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Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015

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Title: Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015  
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Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015

Bihar Legislative Assembly election 2015

12 October 2015 (2015-10-12) - 5 November 2015 (2015-11-05)

All 243 seats of the Bihar Legislative Assembly
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
Leader Nitish Kumar Sushil Modi -
Party Janata Dal (United) Bharatiya Janata Party CPI
Alliance JD(U) + RJD + INC NDA Left Front
Leader since 2005
Leader's seat None None None
Last election 141 seats, 22.61% 94 seats, 16.46% 1 seat, 1.69%
Seats before 141 94 1

Chief Minister before election

Nitish Kumar
Janata Dal (United)

Elected Chief Minister


The Bihar legislative assembly elections will be held in five-phases in October–November 2015 as the tenure of the current Legislative Assembly of Bihar ends on November 29, 2015.[1][2] Initially, the Janata Parivar group (a group of six parties- Samajwadi Party, Janata Dal (United), Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Secular), Indian National Lok Dal and Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)),[3][4] announced to fight the election jointly under Nitish Kumar's leadership which was joined by the Indian National Congress and the Nationalist Congress Party.[5] But later the group was left by all except JD(U), RJD and INC. On the other hand, Bharatiya Janata Party led NDA front is fighting election alongside the Lok Janshakti Party, the Rashtriya Lok Samata Party and Hindustani Awam Morcha.[6][7][8] All Left parties fight under the banner of Left Front.[9]


  • Social engineering and alliance formation 1
  • Pre-Election developments 2
  • Schedule 3
    • Phase I 3.1
    • Phase II 3.2
    • Phase III 3.3
    • Phase IV 3.4
    • Phase V 3.5
  • Parties and Alliances 4
    • Mahagathbandhan 4.1
    • National Democratic Alliance 4.2
    • Socialist Secular Morcha 4.3
    • Left Front 4.4
    • All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen 4.5
    • Bahujan Samaj Party 4.6
  • Opinion polls 5
    • Number of seats (243) 5.1
  • Result 6
  • See also 7
  • External links 8
  • References 9

Social engineering and alliance formation

Both the alliances- BJP led NDA alliance and Nitish Kumar-led alliance are trying social engineering.[10][11][12] On 7 June 2015, Lalu Prasad Yadav announced RJD alliance with JD(U) for the elections.[13][14] On 11 June 2015, Jitan Ram Manjhi announced his party Hindustani Awam Morcha alliance with BJP for the elections.[15][16] In April 2015, Bihar chief Minister Nitish Kumar announced decision to include few more castes including Teli caste in list of Extremely Backward Class in Bihar.[17][18][19][20]

In May 2015, Nitish Kumar Government increased Dearness Allowance(DA) by six to 11 per cent for state government employees and pensioners.[21] DA therefore increased from 107 per cent to 113 per cent for revised salary category for employees. In 2014, DA was first increased to 100 per cent from the existing 90 per cent in May 2014 [22] and to 107 per cent in October 2014 during Jitan Manjhi regime.[23] In July 2015, Nitish Kumar announced 50 percent quota for OBC, EBC and SC/STs in all government contracts up to Rs 15 lakh.[24][25] On 3 July 2015, BJP announced its seventh Morcha, called BJP OBC Morcha, keeping in mind the Bihar polls.[26][27][28][29] In July 2015, Nitish Kumar government issued a notification to give out doles and caste cetificates to children from upper caste Hindu and Muslim families whose annual income was below 1.5 lakh (US$2,300).[30]

In July 2015, Jitan Ram Manjhi was accorded "Z"-plus security cover by the Union Home Ministry, while Pappu Yadav was accorded "Y" category security.[31][32][33] On 8 August 2015, Ram Nath Kovind was appointed Governor of Bihar by NDA Government.[34] Bihar Government exempted tax on Manjhi - The Mountain Man, a film based on Dashrath Manjhi, a Dalit who carved a path through a 360 ft long, 30 ft wide and 25 ft high hillock in 22 years(1960-1982.[35] Opposition parties accused Nitish Kumar government of doing nothing for Manjhi's village Gehlaur.[36] In September 2015, Nitish Kumar government gave its nod to two major moves — creation of a dedicated fund for fencing of temples in Bihar and inclusion of two of Extremely Backward Castes (EBCs)- Nishad (Mallah) and Nonia, in the SC/ST category.[37][38] The state government also decided to provide grants-in-aid to 609 more madrassas across Bihar from the list of 2,459 registered by Bihar State Madrassa Education Board.[39]

Castes of Bihar[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]
Caste Population (%)
OBC/EBC 51% ( Yadavs -14%, Kurmis -4%,( EBCs - 30%[37][50][51][52][53] -includes
Kushwaha-4%,[54][55] Koeris -8%,[56] Teli-3.2%))
Mahadalits*+ Dalits(SCs) 16%[57][58](includes Dusadh- 5%, Musahar- 2.8%[59])
Muslims 16.9 %[60]
Forward caste 15% [61](Rajput- 6%,Brahmin-5%,[62] Bhumihar -3%, Kayasth- 1%)
Adivasis(STs) 1.3% [63][64]
Others 0.4% (include Christians,Sikhs,Jains)
  • As per, 2011 Census of India , Scheduled Castes constitute 16% of Bihar's 104 million population.[65][66] The census identified 21 of 23 Dalit sub-castes as Mahadalits.[67] Mahadalit community consists of the following sub castes - Bantar, Bauri, Bhogta, Bhuiya, Chaupal, Dabgar, Dom (Dhangad), Ghasi, Halalkhor, Hari (Mehtar, Bhangi), Kanjar, Kurariar, Lalbegi, Musahar, Nat, Pan (Swasi), Rajwar, Turi, Dhobi, Pasi, Chamar and Paswan (Dusadh).[68] Paswan caste was initially left out of the Mahadalit category.[69][70][71] Adivasis (Scheduled Tribes) constitute around 1.3% of Bihar population.[72][73][74] Tribals include Gond, Santhal and Tharu communities in Bihar.[75][76]
  • Extremely Backward Class (EBCs) are also sometimes referred to as Most Backward Class(MBCs). There are 130-odd EBC castes in Bihar.[37][77][78]

Pre-Election developments

NOTA symbol

Election Commission of India announced that around 1000 Voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) machines will be used along with EVMs in 36 out of the 243 assembly seats in Bihar elections, spread over 34 districts.[79][80][81][82][83][84] ECIL manufactured VVPATs will be used in 10 assembly constituencies, while BEL manufactured VVPAT will be used in 26 assembly constituencies.[85] Bihar election of 2015 will be webcast for the first time and voters can locate their polling booth on phones via an app.[86] About 1.5 crore voters would be informed about the poll dates via SMS.[87] Photo voter slips would be provided to voters.

Election Commision launched a special drive, Systematic Voters' Education And Electoral Participation (SVEEP) for voter awareness and higher voter turn out in Bihar elections.[88][89][90] Bihar would be the first state to have photo electoral rolls, with photographs of candidates on EVMs.[91][92]

Assembly constituencies of Bihar having VVPAT facility with EVMs[93]
Katihar Purnia Kishanganj Saharsa
Samastipur Forbesganj Munger Jamui
Madhubani Begusarai Khagaria Gopalganj
Supaul Madhepura Sasaram Aurangabad
Buxar Jehanabad Nawada Sitamarhi
Bhabhua Motihari Bettiah Hajipur
Gaya Town Muzaffarpur Darbhanga Ara
Biharsarif Chhapra Siwan Kumhrar
Bankipur Digha Bhagalpur Banka

11 NRI voters registered in the electoral rolls for the first time in Bihar elections. They were contacted by election officials through their family members.[94] Bihar elections is the first poll where NRIs cast their votes semi-electronically from foreign countries.[95][96] The e-postal ballot system and the existing proxy-voting facility is extended for NRI voters from their place of residence abroad.[97][98][99] But this facility is not available to migrant voters within India.[100][101][102][103]

Cross mark will be NOTA symbol to be used in Bihar elections and subsequent elections.[104] The Election Commission introduced the specific symbol for NOTA, a ballot paper with a black cross across it, on 18 September 2015. The symbol is designed by National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad.[105][106] The security forces are going to use Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)/Drones, called Netras (eyes), in Bihar elections.[107][108]

Election Commission of India decided that Bihar Police personnel would not be deployed at any of the 62,779 polling stations in Bihar elections.[109] They would be manned by members of the Central Armed Police Forces.[110]

Expelled RJD MP Pappu Yadav floated a new party Jan Adhikar Party before the elections.[111][112][113][114][115] Pappu Yadav is campaigning against Nitish-Lalu alliance.[116][117] The Aam Aadmi Party and JVM-P have announced that they will not contest in Bihar Elections, but will campaign against the NDA.[118][119] Sharad Yadav of JDU has welcomed Aam Aadmi Party's step to campaign against NDA.

Yogendra Yadav has announced that Swaraj Abhiyan may extend support to certain political parties. However it's not clear which one.[120]

In July 2015, BJP-led NDA won 13 seats (including 1 independent backed by BJP) out of 24 seats of Bihar Legislative Council elections.[121][122] JDU and RJD combine won 10 seats only, while 1 seat was won by an independent candidate.[123][124] On 13 July 2015, Lalu Yadav lead a march demanding that Central government to release the findings of the Socio Economic Caste Census 2011 (SECC) on caste,[125][126][127] although Union Minister Ram Vilas Paswan pitched for a comprehensive classification of caste data of SECC 2011 before its release,[128] and also said Lalu, Nitish will be worst impacted from the caste data even if its released.[129][130] BJP Leader Sushil Kumar Modi called for rectification of errors in the cases of 1.46 crore people in India, including 1.75 lakh in Bihar before releasing the caste data.[131]

On 31 July 2015, Election Commission of India published the final voters list for Bihar Assembly polls 2015,[132] which has an overall population of 10,38,04,637 as per 2011 Census of India.[133][134]

Final voters list for Bihar Legislative Assembly election 2015
S.No Group of voters Voters population
1 Male 3,56,46,870
2 Female 3,11,77,619
3 third gender 2,169
- Total voters 6,68,26,658

On 3 August 2015, Nitish Kumar declared that he will not contest Bihar assembly elections.[135][136]

On 11 August 2015, Nitish Kumar announced the seat-sharing forumula, according to which JD(U) and RJD will contest On 100 Seats Each, while Congress will contest on 40 seats in Bihar.[137] NCP pulled out of this alliance later.[138]

On 19 August 2015, the Central Government notified 21 Bihar districts including capital Patna as backward areas and unveiled tax rebate for them.[139] This tax rebate enables that any manufacturing unit set up between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2020 in these districts will be eligible for 15% additional depreciation and 15% investment allowance under the The Income-tax Act, 1961.

On 25 August 2015, the Central Government released the religious data of 2011 Census.[140][141] Hindus constitute 82.7% (8.6 crore ) in Bihar, while Muslims constitute 16.9% (1.7 crore).[60]

The Congress Vice-President Rahul Gandhi assigned the task to shortlist Congress candidates for [142] each of the 40 assembly constituencies in the state to his close aide and former Governor of Kerala & Nagaland, Nikhil Kumar.

On 3 September 2015, Samajwadi Party quit the Janata Parivar alliance due to seat sharing disagreements.

On 14 September 2015, NDA announced the seat distribution: BJP-160 seats, LJP-40 seats, RLSP- 23 seats, HAM-20 seats.[143][144] NDA didnot announced any chief ministerial candidate.[145] BJP announced names of 154 candidates in 3 lists.[146][147][148] Caste played a major role in distributing tickets.[149][150] BJP also accommodated five candidates of Jitan Ram Manjhi’s Hindustani Awam Morcha who will fight on BJP ticket.[151] Later, BJP gave the Imamganj seat to HAM on which Jitan Ram Majhi is contesting and BJP reduced its seat tally to 159.[152][153]

On 17 September 2015, Shiv Sena announced that it will contest over 150 seats during the Bihar assembly elections.[154][155]

On 19 September 2015, a third front- Socialist Secular Morcha - announced its seat distribution: SP- 85 seats, Janadhikar Party -64, NCP- 40, SSP- 28, SJP- 23 and NPP- 3.[156] The front also claimed to enjoy the support of two other parties - Awami Insaf party and Sarvjan Kalyan Party - though no seat has been given to them.

On 23 September 2015, Nitish Kumar announced the list of 242 candidates for the JDU-RJD-INC alliance.[157][158][159] OBCs were most favoured in alliance ticket distribution plan.[160][161][162] 10% of tickets were allotted to women candidate by the alliance.[163]

Former UK banker Akshay Verma's Sarvajan Kalyan Loktantrik Party is fighting elections on around 90 seats in Bihar.[164]

Six Muslim parties announced their decison to figh elections in Bihar.[165] AIMIM will contest on 6 seats[166] while Ittehad-e-Millat Council will contest 40 seats in Bihar.

On 1 October 2015, BJP released its vision document for Bihar assembly elections.[167]

On 5 October 2015, AIMIM released its first list of six candidates for Bihar assembly polls.[168][169][170] [171]

On 10 October 2015, Non-resident Biharis (NRBs) hold 'litti pe charcha' meets in over 100 American cities and suburbs.[172][173]


A map showing the polling dates for various districts in the 2015 Bihar Legislative Assembly election.
Phase Date No of constituencies Covering Districts Turnout
I 12 October 49 Banka
II 16 October 32 Arwal
III 28 October 50 Bhojpur
IV 1 November 55 Gopalganj
Paschim Champaran
purvi Champaran
V 5 November 57 Araria
Counting 8 November 243
Source: Election Commission of India

On 9 September 2015, Election Commission of India announced the dates for Bihar Assembly elections.[174]

Phase I

49 assembly seats were covered in Phase I which include Samastipur,Begusarai, Teghra, Bhagalpur, Purnia, Banka, Khagaria, Munger, Lakhisarai, Shekhpura, Nawada and Jamui. 583 Candidates are in the fray for First Phase.[175] Women voting percentage was 59% while Men voting percentage was 54%.[176]

Phase II

32 assembly seats were covered in Second Phase which includes Kaimur,Rohtas,Arwal,Jahanabad,Aurangabad,Gaya. 456 candidates including 32 women are in the fray in Phase-2.[177] Polling of women voters was recorded at 57.5% and men voters was at 52.5%[178] Repolling at 2 booths in Banka, Chakai is scheduled on 28 October 2015.[179]

Phase III

50 assembly seats were covered in Phase III which includes Saran,Vaishali,Nalanda,Patna.Bhojpur,Buxar. Women outnumbered men in women voter turnout in with 54 per cent , while it was 52.50% for men.[180] Voters of Chandila village of Maker block in Saran district's Amnour (Vidhan Sabha constituency) completed boycotted the polling and no votes was cast in protest against the government's failure to bring electricity to their village.[181][182]

Phase IV

55 assembly seats were covered in Phase IV which includes Pashim Champaran, Purvi Champaran,Sheohar, Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur, Kanti, Gopalganj, Siwan. 33% candidates in Fourth Phase have criminal Background [183]

Phase V

57 assembly seats will be covered in Phase V which includes Madhubani,Supaul, Araria, Kishangaj, Purnia, Katihar, Madhepura, Saharsa, Darbhanga. Result will be declared on 8th Nov 2015

Parties and Alliances


Nitish Kumar is the declared chief ministerial candidate for the Mahagathbandhan or Grand Alliance. Mr. Kumar started his Har Ghar Dastak (door-to-door) campaign on 2 July 2015.[184][185] The alliance is made up of JD(U), RJD and INC(I); in an assembly of 243 seats, JD(U) and RJD are contesting on 101 seats each, and INC(I) will be fielding candidates on 41 seats.

Prashant Kishor is a key election strategist for the alliance.[186] Janata Dal United has started 400 audio-visual vans called Jan Bhagidari Manch raths for the election campaign.[187] Nitish Kumar is launching 'Bihar Samman Sammelan' in various cities, including Delhi and Mumbai, to connect with Bihari migrants diaspora.[188]

National Democratic Alliance

Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) is using 243 GPS-monitored raths (modified Boleros) and video vans in Bihar elections.[189][190][191] BJP set up a monitoring HQ in Patna to track movement of these GPS vehicles, which will visit 40,000 villages touching all 243 assembly constituencies.[192][193] The election campaign was kick-started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Muzaffarpur on 25 July 2015 and he also inaugurated the permanent campus of IIT Patna in Bihta on the same day.[194][195][196][197] BJP election exercise in Bihar involved 3 lakh karyakartas.[189] Narendra Modi held his second election rally in Gaya on 9 August 2015.[198][199] Modi held his third rally in Ara on 18 August 2015.[200][201] Modi announced Rs 1.25 lakh crore package for Bihar.[202][203] He also laid the foundation stone for the proposed four-lane road from Patna to Buxar.[204] Modi also visited Saharsa on August 18 and held another rally.[205][206] Modi addressed his fourth rally in Bhagalpur on 1 September 2015.[207]

Bollywood actor Ajay Devgn also campaigned for BJP in Bihar.[208][209] Modi addressed several rallies after October 25 on multiple venues in Bihar. He addressed rallies in Nalanda, Buxar, Hajipur etc.[210]

In a rally in Buxar on 26 October 2015, Narendra Modi vowed to defend reservation of Dalits, STs, OBCs.[211][212][213] Modi attacked Nitish Kumar-Lalu Prasad-Congress alliance for trying to hatch a conspiracy to carve out a sub-quota on the basis of religion as Supreme Court of India has said reservation cannot be more than 50%.[214][215][216][217] Modi again in a rally on 27 October 2015 in Bettiah accused Nitish, Lalu of diluting the share of SC, ST and OBC.[218][219]

BJP also gave advertisements alleging conspiracy by Grand alliance to snatch q quota of reservation of Dalits, backwards and give it to minorities.[220] Union finance Minister Arun Jaitley also agreed with Prime Minister Modi's views that Grand Alliance's idea of reservations on the basis of religion is fraught with danger.[221] Addressing an election rally in Kathihar on 1 September 2015, Modi again accused his rivals Nitish Kumar and Lalu Prasad of having come together in July 2005 to demand a review of the policy to provide for religion-based reservation.[222]

Socialist Secular Morcha

On 19 September 2015, The leaders of six parties - SP, NCP, Janadhikar Party of Pappu Yadav, Samras Samaj Party (SSP) of former Union minister Nagmani, NPP (National People's Party) of former Speaker P. A. Sangma and Samajwadi Janata Party (SJP) of former Union minister Devendra Prasad Yadav announced formation of third front known as Socialist Secular Morcha.[223] On 15 October 2015, NCP leader Tariq Anwar announced that NCP has decided to quit the third front.[224][225]

Left Front

On 24 July 2015, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, and Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), All India Forward Bloc, Socialist Unity Centre of India and Revolutionary Socialist Party decided to contest all 243 seats together, to provide an alternative platform other than BJP-led NDA and Janata Parivar.[9] CPI will contest 91 seats, while CPI—ML, CPI(M), SUCI, Forward Block and RSP will contest on 78, 38, 6, 5 and 3 seats respectively.[226] CPI released its first list of 81 candidates on 16 September 2015.[227]

All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen

All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (AIMIM) leader Asaduddin Owaisi addressed a rally in Kishanganj on 16 August 2015.[228][229][230] Owaisi accused Nitish, Lalu of keeping Seemanchal region (consists of 24 Assembly seats) a backward region.[231][232][233] AIMIM is contesting on 6 assembly seats in Seemanchal region where Muslim voters play a major role.[234][235][236] Telangana Legislative Assembly floor Leader Akbaruddin Owaisi addressed a public rally in Kishanganj on October 4 in Sontha village under Kochadhaman (Vidhan Sabha constituency).[237][238][239] Asaduddin Owaisi held rallies in many places in Kishanganj and Purnia.[240][241]

Bahujan Samaj Party

in June 2015, 2011 religious census of Muslim Population growth to communalize environment in Bihar to help BJP in elections as well to divert attention from real issues and failure of Modi government in delivering promises. She added that religious census 2011 has good signs such as sex ratio among Muslims is 951 which is higher than the national average and slowing of Muslim population growth rate.[251] On 10 September 2015, Mayawati sought for deployment of central forces in large numbers on election duty in Bihar for free and fair polls and asked Election Commission of India to keep an eye on communal game of the BJP and also asked people to remain vigilant.[252][253]

Mayawati launched her campaign on 9 October 2015 from Banka and to campaign in all the five phases of polls. Historically, BSP always got more votes than CPI, CPM, NCP as well as Samajwadi Party in Bihar.[254] On 13 October 2015, addressing a rally in Rohtas and Kaimur districts, Bahujan Samaj Party chief Mayawati charged the Samajwadi Party chief Mulayam Singh Yadav of playing into the hands of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Samajwadi Party leadership had surrendered before the BJP. Mayawati also alleged that the SP fielded candidates in Bihar after consulting BJP.[255][256] She also accused BJP led NDA to scrap the reservation policy for OBCs and SC/STs under the RSS's influence.[257]

Opinion polls

Number of seats (243)

When conducted Ref Polling organisation/Agency Sample size

Apr–May 2015 [258] ABP News [259] NA 127
Jun–Jul 2015 [260] ABP News – Nielsen NA 121 118 4
August - September 2015 [261] India Today - Cicero 5,968 106 125 12
August - September 2015 [262] India TV-CVoter poll 10,638 120-128 94-106 17-21
3–7 September 2015 [263] ABP News – Nielsen 4,493 122 118 3
12–13 September 2015 [264] Zee News Survey 31,906 70 140 33
23 September 2015 [265] Times Now – CVoter 7,786 112 117 14
October 2015 [266] Leadtech - 11,566 73 168
8 October 2015 [267] CNN-IBN- Axis Poll 27500 137 95 11
7 October 2015 [268] ABP News NA 112 128 3
October 2015 [269] India Today- Cicero poll NA 122 111 10
October 2015 [270] News Nation 7,000 115-119 120-124 2-4
October 2015 [271] India TV- Cvoter 9,916 108-124 111-127 4-12


Bihar Assembly Election Result will be announced on 8 November 2015.[272]

 Summary of results of the Bihar Legislative Assembly election, 2015[273]
Alliance Political party Flag Election
Won Net change
in seats
% of
Votes Vote % Change
in vote %
NDA Bharatiya Janata Party 159 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Lok Janshakti Party 40 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party 23 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Hindustani Awam Morcha 21 NA NA NA NA NA NA
UPA Janata Dal (United) 101 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Rashtriya Janata Dal RJD party symbol 101 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Indian National Congress 41 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Left Front Communist Party of India 91 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) 78 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 38 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Socialist Unity Centre of India 6 NA NA NA NA NA NA
All India Forward Bloc 5 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Revolutionary Socialist Party 3 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Socialist Secular Morcha Samajwadi Party 85 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Janadhikar Party 64 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Nationalist Congress Party 40 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Samras Samaj Party 28 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Samajwadi Janata Party 23 NA NA NA NA NA NA
National People's Party 3 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Others Bahujan Samaj Party 243 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Shiv Sena 150 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Sarvajan Kalyan Loktantrik Party 90 NA NA NA NA NA NA
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen 6 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Independents NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total 243 Voters - Turnout NA %

See also

External links

  • Election Commission of India
  • बिहार विधानसभा चुनाव 2015
  • bihar election 2015
  • Bihar election Poll 2015


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  54. ^ "BJP ties up with OBC leader Upendra Kushwaha in Bihar". 
  55. ^ "Jitan Ram Manjhi emerges critical player in poll-bound Bihar". The Times of India. 
  56. ^ "BJP may bring in Kushwaha as OBC face". 
  57. ^ "Can RJD-JD(U) stop BJP’s rise in Bihar?". 
  58. ^ "Bihar’s Mahadalits pick sides in Nitish-Manjhi tussle". 
  59. ^ "Bihar polls: Rallying behind Jitan Ram Manjhi, Musahars vow to unseat Nitish Kumar". 
  60. ^ a b "Bihar elections among factors in religious data of Census 2011 release". 
  61. ^ "Is Nitish Kumar working on a new Bihar poll strategy that excludes Laloo and Mulayam?". 
  62. ^ "Brahmins In India". 
  63. ^ "Bihar brings all Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes' families under National Food Security Act". 
  64. ^ "Nitish banks on caste calculations, Muslims". 
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^ "Bihar polls: Jitan Ram Manjhi announces alliance with BJP". 
  68. ^ "Ram Vilas Paswan-Jitan Ram Manjhi battle for Mahadalit leadership making it tough for BJP in Bihar". 
  69. ^ "Non-inclusion of Paswans in Mahadalit list angers Paswan". 
  70. ^ "Bihar CM includes Paswan caste in Mahadalit category". 
  71. ^ "Nitish's social engineering formula inspires Congress". 
  72. ^ "Does Bihar know how many tribals live in the State?". 
  73. ^ "27 lakh SC & ST families to benefit from Food Law in Bihar". 
  74. ^
  75. ^ "Special package for Tharu tribals in Bihar". 
  76. ^ "Stage set for tribal all-woman battalion". 
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  78. ^ "Battle for Bihar: Complicated caste poll primer". 
  79. ^ "Bihar Assembly polls likely in Sept-Oct, says CEC". 
  80. ^ "Bihar Assembly polls: Haven't received official proposal regarding Janata Parivar merger, says CEC". 
  81. ^ "Bihar assembly polls likely to be held in Sept-Oct: CEC". 
  82. ^ "36 Seats in Bihar to Have Electronic Voting Machines With Paper Trail Facility". 
  83. ^ "Poll-bound Bihar to get 36 EVMs with paper trail facility". 
  84. ^ "EC special teams to visit Bihar to check electoral rolls". 
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  88. ^ "SVEEP document" (PDF). 
  89. ^ "Vote and make me proud: Muzaffarpur to citizens". 
  90. ^
  91. ^ "Contesting the Bihar Polls? Dummy Candidates Beware". 
  92. ^ "'"Now, photos of candidates on EVMs to weed out 'dummies. 
  93. ^ "EC move to allay fears about errors in EVMs". 
  94. ^ "Dil Bihari: 11 NRIs enrol as voters in state". 
  95. ^ "For the first time in assembly elections, NRIs will vote". 
  96. ^ "NRIs may cast e-votes in Bihar election". 
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^ "Can NaMo push Kamandal chariot into Mandal heartland?". 
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^ "Now, 'NOTA' has an electoral symbol too". dna. 18 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
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  107. ^ "Bihar polls: UAVs, sniffer dogs in action for strict security". 
  108. ^ "Drones will monitor Bihar polls". 
  109. ^ "On the eve of Bihar polls, Maoist belt turns into war zone". 
  110. ^ "Election Commission's neutrality: Will Zaidi fit in Seshan's shoes?". 
  111. ^ "Purnea MP Pappu Yadav forms new Jan Adhikar Party". 
  112. ^ "Expelled RJD MP Pappu Yadav floats new party". 
  113. ^ "Pappu Yadav could win over disgruntled Lalu supporters in Bihar". 
  114. ^ "Bihar@2025 campaign stunt: Pappu Yadav". 
  115. ^ "Bihar@2025 campaign political stunt, EC should stop it: Pappu Yadav". The Economic Times. 
  116. ^ "Yadavs join hands to fight in unison". 
  117. ^ "Jiten Manjhi to Pappu Yadav: Friends-turned-foes may play spoilsport for Nitish-Lalu alliance in Bihar". Firstpost. 
  118. ^ "JVM-P to support Bihar alliance against BJP". The Times of India. 
  119. ^ "AAP not to contest Bihar assembly election". Times of India. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  120. ^ "Swaraj Abhiyan may support parties in Bihar polls: Yogendra Yadav". dna. 
  121. ^ "Bihar legislative polls: Setback to Nitish, Lalu as ‘grand alliance’ scores 10". 
  122. ^ "BJP-led NDA wins 14 out of 24 seats in Bihar Legislative Council elections". IBNLive. 
  123. ^ "BJP-led NDA wins 13 out of 24 seats in Bihar Legislative Council elections, deals a huge blow to JDU-RJD alliance". 
  124. ^ "BJP wins seven of nine seats of Bihar Legislative Council". The Times of India. 
  125. ^ "Lalu leads march for caste census data". 
  126. ^ "Lalu's Ultimatum to Modi Government on Caste Census Data". 
  127. ^ "Caste census data demand is ‘jehad’: Lalu". 
  128. ^ "‘Ram Vilas Dalit face wherever you go, Jitan Ram Manjhi can be Mahadalit face’". 
  129. ^ "Lalu Prasad, Nitish Kumar to be hit hardest if caste data released: Paswan". 
  130. ^ "Lalu Prasad Yadav , Nitish Kumar to be hit hardest if caste data released: Ram Vilas Paswan". 
  131. ^ "Caste census data to be release after error correction: Sushil Modi". 
  132. ^ "Election Commission publishes final voters list for Bihar elections". 
  133. ^ "Election Commission publishes final voters list for Bihar Assembly polls". 
  134. ^
  135. ^ "Won't contest Bihar polls, will devote time for campaigning, says Nitish Kumar". 
  136. ^ "Won't contest Bihar elections: Nitish Kumar". 
  137. ^ "Nitish Kumar Announces Seat-Sharing Formula For Bihar Elections: JD(U)-RJD To Contest On 100 Seats Each, Congress 40". 
  138. ^ "Bihar elections: NCP pulls out of anti-BJP alliance, may contest alone". 
  139. ^ "In poll-bound Bihar, Patna & 20 districts get backward status". 
  140. ^ "Hindu proportion of India’s population less than 80%: Census 2011". 
  141. ^
  142. ^
  143. ^ "BJP finalises seat sharing for Bihar polls". 
  144. ^
  145. ^ "Five Vote-splitters of Bihar". 
  146. ^
  147. ^
  148. ^ "Eye on Lalu’s vote cache, BJP fields 22 Yadavs". 
  149. ^ "BJP gave tickets to seven candidates from the Teli community". 
  150. ^
  151. ^ "Bihar polls: BJP releases second list of 99 candidates". 
  152. ^
  153. ^
  154. ^ "Shiv Sena says will contest over 150 seats in Bihar polls". 
  155. ^
  156. ^ "SP teams up with Pappu, NCP, 3 others to form third front". 
  157. ^ "Bihar polls: Nitish Kumar releases ‘joint list’ of 242 candidates, OBCs get lion’s share". 
  158. ^ "Nitish Kumar yields, Lalu Prasad gets both his sons an Assembly ticket each". 
  159. ^ "Nitish-led alliance releases list of 242 candidates for Bihar polls". 
  160. ^ "OBCs most favoured in alliance plan". 
  161. ^ "In Bihar elections, it is my social combination versus yours". 
  162. ^
  163. ^
  164. ^ "From corridors of UK bank to colonies of fishermen". 
  165. ^
  166. ^ "MIM in serious fight in Bihar: Asaduddin Owaisi". 
  167. ^
  168. ^
  169. ^
  170. ^
  171. ^
  172. ^ "NRIs hold 'Litti pe Charcha' in Times Square". 
  173. ^ "It's 'litti pe charcha' over Bihar polls in US". 
  174. ^
  175. ^
  176. ^ "Bihar polls begin on high note, voting higher than in 2010". 
  177. ^ "Manjhi fate at stake in crucial Round II today". 
  178. ^ "Bihar Polls: 55% voting in second phase, women voters outnumber men once again". 
  179. ^
  180. ^
  181. ^
  182. ^
  183. ^
  184. ^ "Har Ghar Dastak: Nitish’s Bihar strategy is old fashioned door-to-door campaigning". 
  185. ^ "Nitish sounds poll bugle with ‘Har Ghar Dastak’". 
  186. ^ "Amit Shah vs Prashant Kishor: Who will be the wizard of Bihar election?". 
  187. ^ "BJP's hi-tech chariots and JDU's Jan Bhagidari Rath setting mood for a high-voltage battle in Bihar". 
  188. ^ "Nitish, BJP to woo Bihari diaspora". 
  189. ^ a b "Bihar polls: BJP's Amit Shah steps us technology usage to micromanage election campaign". 
  190. ^ "BJP to use 160 GPS-monitored raths ahead of Bihar polls". India Today. 
  191. ^ "BJP set to focus on ground zero to win in Bihar polls; chalks out campaign plan down to block, panchayat levels". 
  192. ^ "Bihar polls 2015: How is Amit Shah planning to meet the challenge? Batashe ke liye hum mandir nahin todenge". 
  193. ^ "Bihar polls: How Nitish Kumar is trying to ward off a high octane NDA that's taking the state by storm". 
  194. ^ "Modi inaugurates IIT-Patna campus". 
  195. ^ "Modi sets IIT campus date". 
  196. ^ "PM to inaugurate Bihta IIT-P campus on July 25". 
  197. ^ "BJP set to focus on ground zero to win in Bihar polls; chalks out campaign plan down to block, panchayat levels". 
  198. ^ "PM Modi Gaya rally: Much at stake for Manjhi". 
  199. ^
  200. ^ Acche din' for Bihar: PM Modi announces Rs 1.25 lakh crore package"'". 
  201. ^ "PM Narendra Modi Announces Rs. 1.25 Lakh Crore Package for Bihar: 10 Developments". 
  202. ^ "Prime Minister’s Bihar Package 2015 – Rs 1,25,003 crore". 
  203. ^ "Prime Minister’s Package for Bihar -2015 August 18, 2015". 
  204. ^
  205. ^ "Narendra Modi addresses rallies in Arrah, Saharsa: As it happened". 
  206. ^
  207. ^
  208. ^ "Ajay Devgn’s second rally in Bihar cancelled due to an unruly crowd". 
  209. ^ "Ajay Devgn requests better arrangements for events like Bihar rally". 
  210. ^ "At Buxar, Modi gives BJP campaign a brazen communal spin; plays on the fears of Dalits". 
  211. ^ "PM Narendra Modi alleges grand alliance plot to take away 5 % SC, ST, OBC quotas". 
  212. ^ "PM Narendra Modi seeking "communal polarisation" through quota remark: Congress". 
  213. ^ "Will never allow quota on religious lines, PM Narendra Modi says". 
  214. ^ "PM Alleges 'Conspiracy of Sin' in Bihar, Vows to Protect Quota". 
  215. ^ "Modi alleges plot to take away SC, ST, OBC quotas". 
  216. ^ "Nitish and Lalu conspiring to give Dalit, OBC quota to another community: PM Modi". 
  217. ^
  218. ^ "Modi again alleges Nitish, Lalu conspiring to take away share of dalits, backwards quota". 
  219. ^
  220. ^ "Bihar polls: BJP puts ‘quota conspiracy’ theory out in print". 
  221. ^ "Bihar polls: Grand Alliance's idea of reservations on the basis of religion is fraught with danger, says FM Arun Jaitley". 
  222. ^ "Nitish, Lalu had together sought religion-based quota in 2005, says PM Narendra Modi". 
  223. ^
  224. ^ "Mulayam front suffers big blow, NCP to go it alone". 
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  227. ^
  228. ^ "BJP appoints Dalit governor eyeing backward votes as Owaisi hints at jumping into Bihar fray to woo Muslims". 
  229. ^ "AIMIM need to work to remove Muslim only party image: Asaduddin Owaisi". 
  230. ^ "Can Owaisi break new ground in Bihar and reverse the past trend of the Hindi belt?". 
  231. ^ "Asaduddin Owaisi’s Kishanganj rally makes JD(U), RJD and Congress nervous". 
  232. ^ "Bihar elections: Owaisi wants special package for Seemanchal". 
  233. ^ "Nitish, Lalu responsible for 'backward' Seemanchal: Owaisi". 
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  235. ^
  236. ^ "MIM in serious fight in Bihar: Asaduddin Owaisi". 
  237. ^ "Akbaruddin Owaisi calls PM Modi 'Shaitan' and 'Zaalim'; blames him for 2002 Gujarat riots". 
  238. ^ "अकबरुद्दीन ने किया पीएम मोदी के खिलाफ आपत्तिजनक भाषा का प्रयोग". 
  239. ^ "Modi a tyrant and a devil says Akbaruddin Owaisi". 
  240. ^
  241. ^ "Owaisi ripples in 6 border seats". 
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  265. ^ "BJP and Nitish-Lalu alliance neck and neck in Bihar: Times Now-CVoter survey". 
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  271. ^ "NDA slightly ahead of grand alliance in Bihar photofinish, says India TV-CVoter pre-poll survey". 
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