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Winston E. Kock

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Title: Winston E. Kock  
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Subject: Andrea Alù, Ulf Leonhardt, Microwave engineering, Metamaterials, Richard W. Ziolkowski
Collection: 1909 Births, 1982 Deaths, American Electrical Engineers, Antennas (Radio), Metamaterials, Scientists at Bell Labs
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Winston E. Kock

Winston Kock
Model of Electronics Research Centers first phase of construction is examined by (from left) Dr. Albert J. Kelley, Deputy Director; Edward Durell Stone, and Dr. Winston E. Kock, Director.
Born 1909
Died 1982 (aged 72–73)
Other names Wayne Kirk
Nationality American
Alma mater University of Berlin
Academic advisors
Known for First director of NASA Electronics Research Center

Winston Kock (1909–1982) was the first Director of NASA Electronics Research Center (NASA ERC) in Cambridge, Massachusetts from September 1, 1964 to October 1, 1966. The Center was created for multidisciplinary scientific research, its proximity to certain colleges, its proximity to a local U.S. Air Force research facility, and was perceived as part of the nation's cold war effort.[1][2]

He was an American electrical engineer, researcher, and musician. Kock was also a novelist under the pseudonym Wayne Kirk. Kock also wrote books about topics in engineering and acoustics. These included radar, sonar, holography, and lasers.[3][4] Kock's seminal research in artificial dielectrics, carried out at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the 1940s, is a historical connection to metamaterials.


  • Education 1
  • Career 2
  • Research 3
  • Patents 4
  • Books 5
  • Published research 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8


At age four Kock started learning piano, and by high school he could play full recitals. In college he began composing music. He then took electrical engineering courses at the

  1. ^ a b Johnson Space Center News. "1966 News Releases" (Free PDF download). NASA. September 8, 1966. pp. 4, 177.  This article contains public domain information from a NASA document available online.
  2. ^ NASA History Program Office. Butrica, Andrew (author); Dick, Steven J. (NASA Chief Historian) (September 8, 1966). "Electronics Research Center" (Available on the web). NASA. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  3. ^ List of science books authored by KocK at the Library of Congress
    • "Library Catalog". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2011-06-25. 
  4. ^ The first line of this paragraph is copied almost word for word from the German WorldHeritage article of the same name (translated into English). "Winston E. Kock" (online). German WorldHeritage. Retrieved 2011-06-25.  This is not a reliable source. This citation is for attribution only.
  5. ^ a b c d e Hans-Joachim Braun. "Music Engineers. The Remarkable Career of Winston Kock, Electronic Organ Designer and NASA Chief of Electronics". 2004 IEEE Conference on the History of Electronics.   Free PDF download.
  6. ^ Eleftheriades, George, V. (March 19, 2009). "EM Transmission-line Metamaterials". Materials Today (Full text of this article is freely available by clicking on the DOI number.) ( 
  7. ^ Jones, S. S. D.; Brown, J. (1949-02-26). "Metallic Delay Lenses" ("AN experimental study of the metallic delay lens described by Kock has been made in this Establishment..."). Nature 163 (Letters to the Editor): 324–325.  
  8. ^ "Negative Refractive Index Metamaterials" (Note: history of metamaterials). The University of Surrey. 2003-10-20. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  9. ^ In one journal, entitled Proceedings of the IRE (see ref below), Kock describes a new type of antenna applying the optical properties of Radio waves. It is in fact a metallic lens, which focuses electromagnetic waves "...from short waves up to wavelengths of perhaps five meters or more."
    • Kock, W. E. (1946). "Metal-Lens Antennas". IRE Proc. 34 (11): 828–836.  
    • Kock, W.E. (1948). "Metallic Delay Lenses". Bell. Sys. Tech. Jour. 27: 58–82.  
    • Kock, W.E. (1946). Bell. Sys. Tech. Jour. 34: 828–836. 
  10. ^ Gabor, D.; Kock, W. E.; Stroke, G. W. (1971). "Holography". Science 173 (3991): 11–23.  
  11. ^ Kock, W. E. (1971). "Nobel Prize for Physics: Gabor and Holography". Science 174 (4010): 674–5.  
  12. ^ Kock, W. E. (1960). "The Mössbauer Radiation". Science 131 (3413): 1588–90.  
  13. ^ a b U.S. Patent 2,895,005 Two-way Television over Telephone Lines
  14. ^ U.S. Patent 2,233,948 Electrical Organ
  15. ^ U.S. Patent 2,400,309 Oscillation Generator.
  16. ^ U.S. Patent 2,328,282 Electrical musical instrument.
  17. ^ U.S. Patent 2,577,619 Metallic structure for delaying unpolarized waves.
  18. ^ books by Winston E. Kock. Goodreads. accessdate 2011-03-16
  19. ^ Author: Winston E. Kock. Google Books. Accessdate: 2011-03-16
  20. ^ "Fortieth Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 23: 142. 1951.  


See also

  • Kock, W.E. (1946). "Metal-Lens Antennas". Proceedings of the IRE 34 (11): 828–836.  
  • Cutler, C.C.; King, A.P.; Kock, W.E. (1947). "Microwave Antenna Measurements". Proceedings of the IRE 35 (12): 1462–1471.  
  • Kock, Winston (1959). "Related Experiments with Sound Waves and Electromagnetic Waves". Proceedings of the IRE 47 (7): 1192–1201.  
  • Kock, Winston (1962). "Speech Communication Systems". Proceedings of the IRE 50 (5): 769–776.  
  • Augustine, C.F.; Kock, W.E. (1969). "Microwave holograms using liquid crystal displays". Proceedings of the IEEE 57 (3): 354–355.  
  • Kock, Winston E. (August 1, 1969). "Acoustics and Optics". Applied Optics (Optical Society of America) 8 (8): 1525–1531.  

Below is a list of some of Kock's published research:

At the Fortieth Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (November 9, 10, and 11, 1950) [20] Kock, along with a colleague, contributed research results pertaining to "a photographic method using mechanical scanning for displaying the space patterns of sound and microwaves..." : Kock, W. E. (1951). "A Photographic Method for Displaying Sound Wave Space Patterns". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 23: 149.  

Published research

He also authored Applications of Holography (Proceedings of United States-Japan Seminar on Information Processing by Holography, held in Washington, D.C., October 13–18, 1969).[18][19]

Kock wrote several books including Sound Waves and Light Waves (1965), Lasers and Holography (1981), Seeing Sound (1972), Radar, Sonar and Holography (1974), and The Creative Engineer: the art of inventing (1978).


  • In 1935 Kock applied for a patent describing formant circuits in an electronic organ.[5]
  • Electrical Organ W. E. KOCK et al., Patent number: 2233948; Filing date: Mar 17, 1938; Issue date: Mar 4, 1941[14]
  • Oscillation Generator: Patent number: 2400309; Filing date: Oct 31, 1941; Issue date: May 14, 1946 [15]
  • Electrical musical instrument: Patent number: 2328282; Filing date: Apr 23, 1941; Issue date: Aug 31, 1943 [16]
  • Metallic structure for delaying unpolarized waves: Patent number: 2577619; Filing date: May 16, 1947; Issue date: Dec 4, 1951.[17]
  • Two-way television over telephone Lines. Patent number: 2895005; Filing date: Sep 30, 1954; Issue date: Jul 14, 1959.[13]

Kock received over 200 patents in the electrical engineering and acoustic engineering fields.


He continued work in electronic music engineering from the age of electronic tubes all the way to the invention of the transistor. He also researched holography, gamma rays, semiconductors, picture phone and artificial dielectrics. His work in artificial dielectrics preceded metamaterials by approximately 50 years.[10][11][12][13]


Before becoming Director of NASA Electronics Research Center he was vice-president research of the Bendix Corp., Detroit. After leaving the Director's position, he returned to Bendix as vice-president and chief scientist. He continued at NASA as a member of the Administration Committee.[1]

Kock was a researcher for Bell Laboratories. Part of his work there involved [6][7][8][9]


In 1934, he received his Ph.D. in experimental and theoretical physics from the formant principle.[5]

For his master degree thesis Kock grappled with the problem of pitch stabilization for 70 neon tubes in an electronic organ. In 1933 he received his Master of Science degree.[5]

[5].electrical engineering as sources for tones. In 1932 he received his BSc degree in radio vacuum tubes rather than [5]

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