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10th millennium BC

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10th millennium BC

Millennia:
Centuries:
  • 100th century BC
  • 99th century BC
  • 98th century BC
  • 97th century BC
  • 96th century BC
  • 95th century BC
  • 94th century BC
  • 93rd century BC
  • 92nd century BC
  • 91st century BC

The 10th millennium BC marks the beginning of the Mesolithic and Epipaleolithic periods, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. Agriculture, based on the cultivation of primitive forms of millet and rice, occurred in Southwest Asia.[1]Although agriculture was being developed in the Fertile Crescent, it would not be widely practised for another 2,000 years.

The world population is estimated as between one and ten million people,[2] most of whom were hunter-gatherer communities scattered over all continents except Antarctica and Zealandia. The Würm glaciation ended, and the beginning interglacial, which endures to this day, allowed the re-settlement of northern regions.

Events

Göbekli Tepe, Şanlıurfa, 2011
sty

before Homo (Pliocene)

Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic
Early Stone Age
Homo
Control of fire
Stone tools
Middle Paleolithic
Middle Stone Age
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens
Recent African origin of modern humans
Upper Paleolithic
Late Stone Age
Behavioral modernity, Atlatl,
Origin of the domestic dog

Mesolithic

Microliths, Bow, Canoe
Natufian
Khiamian
Tahunian
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery Neolithic
Neolithic Revolution,
Domestication
Pottery Neolithic
Pottery
Chalcolithic

Old World

  • Asia: Cave sites near the Caspian Sea are used for human habitation.
  • Africa: Wall paintings found in Ethiopia and Eritrea depicting human activity; some of the older paintings are thought to date back to around 10,000 BC.[4]
  • Europe: Azilian (Painted Pebble Culture) people occupy northern Spain and Southern France.
  • Europe: Magdalenian culture flourishes and creates cave paintings in France.
  • Europe: Horse hunting begins at Solutré.
  • Egypt: Early sickle blades and grinding disappear and are replaced by hunting, fishing and gathering peoples who use stone tools.
  • Jordan: Wadi Faynan (WF16): large, oval-shaped building. Early farmers lived here between 9,600 and 8,200 BC, cultivating wild plants such as wild barley, pistachio, and fig trees, and hunting or herding wild goats, cattle, and gazelle.[5]
  • Kurdistan: Zagros mountains near Kermanshah: very early agriculture (wheat, barley)[6]
  • Syria: Jerf el-Ahmar, occupied between 9200 and 8700 BC.
  • Japan: The Jōmon people use pottery, fish, hunt and gather acorns, nuts and edible seeds. There are 10,000 known sites.
  • Mesopotamia: People begin to collect wild wheat and barley probably to make malt then beer.
  • The oldest prehistoric village in the Middle East dating back to 9800 B.C., Sahneh, was located in west of Kermanshah, in Kermanshah province.
  • Norway: First traces of population in Randaberg.
  • Persia: The goat is domesticated.
  • Sahara: Bubalus Period.

Americas

North America

Australasia

Australia

Environmental changes

c. 10,000 BC:

c. 9700 BC: Lake Agassiz forms

c. 9700 BC: Younger Dryas cold period ends. Pleistocene ends and Holocene begins. Paleolithic ends and Mesolithic begins. Large amounts of previously glaciated land become habitable again.

In popular culture

Chronological studies

Footnotes

  1. ^ Roberts (1994)
  2. ^ "Historical Estimates of World Population". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2010. 
  3. ^ Kislev et al. (2006a, b), Lev-Yadun et al. (2006)
  4. ^ Pankhurst, Richard (1998). The Ethiopians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. p. 5.  
  5. ^ First Buildings May Have Been Community Centers, Science Magazine, 2 May 2011. [1]
  6. ^ Farming Got Hip In Iran Some 12,000 Years Ago, Ancient Seeds Reveal, July 05, 2013 [2]
  7. ^ Ker Than (15 August 2013). "Oldest North American Rock Art May Be 14,800 Years Old". National Geographic. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 

References

  • Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006a): Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley. Science 312(5778): 1372. doi:10.1126/science.1125910 PMID 16741119 (HTML abstract) Supporting Online Material
  • Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2006b): Response to Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 314(5806): 1683b. doi:10.1126/science.1133748 PDF fulltext
  • Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Abbo, Shahal & Flaishman, Moshe A. (2006): Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science 314(5806): 1683a. doi:10.1126/science.1132636 PDF fulltext
  • Roberts, J. (1996): History of the World. Penguin.
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