pre-Domesday place of worship on the same site in this downland village (absorbed into the Borough of Brighton in 1928). A wall painting depicting the Last Judgment has been dated to about 1230. The church was heavily restored in the Victorian era. [24][25]
Portslade Manor 12th century Portslade
The manor of Portslade existed before the Domesday survey of 1086, and the modest remains of a Norman manor house stand next to St Nicolas Church. The two-storey rubble and flint structure was extensively plundered in the Victorian era to provide material for imitation ruins nearby, but two 12th-century round-headed windows remain. [27][28]
St Margaret's Church 12th century Rottingdean
Rottingdean's parish church, damaged by French raiders in 1377, has a George Gilbert Scott was commissioned to restore it in 1856. [30][31]
St Nicolas Church 12th century Portslade
The village of Portslade, on a Roman road, has a Norman church with subsequent remodelling and extensions: a typical Sussex church, according to Pevsner. A memorial chapel for the locally important Brackenbury family was built in knapped flint in the 1870s; the rest of the church is flint rubble with some Caen stone. [33][34]
St Peter's Church 13th century Preston Village
The Churches Conservation Trust now own Preston's medieval parish church, which was superseded by the nearby St John the Evangelist's Church after a fire in 1906. St Peter's is the third church to have stood on the site. The chancel, nave and tower (with its "Sussex cap" roof) date from about 1260, but the vestry and porch were added during architect James Woodman's 1872 restoration. [37][38]
St Helen's Church c. 1300 Hangleton
Pevsner described this formerly isolated downland village church as standing "mellow and humble in [the] desperate surroundings" of the postwar Hangleton housing estate. The Norman building was unchanged until a modest restoration in 1871, and only became part of the Borough of Hove in 1928. It is of flint with Caen stone quoins, and has wall paintings, blocked doorways and a hagioscope. [44][45]
St Nicholas' Church 14th century West Hill
Until the Chapel Royal was built in the late 18th century, this was Brighton's only Anglican church. The present building—mostly 14th-century, but restored by Richard Cromwell Carpenter in 1853—succeeded an 11th-century predecessor. It survived French raiders and storms, and retains some medieval work (especially in the castellated tower). It lost its parish church status to St Peter's in 1873. [48][49]
Hangleton Manor Inn and The Old Manor House c. 1550 Hangleton
Hove's oldest secular building, the former manor house of Hangleton, is now a restaurant and bar. Most parts are mid 16th-century—after Lewes Priory was demolished in 1537, some of its flints were used in the building—but one doorway is a century older, and the western wing probably matches the dimensions of the 14th-century building. An allegedly haunted 17th-century dovecote remains outside. [26][54]
Old Farmhouse 1619 Rottingdean
This is joined to the later Down House: it extends from its rear to form an L-shape, and is hidden behind it. The construction date is attested by a stone set into the east face. It is of flint with quoins and other dressings of red brick and a roof laid with tiles. [58]
Hillside 1724 Rottingdean
This red- and blue-brick house, with five windows at first-floor level and four surrounding a prominent porch with Doric/Tuscan columns, has a date-stone showing 1724. There are chimneys at each end of the slate-clad roof. An extension projects westwards. [59][60]
Former stables of Stanmer House c. 1725 Stanmer
The yellow- and red-brick and flint stable block surrounds a courtyard in the grounds of the Grade I-listed Stanmer House. Alterations in 1778 and the 19th century changed the appearance and increased the hay-storage capacity. An arched entrance leads into the courtyard. The slate roof has some dormer windows. [61][62]
Down House 1730 Rottingdean
This brick and flint house of six bays was built perpendicular to The Old Farmhouse, facing Rottingdean village green. The façade was built in 1730, but some structural work is 40 years older. The entrance is arched, topped by a pediment and flanked by Doric columns. All windows are sashes. [59][64]
Preston Manor[C] 1738 Preston Village
Thomas Western rebuilt the old manor house in 1738, but parts of the medieval building remain inside. There are later 18th-century additions as well; and in 1905 C. Stanley Peach was commissioned to and remodel the building in an Edwardian style. It is now owned by the council, and its preserved Edwardian interior is on public display. The main façade has five bays. [38][65]
Patcham Place 1764 Patcham
This has its origins in William West's building of 1554, but John Payne's wholesale reconstruction of 1764 gave the building its present appearance. The walls of the seven-bay house have glazed black mathematical tiles, and there are wooden quoins and a Tuscan-columned pedimented doorway. The building was the city's Youth Hostel, but this use has ceased. [2][36]
First Base Day Centre (formerly St Stephen's Church) 1766 Montpelier
Prince Regent's private chapel, and was later claimed by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, taken down, moved a mile across Brighton and rebuilt as a parish church. Since its closure in 1939 it has had various uses; it is now a day-care centre for vulnerable people. [71][72]
Old Ship Assembly Rooms 1767 Brighton
The Old Ship Hotel, the oldest inn in Brighton, was established around 1600, but its popularity grew when the Adamesque assembly room was added in 1767 by Robert Golden. Only the card-room part of his design survives unchanged; the ballroom and coffee room have been altered. The stuccoed seafront façade dates from about 1895. [79][80]
North Gate House[B] c. 1774 Brighton
This three-storey building, now used as an administrative building, is the only surviving part of a terrace of nine houses built in about 1774. The rest were demolished when the area around the Royal Pavilion was redeveloped in the 1820s. It has flint, brick and stucco work, and ogive arches are used as a stylistic theme. It was extended and refurbished for Princess Augusta Sophia in 1832. [83][84]
Chapel Royal 1793 Brighton
The patronage of the Prince Regent was vital to Brighton's early development, but he attended church infrequently—preferring to socialise than travel the long distance from the Royal Pavilion to St Nicholas' Church. The Vicar of Brighton arranged for a new church to be built nearer the Pavilion accordingly. Thomas Saunders' stuccoed chapel was remodelled in red brick and terracotta by Arthur Blomfield in 1882, who also added the corner clock tower. [86][87]
9 Pool Valley[A] 1794 Brighton
A pool was built over in 1792–93, and the road called Pool Valley was quickly developed. The oldest surviving house, and one of the oldest in Brighton, was used as a bun shop until the mid-20th century, and still has a shopfront on the ground floor. A hipped roof, black mathematical tiles and first-floor bay windows are also visible. Harry Stuart Goodhart-Rendel called it a "charming relic". [79][90]
Court House and 1 and 2 Court House Close 18th century Rottingdean
This flint-built house used to be a farmhouse. It has dressings of red brick, a five-window range, five bays and a porch with a decorative frieze as part of its entablature, which is supported on chamfers resting on columns. There is also some stucco work, and the roof is tiled. [59][93]
Southdown House[B] 18th century Patcham
This that era, but its exact date is not recorded. The main building material is knapped flint; brick quoins and some cobblestones are also used. There is a five-window range on the façade, and three dormer windows and two chimneys project from the tiled roof. Many features inside are original, including a newel staircase with a mahogany handrail. [36][94]
Brighton Museum and Art Gallery[C] 1804 Brighton
This is part of the Brighton Dome complex, in which the Corn Exchange and Dome are listed at Grade I. William Porden's former stables, built for the Prince Regent's Royal Pavilion, were remodelled several times in the 19th century, and latterly by Francis May (the Brighton Corporation surveyor and architect) in 1901–02. He introduced a Hindoo style reminiscent of the Royal Pavilion itself. The interior is Moorish Revival. [96][97]
1–14 Royal Crescent[C] 1807 Brighton
Brighton's first planned architectural set-piece, this terrace of lodging houses formed its eastern boundary until 1820. The Classical-style houses, built speculatively by rich merchant J.B. Otto in an isolated clifftop location, have bay windows, balustrades, verandas on the second of four storeys, black mathematical tiles and a timber-framed structure filled with brick. [99][100]
Ovingdean Rectory 1807 Ovingdean
Ovingdean's former rectory stands next to St Wulfran's Church and the village green. It is primarily of brick, but cobblestones cover the façade, which also has four windows on the first floor and a Tuscan-columned porch below. There are also dormer windows and chimneys. [104][105]
2–4 Regency Square[C] c. 1818 Brighton
Forming the southwest part of the square, this part of the terrace has four storeys. Number 2, a former home of social reformer William King, is built of brick; the others are stuccoed. The entrance porches have both Doric and Ionic columns. [106][107]
5–20 Regency Square[C] c. 1818 Brighton
The west side of the square is formed by this long terrace of houses of mixed height: numbers 5 to 13 have four storeys, while 14 to 20 rise to three storeys. Most combine stucco at ground level with painted brickwork above, but four houses are entirely stuccoed. The windows show variety as well, although a three-window range is the commonest layout. Features include triglyphs, modillions and paterae (circular motifs). [107][108]
26–37 Regency Square[C] c. 1818 Brighton
The terrace of houses on Regency Square's north side face the sea across the sloping gardens. The central block, numbers 30 to 33, are topped by a wide pediment on which regency square is picked out in black. Numbers 26 to 29 and 34 to 37 have single-window ranges to each house and form subordinate wings. Porches vary from Ionic to Doric. [107][108]
51–56 Regency Square[C] c. 1818 Brighton
This terrace is a three-part composition: numbers 53 and 54 stand forward slightly. Like most of the other houses in the square, the façades are of painted brick and stucco, and the roofs are tiled with slate. All six houses rise to four storeys. [107][108]
57–59 Regency Square[C] c. 1818 Brighton
This terrace is no longer symmetrical but was probably built to be. Numbers 58 and 59 are five storeys high; number 57, former home of Somers Clarke, has its four floors augmented by attic space with dormer windows in its mansard roof. All three have porches with Ionic columns. [107][108]
60–66 Regency Square[C] c. 1818 Brighton
These houses were planned as a symmetrical terrace. The outer two houses on each side (60, 61, 65 and 66) have four storeys, mansard roofs and dormers, and are slightly recessed. Numbers 62 to 64 rise to five storeys and sit below a panelled parapet topped by a slim pediment. Ionic porches enclose round-arched doors with fanlights. [107][108]
West Blatchington Windmill c. 1820 West Blatchington
Pevsner found this structure "eminently curious" and incorrectly dated it to 1724. It is now known to be of 1820s vintage, and was painted by John Constable during that decade. The smock mill's sails sit on top of an L-shaped barn which houses the machinery. Milling stopped in 1907, and it has been open for public visits since 1976. [116][117]
Royal Albion Hotel[B] 1826 Brighton
Richard Russell, a Lewes-based doctor whose praise of sea-bathing and "water treatment" helped Brighton's early growth, built his house facing Old Steine in about 1752. Russell House, as it became, was demolished in 1826 when Amon Henry Wilds built the first part of a hotel which has since been extended several times. The four- and five-storey stuccoed façade has columns and pilasters. A fire in 1998 caused severe damage. [79][120]
1–18 Oriental Place[C] 1827 Brighton
Amon Henry Wilds started work on this terrace in 1825 in association with landscape gardener Henry Phillips, whose grand plans for gardens and a giant conservatory nearby foundered when money ran out. The stuccoed terrace has a long parapet and pediments. [125][126]
19–35 Oriental Place[C] 1827 Brighton
Like its counterpart on the west side of the narrow street, the east side of Oriental Place consists of a long row of houses with a cast-iron balcony spanning the whole terrace at first-floor level. Wilds's signature motif, the ammonite capital, appears at second-floor level on top of large pilasters. [125][127]
St Peter's Church 1828 Brighton
The young, little-known Charles Barry won a competition to design a new Anglican church to relieve pressure on St Nicholas' Church and to serve a rapidly growing area of Brighton described as "the entrance to the town". His Gothic Revival proposal beat nearly 80 rival entries, and was completed in 1828. The tower has tall, spindly pinnacles. Somers Clarke added to the nave between 1889 and 1906, and Charles Eamer Kempe provided much stained glasswork. Structural problems and declining attendances threatened redundancy, but in 2009 a church plant was established in the building, improving its viability. [128][129]
Western Pavilion[C] 1828 Brighton
Amon Henry Wilds built most of Western Terrace, including the exotic house at its north end: it was his home from 1828. He incorporated Hindoo and Indo-Saracenic elements: the design mimics the Royal Pavilion's onion dome and other features (Pevsner called it the Royal Pavilion's baby brother). The stucco building has a lead roof. The north façade to Western Road has housed a ground-floor shop since 1957. [134][135]
131 King's Road 1830 Brighton
Formerly number 1 Regency Square, this was built slightly later than its neighbours and was remodelled as a shop and restaurant in about 1900. It was originally called St Albans House: Amon Henry Wilds built it for the Duke and Duchess of St Albans. A large riding school used to be attached at the rear. The building rises to five storeys, and presents a five-window façade to Regency Square and three towards the sea and King's Road. [108][138]
Walls, ramps and stairways on south front of Adelaide Crescent c. 1830 Hove
These structures were part of the crescent's original design, and were built early in the scheme's life. They were needed because the site sloped downwards from north to south and had to be flattened and artificially raised above the level of the seafront road before the houses could be built. Rusticated stucco walls with balusters enclose the ramps and steps. [140]
North Gate of the Royal Pavilion[C] 1832 Brighton
This decorative archway stands at the Church Road entrance to the Royal Pavilion's gardens, and was built in the style of the Pavilion in 1832 by William Good—probably with guidance from John Nash, the Pavilion's designer. The stone structure (both Bath and Portland stone are used) supports a copper onion dome. A scalloped ogive arch forms the gateway. Two identical wings adjoining the main structure have octagonal pilasters and Tuscan-style columns which end with oval finials. [83][141]
St Andrew's Church 1834 Hove
This had been Hove's Norman style—although the chancel is Early English Gothic-style. All Saints Church became the parish church in 1892. [52][144]
St John the Baptist's Church 1835 Kemptown
William Hallett—later the Mayor of Brighton—is not known to have designed any buildings other than this early Roman Catholic church, Brighton's first. The Classical-style stuccoed structure has a large pediment supported by Corinthian columns. John Edward Carew provided a Baroque-style sculpture for the interior. [148][149]
Brighton railway station[D] 1841 Brighton
David Mocatta's two-storey stuccoed Italianate station building of September 1841 is partly hidden by H.E. Wallis's road-facing gabled canopy of 1882–83. Wallis also designed the soaring three-bay train shed roofs—597 feet (182 m) long, of iron with some timber framing and glass, and supported on octagonal iron columns. Continuous growth has necessitated many extensions and alterations. [151][152]
London Road viaduct 1846 Round Hill
The L&BR's proposed railway route from Brighton to Newhaven had to negotiate the fields of a steep north–south valley. John Urpeth Rastrick's solution was a sharply curving, 1,200-foot (370 m) long, 67-foot (20 m) high viaduct with 27 arches. It has about 10 million red and brown bricks, and is topped by a balustrade with stone balusters. Dense housing now surrounds it. [155][156]
7–31 Montpelier Crescent[E] 1847 Montpelier
Amon Henry Wilds started work on this wide, inland-facing development in 1843. It was not treated as a single design: instead, individual villas were designed in stages (probably starting from the centre) and then connected. Pediments, Corinthian pilasters and stucco work give a Regency flavour. [159][160]
St Paul's Church[F] 1848 Brighton
Between them, Rev. narthex in 1874, and a rood screen. The Decorated Gothic building is of knapped flint with some brick and stonework. Arthur Wagner was the incumbent here for 52 years until his death in 1902. [161][162]
1–16 Park Crescent[B] 1854 Round Hill
Local businessman James Ireland laid out a speculative pleasure garden and cricket pitch, the Royal Gardens and Royal New Ground, next to the Lewes Road. The venture failed, and Amon Henry Wilds started work on a high-class horseshoe-shaped set of terraces on the land. The former cricket pitch became its private garden. The western side of the terrace has houses of two and three storeys, each with a three-window range. [165][166]
17–24 and 26–32 Park Crescent 1854 Round Hill
The curved north side of Park Crescent has three-storey houses throughout. Number 25 no longer exists: a World War II bomb destroyed 24–26, and they were rebuilt in a matching style as two houses (omitting number 25) in 1983. Features common to each house include stucco walls, slate roofs, three-window ranges, architraves with mouldings, pairs of chimneys and recessed entrance bays demarcated by quoins. [165][166]
33–48 Park Crescent[C] 1854 Round Hill
The east side of the terrace matches the west: the houses are treated as individual villas from the front (the Lewes Road façade), but to the rear they appear to form one continuous structure, with a flat wall facing the garden. They took several years to complete. Three sash windows, recessed entrances, bracketed eaves, stucco walls and slate roofs are the standard features. [165][166]
1–19 Adelaide Crescent[G] 1860 Hove
Sir Isaac Goldsmid, a banker and philanthropist, asked Decimus Burton to design a crescent of houses on his recently acquired seafront land in 1830. Plans were exhibited in 1831, and numbers 1–8 were complete by 1834, but the scheme foundered and the Renaissance Revival designs were simplified and eventually executed between 1850 and 1860. [171][172]
20–38 Adelaide Crescent[G] 1860 Hove
The delays caused Goldsmid to reconsider his proposal, and the crescent was fashioned into an open-ended square instead. Its west side, built between 1850 and 1860, is slightly more austere than its eastern counterpart and has no sea-facing terrace to set off its south end. The designs of its porches are also different. [172][173]
Boiler and Engine House at British Engineerium (formerly Goldstone Pumping Station) 1866 West Blatchington
The Brighton Water Company bought 3.5 acres (1.4 ha) of land at Goldstone Bottom in 1862, and built a pumping station and associated structures four years later. The beam engine supplied 150,000 imperial gallons (680,000 l) per hour. The multicoloured brick structure went out of use in the 1940s and was saved from demolition in 1971. The building has three bays; the end pair are two-storey and have gabled roofs. [176][177]
Chimney at British Engineerium (formerly Goldstone Pumping Station) 1866 West Blatchington
This elaborate structure is now, like the former engine house which stands about 6.5 feet (2.0 m) to the north, part of the British Engineerium museum complex (opened in 1976). The chimney tapers from a red-brick plinth and rises to 95 feet (29 m). Polychromatic brickwork is again used, and intricate external details include recessed, round-arched sections on each face, an entablature and a cornice with decorative moulding. [178][179]
Middle Street Synagogue[H] 1874 The Lanes
In 1874, Thomas Lainson won a competition to design a new, larger synagogue for Brighton—the fourth in the town since Emmanuel Hyam Cohen established one in 1792. Pale yellow and brown local brick around an iron frame, stone dressings, multicoloured tiling, columns of sandstone, a pediment-style gable above a substantial cornice and a rose window combine to give an opulent Italian Renaissance/Neo-Byzantine Revival appearance. As of 2015 it is closed and undergoing renovation. [180][181]
St Martin's Church 1875 Round Hill
Designed by Preston Barracks—hence the dedication to the patron saint of soldiers, Martin of Tours. The large yellow- and red-brick Early English-style church has only a bellcote; a tower was planned but never built. [187][188]
St Mary the Virgin Church 1879 Kemptown
Sussex church historian Robert Elleray described the interior of the present church as "one of the best in Sussex". It replaced Amon Henry Wilds's Temple of Nemesis-mimicking Neoclassical structure of 1826, which collapsed during renovations in 1876. Sir William Emerson's only English church—he worked mostly in India—combines the Early English and French Gothic styles. [191][192]
St Barnabas Church 1883 Hove
John Loughborough Pearson's knapped flint and brick Early English Gothic-style Anglican church was built at the Vicar of Brighton's request to serve a rapidly growing residential area in Hove. Features include a many-sided apse, a Lady chapel and a flèche. [196][197]
33 Palmeira Mansions 1884 Hove
H.J. Lanchester's twin blocks of four-storey Italianate houses form the north side of Palmeira Square, named after Sir Isaac Goldsmid (Baron Palmeira). Number 33 is remarkable for its extremely ornate interior: marble inlaid walls, stained glass, fittings in an array of styles (Adamesque, Rococo, Moorish and others) and large areas of lincrusta, all added by ink-company owner A.W. Mason after he bought it in 1889. [174][199]
St Peter's Church 1890 West Blatchington
Originally an 11th-century parish church for a downland village which vanished, this was rebuilt in 1890 by Somers Clarke, a local architect, after a resident left money in her will. Saxon and Norman remains were incorporated into the new building. Another extension was built in 1961–62 after West Blatchington became another housing estate. [201][202]
52–58 Middle Street (Former Brighton Hippodrome) 1897 The Lanes
This stuccoed building, with a Rococo and Middle Eastern-style interior, began as an ice rink, but in 1901 Frank Matcham converted it into a variety theatre and circus. The Rolling Stones and Beatles played there in the same month in 1964. Soon afterwards the building became a television studio then a bingo hall, and a flat floor was inserted; but the original U-shaped auditorium is still visible. [182][183]
Palace Pier 1899 Brighton
The only surviving pier in Brighton, this 1,760-foot (540 m) structure replaced the wrecked pagoda-style roofs and a funfair. [206][207]
St Joseph's Church[I] 1906 Elm Grove
Young architect William Kedo Broder submitted elaborate plans for this Roman Catholic church, endowed by a widow who wanted a permanent building to replace the area's 1860s mission chapel. He built the chancel and nave in 1880, but his death in a railway accident in 1881 led to his ideas being reinterpreted and scaled back by other architects. Joseph S. Hansom (1881–83) and Frederick Walters (1906) finished the church, which is a commanding rag-stone and Bath Stone Early English-style structure. [210][211]
Embassy Court 1935 Brighton
This seafront landmark replaced one of the last remaining private houses on King's Road, which was demolished in 1935. Wells Coates, whose Modernist Isokon building of 1934 aroused fascination in London, adopted a similar theme on a larger scale in Brighton: the eleven-storey block, with strong horizontal lines enhanced by the restored pale cream render on the exterior, has 72 flats. Its proximity to the Regency architecture of Brunswick Town was controversial. [215][216]
Saltdean Lido 1938 Saltdean
Designed by Richard W.H. Jones in 1937–38 and now threatened with demolition for flats, this innovative lido was listed at Grade II in 1987 and upgraded to Grade II* on 18 March 2011. Jones also designed the nearby Ocean Hotel in a similar Art Deco/Moderne style. Julie Burchill called it "the most beautiful building in Britain", but it closed and reopened several times before the latest redevelopment plans were announced in 2010. [219][220]
Pevensey Building 1962 University of Sussex
Sir Basil Spence, designer of most of the University of Sussex's buildings, used the Stoa of Attalos as his inspiration for this early building, used for mathematics and physics. The eleven-bay, three-storey brick and concrete-arched structure has a recessed ground floor, forming an undercroft. The windows are timber-framed. [223][224]
Chichester Building 1965 University of Sussex
Started by Spence in 1962, the Chichester Building is used by the chemistry department. The materials are similar to those of the Pevensey Building, but the façade has ten bays and a prominent entrance staircase. The attached lecture theatre is a plain, nearly circular drum. [223][225]
Meeting House[J] 1966 University of Sussex
A wall of coloured glass, enveloped in a skin of concrete blocks with large gaps, provides light to the interior of Spence's circular non-denominational religious building, which is of brick and concrete and has a flattened cone-shaped copper roof. The design is a simplified version of his original proposal, which the council's planners rejected. It was registered for marriages in January 1967. [226][227]
Engineering and Applied Sciences Building 1966 University of Sussex
Construction of this block, with an attached workshop now converted into another lecture hall, started in 1964. The three-storey, flat-roofed, brick and concrete structure has an 11-bay façade and an arcade on the south side. [223][230]
Arts Building A and B[K] 1966 University of Sussex
The entrance to Arts A is defined by two tall concrete pillars, and brick and concrete are the main building materials. A courtyard with brick cloisters and a sunken pool sits between Arts A and B. The windows are timber-framed. [223][231]
Gardner Arts Centre[L] 1969 University of Sussex
The centre closed in 2007 when money ran out, but it is to be reopened as the Attenborough Centre for the Creative Arts. The Gulbenkian Foundation helped to fund its construction, which started in 1966. Spence's design consisted of three windowless red-brick rings; the innermost ring formed an auditorium. [226][232]
University of Sussex Library 1971 University of Sussex
Work started in 1962, but Spence did not complete this building until nine years later. An extension was added in 1997. A concrete staircase (left of the centre) leads to the entrance, recessed behind projecting brickwork which forms a "gateway". Three buttresses project from the 15-bay façade. [226][236]

See also



A. 1 This listing includes attached walls and a light standard.
B. 1 2 3 4 This listing includes attached walls, piers and railings.
C. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 This listing includes attached railings.
D. 1 This listing includes the train sheds.
E. 1 This listing includes attached gates, walls, piers and railings.
F. 1 This listing includes attached walls.
G. 1 2 This listing includes attached walls and railings.
H. 1 This listing includes the attached gate.
I. 1 This listing includes attached steps and walls.
J. 1 This listing includes kerbstones surrounding the moat.
K. 1 This listing includes the courtyard pool.
L. 1 This listing includes kerbstones to the pool.


  1. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 104–105.
  2. ^ a b Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 6.
  3. ^ "Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 (c. 9)". The UK Statute Law Database. Ministry of Justice. 24 May 1990. Retrieved 14 January 2010. 
  4. ^ "History of English Heritage".  
  5. ^ "Listed Buildings".  
  6. ^ Carder 1990, §17.
  7. ^ a b Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 193.
  8. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 8.
  9. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 1.
  10. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 15.
  11. ^ a b c d Salzman, L. F. (ed) (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Hove". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 265–268. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  12. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 5–10.
  13. ^ Carder 1990, §15.
  14. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, pp. 12–16.
  15. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 193–197.
  16. ^ Middleton 1979, pp. 43–47.
  17. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 15–16.
  18. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 16.
  19. ^ Carder 1990, §150.
  20. ^ Salzman, L. F. (ed) (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. The Borough of Brighton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 244–263. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  21. ^ a b Carder 1990, §13.
  22. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 3.
  23. ^ "Our city by the sea".  
  24. ^ "Detailed record: Church of All Saints, Church Hill (east side), Brighton".  
  25. ^ Dale 1989, p. 201.
  26. ^ a b Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 458.
  27. ^ "Detailed Record: Remains of medieval manorhouse, about 150m West of St Mary's Convent, Manor Road (west side), Hove".  
  28. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 213.
  29. ^ Salzman, L. F. (ed) (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. Portslade". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 282–286. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  30. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St Margaret, The Green (east side), Brighton".  
  31. ^ Dale 1989, pp. 208–211.
  32. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, pp. 592–593.
  33. ^ "Detailed record, Church of St Nicolas, South Street, Hove".  
  34. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 212.
  35. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 218.
  36. ^ a b c Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 459.
  37. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St Peter and attached walls, Preston Drove, Brighton".  
  38. ^ a b Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 460.
  39. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 205–206.
  40. ^ Whiteman & Whiteman 1998, p. 126.
  41. ^ Carder 1990, §131.
  42. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 107.
  43. ^ Dale 1989, p. 197.
  44. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, pp. 457–458.
  45. ^ "Detailed Record: Church of St Helen, Hangleton Way (west side), Hove".  
  46. ^ Dale 1989, pp. 224–225.
  47. ^ Middleton 2002, Vol. 12, p. 79.
  48. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St Nicholas of Myra, Dyke Road (east side), Brighton".  
  49. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 94.
  50. ^ Musgrave 1981, pp. 24–26.
  51. ^ Dale 1989, p. 1.
  52. ^ a b Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 195.
  53. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 158–160.
  54. ^ "Detailed Record: Hangleton Manor Inn and The Old Manor House, Hangleton Valley Drive (east side), Hove".  
  55. ^ Salzman, L. F. (ed) (1940). "A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7 – The Rape of Lewes. Hangleton". Victoria County History of Sussex. British History Online. pp. 277–281. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  56. ^ Middleton 1979, pp. 209–212.
  57. ^ Stuart 2005, p. 87.
  58. ^ "Detailed Record: The Old Farmhouse, The Green (north side), Brighton".  
  59. ^ a b c Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 593.
  60. ^ "Detailed Record: Hillside, The Green (west side), Brighton".  
  61. ^ "Detailed Record: The former stables of Stanmer House, Stanmer Park, Brighton".  
  62. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 210.
  63. ^ Carder 1990, §175.
  64. ^ "Detailed Record: Down House, The Green (north side), Brighton".  
  65. ^ "Detailed record: Preston Manor and attached railings, Preston Drove (south side), Brighton".  
  66. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 205.
  67. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 108.
  68. ^ "Detailed Record: Patcham Place, London Road (south west side), Brighton".  
  69. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 111.
  70. ^ "Giving new lives to old buildings". Brighton and Hove City Council. November 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  71. ^ "Detailed record: First Base Day Centre, Montpelier Place (north side), Brighton".  
  72. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 452.
  73. ^ Elleray 2004, p. 9.
  74. ^ Berry 2005, p. 27.
  75. ^ Berry 2005, p. 39.
  76. ^ Musgrave 1981, p. 282.
  77. ^ Dale 1989, p. 105.
  78. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 171.
  79. ^ a b c Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 446.
  80. ^ "Detailed record: Old Ship Assembly Rooms, 73 Ship Street, Brighton".  
  81. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 97.
  82. ^ Carder 1990, §113.
  83. ^ a b Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 42.
  84. ^ a b Carder 1990, §161.
  85. ^ "Detailed record: North Gatehouse and attached walls, piers and railings, Church Street (south side), Brighton".  
  86. ^ "Detailed record: The Chapel Royal, North Street (north side), Brighton".  
  87. ^ Dale 1989, pp. 23–29.
  88. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 165.
  89. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 431.
  90. ^ Carder 1990, §125.
  91. ^ "Detailed Record: No. 9 and attached walls and light standard to rear, Pool Valley (north side), Brighton".  
  92. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 71.
  93. ^ "Detailed Record: Court House and Nos. 1 and 2 Court House Close, The Green (north side), Brighton".  
  94. ^ "Detailed Record: No. 51 Southdown House and attached walls, piers and railings, Old London Road (south west side), Brighton".  
  95. ^ Carder 1990, §122.
  96. ^ "Detailed record: Museum, Art Gallery and Public Library and attached railings, Church Street (south side), Brighton".  
  97. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 24, 44–47.
  98. ^ Carder 1990, §106.
  99. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 1–14 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Royal Crescent (north side), Brighton".  
  100. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 133–134.
  101. ^ Gilbert 1975, pp. 95, 98.
  102. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 65.
  103. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 448.
  104. ^ "Detailed record: Ovingdean Rectory, Greenways (west side), Brighton".  
  105. ^ Carder 1990, §116.
  106. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 2, 3 and 4 and attached railings, Regency Square (west side), Brighton".  
  107. ^ a b c d e f Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 12–13, 104–105.
  108. ^ a b c d e f g Carder 1990, §148.
  109. ^ a b c d e f Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 82.
  110. ^ a b c d e f Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 450.
  111. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 5–20 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Regency Square (west side), Brighton".  
  112. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 26–37 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Regency Square (north side), Brighton".  
  113. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 51–56 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Regency Square (east side), Brighton".  
  114. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 57, 58 and 59 and attached railings, Regency Square (east side), Brighton".  
  115. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 60–66 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Regency Square (east side), Brighton".  
  116. ^ a b Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 461.
  117. ^ "Detailed Record: West Blatchington Windmill, Holmes Avenue, Hove".  
  118. ^ Carder 1990, §202.
  119. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 119.
  120. ^ "Heritage Gateway Listed Buildings Online — The Royal Albion Hotel and attached walls, piers and railings, Old Steine (south side), Brighton". Heritage Gateway website. Heritage Gateway ( 
  121. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, pp. 78–79.
  122. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 69.
  123. ^ Berry 2005, p. 22.
  124. ^ "Fire rips through hotel".  
  125. ^ a b Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 106–107.
  126. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 1–18 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Oriental Place (west side), Brighton".  
  127. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 19–35 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Oriental Place (east side), Brighton".  
  128. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St Peter (Brighton Parish Church), St Peter's Place, Brighton".  
  129. ^ Hamilton Maugham 1922, p. 17.
  130. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 88–90.
  131. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 437.
  132. ^ "Two weeks to save church".  
  133. ^ "Brighton's St Peter's Church saved".  
  134. ^ "Detailed record: The Western Pavilion and attached railings, 9 Western Terrace (east side), Brighton".  
  135. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 111.
  136. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 451.
  137. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 91.
  138. ^ "Detailed record: 131 King's Road (north side), Brighton".  
  139. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, pp. 82–83.
  140. ^ "Detailed record: Walls, ramps and stairways on South front of terrace, Adelaide Crescent (south side), Hove".  
  141. ^ "Detailed record: North Gate of the Royal Pavilion and attached railings, Church Street (south side), Brighton".  
  142. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 31.
  143. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 442.
  144. ^ "Detailed Record: Church of St Andrew, Church Road (north side), Hove".  
  145. ^ Dale 1989, p. 73.
  146. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 429.
  147. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 113.
  148. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St John the Baptist, Bristol Road (north side), Brighton".  
  149. ^ Dale 1989, pp. 186–187.
  150. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 135–136.
  151. ^ "Detailed record: Brighton Station including train sheds, Queen's Road (north side), Brighton".  
  152. ^ Body 1984, pp. 53–55.
  153. ^ Carder 1990, §145.
  154. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 61–63.
  155. ^ "Detailed Record: London Road Railway Viaduct, Preston Road, Brighton".  
  156. ^ Carder 1990, §91.
  157. ^ Carder 1990, §144.
  158. ^ Body 1984, p. 55.
  159. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 7–31 (Consecutive) and attached gate piers, walls and railings, Montpelier Crescent (south east side), Brighton".  
  160. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 168–169.
  161. ^ , Brighton"(sic)"Detailed record: Church of St Paul and attached walls, West Street (east side) .  
  162. ^ Dale 1989, pp. 87–90.
  163. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 98–101.
  164. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 435.
  165. ^ a b c Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 179, 184.
  166. ^ a b c Carder 1990, §120.
  167. ^ a b c Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 45.
  168. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 1–16 (Consecutive) including garden walls, piers and cast-iron area railings, Park Crescent (west side), Brighton".  
  169. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 17–24 and 26–32 (Consecutive), Park Crescent (north side), Brighton".  
  170. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 33–48 (Consecutive) and attached railings, Park Crescent (east side), Brighton".  
  171. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 1-19 (Consecutive) and attached walls and railings, Adelaide Crescent (east side), Hove".  
  172. ^ a b Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, pp. 84–85.
  173. ^ a b Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 13–14, 18, 118–120.
  174. ^ a b c Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 454.
  175. ^ "Detailed record: Nos. 20-38 (Consecutive) and attached walls and railings, Adelaide Crescent (west side), Hove".  
  176. ^ "Detailed record, Boiler and Engine House at Goldstone Pumping Station, Woodland Drive (east side), Hove".  
  177. ^ Middleton 1979, pp. 32–33.
  178. ^ "Detailed record, Chimney 2m south of the Boiler and Engine House at Goldstone Pumping Station, Woodland Drive (east side), Hove".  
  179. ^ Middleton 1979, p. 34.
  180. ^ "Detailed Record: The Synagogue and attached gate, Middle Street (east side), Brighton".  
  181. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 75–76.
  182. ^ a b Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 39.
  183. ^ a b Carder 1990, §115.
  184. ^ Elleray 2004, p. 13.
  185. ^ Dale 1989, p. 192.
  186. ^ "English synagogue handed massive government grant". European Jewish Press. 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  187. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St Martin and St Wilfrid, Lewes Road (north side), Brighton".  
  188. ^ Musgrave 1981, pp. 136–137.
  189. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 185–187.
  190. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, pp. 100–102.
  191. ^ "Detailed Record: Church of St Mary the Virgin, St James's Street (north side), Brighton".  
  192. ^ Carder 1990, §167.
  193. ^ Dale 1989, p. 57.
  194. ^ Elleray 2004, §50.
  195. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 137–139.
  196. ^ , Byron Street (north side), Hove"(sic)"Detailed record: Church of St Barnabus .  
  197. ^ Dale 1989, p. 154.
  198. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 430.
  199. ^ "Detailed record: No. 33 Palmeira Mansions, 33 Church Road (north side), Hove".  
  200. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 14, 18, 122.
  201. ^ "Detailed Record: Church of St Peter, Holmes Avenue (west side), Hove".  
  202. ^ Dale 1989, p. 221.
  203. ^ Middleton 2002, Vol. 12, p. 144.
  204. ^ "Detailed Record: Mecca Bingo, 52–58 Middle Street (east side), Brighton".  
  205. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 77.
  206. ^ "Detailed Record: The Palace Pier, Madeira Drive (south side), Brighton".  
  207. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 58–60.
  208. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 444.
  209. ^ Carder 1990, §117.
  210. ^ "Detailed record: Church of St Joseph and attached steps and walls, Elm Grove (north side), Brighton".  
  211. ^ Carder 1990, §63.
  212. ^ "English Heritage Review of Diocesan Churches 2005 (Extract): St Joseph, Brighton" (PDF).  
  213. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, pp. 432–433.
  214. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 187–188.
  215. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, pp. 108–110.
  216. ^ "Detailed record: Embassy Court, King's Road (north side), Brighton".  
  217. ^ Carder 1990, §83.
  218. ^ Nairn & Pevsner 1965, p. 453.
  219. ^ Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 26.
  220. ^ Lumley, Ruth (19 March 2011). "Saltdean Lido given new protective status".  
  221. ^ Collis 2010, pp. 297–298.
  222. ^ "Detailed record: Saltdean Lido, Saltdean Park Road (west side), Brighton".  
  223. ^ a b c d Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 214.
  224. ^ "Detailed Record: Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Brighton".  
  225. ^ "Detailed Record: Chichester Building, University of Sussex, Brighton".  
  226. ^ a b c Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 215.
  227. ^ "Detailed Record: Meeting House including kerbstones surrounding moat, University of Sussex, Brighton".  
  228. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, pp. 128–129.
  229. ^ The London Gazette: no. 44233. p. 850. 24 January 1967. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  230. ^ "Heritage Gateway Listed Buildings Online — Engineering and Applied Sciences Building, University of Sussex, Brighton". Heritage Gateway website. Heritage Gateway ( 
  231. ^ "Heritage Gateway Listed Buildings Online — Arts A and B including courtyard pool, University of Sussex, Brighton". Heritage Gateway website. Heritage Gateway ( 
  232. ^ "Detailed Record: Gardner Arts Centre including kerbstones to pool, University of Sussex, Brighton".  
  233. ^ Carder 1990, §188.
  234. ^ Brighton Polytechnic. School of Architecture and Interior Design 1987, p. 128.
  235. ^ "Gardner to re-open as Attenborough Centre for the Creative Arts" (Press release).  
  236. ^ "Heritage Gateway Listed Buildings Online — Library, University of Sussex, Brighton". Heritage Gateway website. Heritage Gateway ( 


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