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2009 In Paleontology

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2009 In Paleontology

            List of years in paleontology           
... 1999 . 2000 . 2001 . 2002 . 2003 . 2004 . 2005 ...
2006 2007 2008 -2009- 2010 2011 2012
... 2013 . 2014 . 2015 . 2016 . 2017 . 2018 . 2019 ...
   In science: 2006 2007 2008 -2009- 2010 2011 2012     
Art . Archaeology . Architecture . Literature . Music . Philosophy . Science +...
Important taxa described (but not necessarily validly named) in 2009

life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2009.

Arthropods

Anomalocaridids

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Schinderhannes[2]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kühl, Briggs, & Rust

Lower Devonian

Hunsrück Slate

 Germany

Arachnids

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Palaeoperenethis[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Selden & Penney

Ypresian

Horsefly Lagerstätte, British Columbia

 Canada

Insects

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Agulla mineralensis[4]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Late Barstovian

Stewart Valley Group

 USA

only described Neogene snakefly fossil

Allorapisma[5]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Makarkin & Archibald

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Apis (Cascapis) nearctica[6]

sp nov

Valid

Engel, Hinojosa-Diaz, & Rasnitsyn

Middle Miocene

 USA

The first fossil honey bee from the New World.

Aspidopleura[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Brevivulva[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Cimbrophlebia brooksi[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Cimbrophlebia flabelliformis[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Kamloops Group, McAbee, British Columbia

 Canada

Cimbrophlebia leahyi[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Kamloops Group, McAbee, British Columbia

 Canada

Cimbrophlebia westae[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Denaeaspis[9]

gen et sp nov

valid

Chaboo & Engel

Lutetian

Parachute Member, Green River Formation

 USA

One of the oldest tortoise beetles

Eosacantha[9]

gen et sp nov

valid

Chaboo & Engel

Lutetian

Parachute Member, Green River Formation

 USA

One of the oldest tortoise beetles

Leptofoenus pittfieldae[10]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Metapelma archetypon[7]

sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Neanaperiallus[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Nesagapostemon[11]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

[12]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald, Makarkin, & Ansorge

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Oligochlora semirugosa[11]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Pronymphes hoffeinsorum[12]

Valid

Archibald, Makarkin, Ansorge

Priabonian

Yantarny [=Palmnicken], Kaliningradskaya Oblast’

 Russia

Termitaradus mitnicki[13]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Cephalopods

Three new species of extinct Octopoda discovered in 2009. The species - Keuppia hyperbolaris, Keuppia levante, and Styletoctopus annae - lived about 95 million years ago, and bear a strong resemblance to modern octopuses, suggesting that the Octopoda order has remained relatively unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossils included evidence of arms, muscles, rows of suckers, ink, and internal gills. The discovery was made by a team led by Dirk Fuchs of the Freie University, which is located at Berlin, Germany.[14] The fossils were found at Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon.[15] Various new ammonoid taxa were named, including Ivoites.

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Keuppia[16]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Styletoctopus[16]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Ivoites[17]

gen nov

Valid

De Baets, Klug, & Korn

Lower Emsian

 Germany

Amphibians

Newly named amphibians

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cratia[18]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Possible stem neobatrachian

Eurycephalella[18]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A hyloid

Nannaroter[19]

Valid

Early Permian

 USA

The smallest known ostodolepid microsaur

Nesovtriton[20]

Valid

  • Skutschas

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Regalerpeton[21]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Huajiying Formation

 China

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Spinarerpeton[22]

Valid

  • Klembara

Early Permian

Boskovice Furrow

 Czech Republic

A discosauriscid seymouriamorph

Anapsids

Newly named anapsids

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Angolachelys[23]

Valid

Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

 Angola

Aurorachelys[24]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Strand Fiord Formation

 Canada

Australothyris[25]

Valid

Middle Permian

Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A basal parareptile

Basilochelys[26]

Valid

Late Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous

Phu Kradung Formation

 Thailand

Cedrobaena[27]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 USA

New genus for "Plesiobaena" putorius Gaffney, 1972

Derrisemys[28]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[29]

Eileanchelys[30]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Kilmaluag Formation

 Scotland

Hutchemys[31]

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Revan
  • Lyson
  • Danilov

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation
Tullock Formation

 USA

A plastomenine softshell turtles

Kinkonychelys[32]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Palatobaena cohen[33]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Peckemys[27]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Plastomenoides[28]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[29]

Procolina[34]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Lubka

early Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A procolophonine procolophonid

Bony fish

Newly named Tetrapodomoprhs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Heddleichthys[35]

Valid

  • Snitting

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Dura Den Formation

 Scotland

Langlieria[36]

Valid

  • Clément
  • Snitting
  • Ahlberg

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Evieux Formation

 Belgium

  • Shimada, K.; Everhart, M.J. (2009). "First record of Anomoeodus (Osteichthyes: Pycnodontiformes) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas". Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 112 (1/2): 98–102.  

A new species of late Maastrichtian bony fish (Ichthyodectiformes: Saurocephalus) from Jordan, Saurocephalus longicorpus described by Kaddumi (2009)

A new species of late Maastrichtian bony fish (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) from Jordan, Enchodus harranaensis described by Kaddumi (2009)

Reference: Kaddumi, H. F. 2009. Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. Publications of the Etrnal Rive Museum of Natural History, Amman. 324 pp.

Archosauromorphs

Basal archosauromorphs

Newly named basal archosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Czatkowiella[37]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Evans

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph

Crurotarsans

Newly named crurotarsans
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Armadillosuchus[38]

Valid

  • Marinho
  • Carvalho

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

Notosuchian with heavy, armadillo-like body armor consisting of flexible bands and rigid shields

Barcinosuchus[39]

Valid

  • Leardi
  • Pol

Aptian - Albian

Cerro Barcino Formation

 Argentina

A peirosaurid

Collilongus[40]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Sennikov

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

Possible rauisuchian

Coringasuchus[41]

Valid

Early Cenomanian

Alcântara Formation

 Brazil

Duerosuchus[42]

Valid

  • Santiago
  • Andrés

Middle Eocene

 Spain

Hypselorhachis[43]

Valid

Middle Triassic

Manda Beds

 Tanzania

Possible ctenosauriscid

Kaprosuchus[44]

Valid

Upper Cretaceous

Echkar Formation

 Niger

Unusual large mahajangasuchid with hypertrophied caniniform teeth and posteriorly projecting horns

Kemkemia[45]

Valid

  • Cau & Maganuco

Cenomanian

Kem Kem Beds

 Morocco

Initially identified as a theropod dinosaur,[45] but subsequently discovered to be a crocodyliform.[46]

Khoratosuchus[47]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

 Thailand

Youngest Mesozoic crocodyliform yet known from Thailand

Laganosuchus [44]

Valid

Cenomanian

Echkar Formation
Kem Kem Beds

 Niger
 Morocco

Miadanasuchus [48]

Valid

  • Simons
  • Buckley

Campanian

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

A new genus for "Trematochampsa" oblita (Buffetaut & Taquet, 1979)

Morrinhosuchus[49]

Valid

  • Iori
  • Carvalho

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

Notosuchian from Brazil

Penghusuchus[50]

Valid

Late Miocene

 Taiwan

A tomistomine crocodilian.

Polonosuchus[51]

Valid

Late Carnian

 Poland

A new genus for "Teratosaurus" silesiacus (Sulej, 2005)

Yacarerani [52]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

 Bolivia

Non-avian dinosaurs

Research

  • Knoll, F., Padian, K., and de Ricqles, A. 2009. Ontogenetic change and adult body size of the early ornithischian dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: Implications for basal ornithischian taxonomy. Gondwana Research. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2009.03.010.
  • Matthews, J. C., Brusatte, S. L., Williams, S. A., and Henderson, M. D., 2009, The first Triceratops bonebed and its implications for gregarious behavior Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology v. 29, n. 1, p. 286-290.
  • Williamson, T. E., Carr, T. D., Williams, S. A., and Tremaine, K., 2009, Early ontogeny of pachycephalosaurine squamosals as revealed by juvenile specimens from the Hell Creek Formation, eastern Montana: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 291-294.
  • Bittencourt, J.S., and A.W.A. Kellner. 2009. The anatomy and phylogenetic position of the Triassic dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970. Zootaxa 2079:1-56.
  • Chin, K.; Hartman, J.H.; Roth, B. (2009). "Opportunistic exploitation of dinosaur dung: fossil snails in coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana". Lethaia 42 (2): 185–198.  
  • Maidment, S.C.R., and Porro, L.B. 2009. Homology of the palpebral and origin of supraorbital ossifications in ornithischian dinosaurs. Lethaia. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00172.x.
  • Gates, T.A., and Farke, A.A. 2009. Biostratigraphic and biogeographic implications of a hadrosaurid (Ornithopoda: Dinosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Almond Formation of Wyoming, USA. Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.05.001.
  • Moratalla, J.J.; Hernán, J. (2008). "Los Cayos S y D: dos afloramientos con icnitas de saurópodos, terópodos y ornitópodos en el Cretácico Inferior del área de Los Cayos (Cornago, La Rioja, España)". Estudios Geológicos 64 (2): 161–173.  
  • Taylor, M.P.; Wedel, M.J.; Naish, D. (2009). "Head and neck posture in sauropod dinosaurs inferred from extant animals". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54 (2): 213–220.  

Hadrosaur chewing study

A study titled "Quantitative analysis of dental microwear in hadrosaurid dinosaurs, and the implications for hypotheses of jaw mechanics and feeding" is published by British paleontologists Mark Purnell, Paul Barrett and student Vince Williams. The paper examined the chewing methods and diet of hadrosaurid ("duck billed") dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period. The scientists analyzed hundreds of microscopic scratches on the teeth of a fossilized Edmontosaurus jaw, and believe they determined exactly how a hadrosaur broke down and ate its food, which had previously eluded researchers.

The study found hadrosaurs had a unique way of eating unlike any creature living today. In contrast to a flexible lower jaw joint prevalent in today's mammals, hadrosaurs had a unique hinge between the upper jaws and the rest of its skull. The team found the dinosaur's upper jaws pushed outwards and sideways while chewing, as the lower jaw slid against the upper teeth.

The study also concluded that hadrosaurs likely grazed on horsetails and vegetation close to the ground, rather than browsing higher-growing leaves and twigs. However, Purnell said these conclusions were less secure than the more conclusive evidence regarding the motion of teeth while chewing. Previous studies found contradictory conclusions, and the issue remains a subject of debate.

The findings were published on June 30, 2009 in the journal, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Purnell said no previous study had ever employed this method of analyzing microscopic teeth scratches, and that the method could be used to study other areas of scientific research.

New taxa

Data courtesy of George Olshevky's dinosaur genera list.[55] ~44 dinosaur genera were erected in 2009.

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images
Adeopapposaurus[56] Valid
  • Ricardo N. Martínez

Cañón del Colorado Formation

 Argentina

Aerosteon[57] Valid

Rio Colorado Formation

 Argentina

Albalophosaurus [58]

Valid
  • Ohashi
  • Barrett

Kuwajima Formation

 Japan

Albertonykus[59] Valid

lower Maastrichtian

Horseshoe Canyon Formation

 Canada

Anchiornis[60] Valid

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

Angulomastacator[61]

Valid

  • J. R. Wagner
  • Lehman

Aguja Formation

 USA

Arenysaurus[62]

Valid

  • Xabier Pereda-Suberbiolaa
  • José Ignacio Canudob
  • et al.[CAL 13]

Australovenator[63]

Valid

Winton Formation

 Australia

Baotianmansaurus[64]

Valid

Gaogou Formation

 China

Barrosasaurus[65]

Valid
  • Salgado
  • Coria

Anacleto Formation

 Argentina

Ceratonykus[66]

Valid

  • Alifanov
  • Barsbold

Barun Goyot Formation

 Mongolia

Diamantinasaurus[67]

Valid

Winton Formation

 Australia

Elrhazosaurus[68]

Valid

  • Galton

Elrhaz Formation

 Niger

Helioceratops[69]

Valid

Quantou Formation

 China

Hesperonychus[70]

Valid

  • Longrich
  • Currie

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada

Smallest known dinosaur from North America.

Jintasaurus[71]

Valid

  • You
  • Li

Xinminpu Group

 China

Kinnareemimus[72]

Valid

  • Buffetaut
  • Suteethorn
  • Tong

Sao Khua Formation

 Thailand

Kol[73]

Valid

  • Turner
  • Nesbitt
  • Norell

Djadochta Formation

 Mongolia

Kol

Leshansaurus[74]

Valid

Shangshaximiao Formation

 China

Levnesovia[75] Valid
  • Sues
  • Averianov

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

The oldest Hadrosauroidean

Limusaurus[76] Valid
  • Xu

Shishugou Formation

 China

The first Asian ceratosaur to be discovered

Luoyanggia[77] Valid

Mangchuan Formation

 China

An oviraptorosaur

Malarguesaurus[78] Valid
  • González Riga
  • Previtera
  • Pirrone

Portezuelo Formation

 Argentina

Minotaurasaurus[79] Valid
  • Clifford A. Miles
  • Clark J. Mikes
Miragaia[80] Valid
  • Mateus
  • Maidment
  • Christiansen

Sobral Formation

 Portugal

Long necked stegosaur.

Owenodon[68]

Valid

  • Galton

Purbeck Limestone

 UK

Panphagia[81] Valid
  • Martinez
  • Alcober

Ischigualasto Formation

 Argentina

The most basal known sauropodomorph.[81]

Qiaowanlong[71]

Valid
  • You
  • Li

Xinminpu Group

 China

Raptorex[82]

Yixian Formation

 China

Tyrannosauroidea

Ruyangosaurus[83]

Valid

Mangchuan Formation

 China

Shaochilong[84]

Valid

Ulansuhai Formation

 China

Shidaisaurus[85]

Valid

Upper Lufeng Formation

 China

Sinotyrannus[86]

Valid

  • Ji
  • Ji
  • Zhang

Jiufotang Formation

 China

Skorpiovenator[87] Valid

Huincul Formation

 Argentina

Spinophorosaurus[88]

Irhazer Group

 Niger

Sauropoda

Tatankacephalus[89]

Valid

  • Parsons
  • Parsons

Cloverly Formation

 USA

Tawa[90]

Valid

Chinle Formation

 USA

Tethyshadros[91]

Valid

  • Dalla Vecchia

Liburnia Formation

 Italy

Tianyulong[92]

Valid

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

Wintonotitan[67]

Valid

Winton Formation

 Australia

Xianshanosaurus[77] Valid

Mangchuan Formation

 China

A sauropod

"Xinghesaurus"

Nomen nudum

Name published without scientific description in Japanese guidebook "Dinosaur Expo 2009: The Miracle of Deserts"

Zanabazar[93]

Valid

Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

Aves

Research

  • Anfinson, O.A., Lockley, M.G., Kim, S.H., Kim, K.S., and Kim, J.Y. 2009. First report of the small bird track Koreanaornis from the Cretaceous of North America: implications for avian ichnotaxonomy and paleoecology. Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.02.001.
  • Lockley, M., Chin, K., Houck, K., Matsukawa, M., and Kukihara, R. 2009. New interpretations of Ignotornis, the first-reported Mesozoic avian footprints: implications for the paleoecology and behavior of an enigmatic Cretaceous bird. Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.04.001.
  • Bell, A.; Everhart, M.J. (2009). "A new specimen of Parahesperornis (Aves: Hesperornithiformes) from the Smoky Hill Chalk (Early Campanian) of western Kansas". Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 112 (1/2): 7–14.  

Newly described birds

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alamitornis minutus [94]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Federico L. Agnolin

Agustín G. Martinelli

Late Cretaceous

Los Alamitos Formation

 Argentina

Placed in ?Patagopterygiformes by Agnolin and Martinelli.

Australotadorna alecwilsoni [95]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Oligocene

Etadunna Formation

 Australia

An Anatidae.

Bonasa nini [96]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Antonio Sánchez Marco

Early Pleistocene

Lower Elefante, TE 13 layer

 Spain:

 Castile and León

A Phasianidae.

Calidris janossyi [97]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

A Scolopacidae.

Calonectris kurodai [98]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Middle Miocene

Calvert Formation

 USA:

 Virginia

A Procellariidae, the smallest of the genus.

Cariama santacrucensis [99]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jorge I. Noriega

Sergio F. Vizcaino

Susana Bargo

Early-Middle Miocene

Estancia La Costa Member,

Santa Cruz Formation

 Argentina

A Cariamidae, Federico L. Agnolin, 2009, placed this species in Noriegavis Agnolin, 2009.[100]

Charadrius lambrechti.[97]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

A Scolopacidae.

Clangula matraensis [101]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Middle Miocene

MN 6-8

 Hungary

An Anatidae.

Confuciusornis feducciai [102]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zuhui Zhang

Chunling Gao

Qingjin Meng

Jinyuan Liu

Lianhai Hou

Guangmei Zheng

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A Confuciusornithidae.

Cygnopterus neogradiensis [103]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

János Hír

Middle Miocene

Sajóvölgy Formation,

MN 7-8

 Hungary

An Anatidae.

Diomedeoides harmati [104]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Early Oligocene

MP 24

 Hungary

A Diomedeoididae Fischer, 1985, placed in Rupelornis van Beneden, 1871 by Gerald Mayr and Thierry Smith, 2012

Egretta polgardiensis [101]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

An Ardeidae

Elbretornis bonapartei [105]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Cyril A. Walker

Gareth J. Dyke

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Euenantiornithes Chiappe, 2002, this is the type species of the new genus.

Eoanseranas handae [106]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

John D. Scanlon

Late Oligocene - Early Miocene

Riverleigh World Heritage Property

 Australia:

 Queensland

An Anseranatidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Gansugyps linxiaensis [107]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Zhang Zihui

Zheng Xiaoting

Zheng Guangmei

Hou Lianhai

Late Miocene

Upper Liushu Formation

 China

An Accipitridae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Heliadornis minor [101]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Pliocene

MN 15-16

 Slovakia

A Phaethontidae.

Heliornis sumeghensis [97]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Miocene

MN 11-12

 Hungary

A Heliornithidae

Jianchangornis microdonta [108]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Zhou Zhonghe

Zhang Fucheng

Li Zhiheng

Early Cretaceous

Albian

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A basal Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866, this is the type species of the new genus.

Martinavis minor [105]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cyril A. Walker

Gareth J. Dyke

Late Cretaceous

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Euenantiornithes Chiappe, 2002.

Martinavis saltariensis [105]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cyril A. Walker

Gareth J. Dyke

Late Cretaceous

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Euenantiornithes Chiappe, 2002.

Martinavis whetstonei [105]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cyril A. Walker

Gareth J. Dyke

Late Cretaceous

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Euenantiornithes Chiappe, 2002.

Megalocoturnix cordoni [96]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Antonio Sánchez Marco

Early Pliocene

Ruscinian,

MN 15

 Spain:

 Castile and León

A Phasianidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Megapaloelodus peiranoi [109]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Federico L. Agnolin

Late Miocene

Andalhualá Formation

 Argentina

A Phoenicopteriformes, Palaelodidae Stejneger, 1885.

Mergus minor [101]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Middle Miocene

MN 6-8

 Hungary

An Anatidae.

Miocepphus blowi [110]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Erik Wijnker

Storrs L. Olson

Late Miocene

Eastover Formation;

Breda Formation Mill

 USA:

 Virginia;

 Netherlands:

 North Brabant

An Alcidae.

Miocepphus bohaskai [110]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Erik Wijnker

Storrs L. Olson

Late Miocene

Eastover Formation;

Breda Formation Mill

 USA:

 Maryland,

 Virginia;

 Netherlands:

 North Brabant

An Alcidae.

Miocepphus mergulellus [110]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Erik Wijnker

Storrs L. Olson

Late Miocene

Eastover Formation

 USA:

 North Carolina

An Alcidae.

Palaeocryptonyx novaki [96]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Antonio Sánchez Marco

Late Pliocene

Villanyan,

MN 16

 Spain

 Castilla-La Mancha

A Phasianidae.

Paracoracias occidentalis [111]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Julia A. Clarke

Daniel T. Ksepka

N. Adam Smith

Mark A. Norell

Eocene

Green River Formation

 USA:

 Wyoming?

A stem Coraiiformes.

Pinpanetta fromensis [95]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Oligocene

Etadunna Formation

 Australia:

 South Australia

An Anatidae.

Pinpanetta tedfordi [95]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Oligocene

Etadunna Formation

 Australia

 South Australia

An Anatidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Pinpanetta vickersrichae [95]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Oligocene

Etadunna Formation

 Australia

An Anatidae.

Podiceps csarnotatus [101]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Pliocene

MN 15-16

 Hungary

A Podicipedidae.

Porzana kretzoii [97]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Late Miocene

MN 13

 Hungary

A Rallidae.

Porzana matraensis [97]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Jenö Kessler

Middle Miocene

MN 6-8

 Hungary

A Rallidae.

Primozygodactylus eunjooae [112]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Middle Eocene

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Zygodactylidae Brodkorb, 1971.

Pseudocepphus teres [110]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Erik Wijnker

Storrs L. Olson

Late Miocene

St. Marys Formation

 USA:

 Maryland

An Alcidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Rapaxavis pani [113]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Eric M. Morschhauser

David J. Varricchio

Gao Chunling

Liu Jinyuan

Wang Xuri

Cheng Xiadong

Meng Qingjin

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Longipterygidae Zhang, Zhou, Hou et Gu, 2000, this is the type species of the new genus.

Rupephaps taketake [114]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Trevor H. Worthy

Suzanne J. Hand

Jennifer P. Worthy

Alan J. D. Tennyson

R. Paul Scofield

Early Miocene,

Altonian

Bannockburn Formation

 New Zealand

An Columbidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Sapeornis angustis [115]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Pauline Provini

Zhou Zhonghe

Zhang Fucheng

Early Cretaceous,

Aptian

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A Sapeornithidae Zhou et Zhang, 2006.

Selenornis steendorpensis [116]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Early Oligocene,

MP ?23-24

Boom Formation

 Belgium:

 East Flanders

A Tytonidae, Selenornithinae Mourer-Chauviré, 1987.

Shanweiniao cooperorum [117]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Jingmai K. O'Connor

Xuri Wang

Luis M. Chiappe

Chunling Gao

Qingjin Meng

Xiaodong Cheng

Jinyuan Liu

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Familia Longipterygidae Zhang, Zhou, Hou et Gu, 2000, this is the type species of the new genus.

Talpanas lippa [118]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Helen F. James

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

An Anatidae, Kaua'i Mole Duck, a Hawaiian duck that probably lived a kiwi-like lifestyle, this is the type species of the new genus.

Tologuica aurorae [119]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Middle Miocene

Ööshin Formation

 Mongolia

A Phasianidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Tologuica karhui [119]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Nikita V. Zelenkov

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Middle Miocene

Ööshin Formation

 Mongolia

A Phasianidae.

Pterosaurs

Newly named pterosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carniadactylus[120]

Valid

  • Dalla Vecchia

Late Triassic

 Italy

A campylognathoidid with a wingspan of about 70 cm.

Changchengopterus[121]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

A primitive long-tailed pterosaur related to Dorygnathus.

Ningchengopterus[122]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A pterodactyloid known from a juvenile specimen whose fossils preserved details of the flight membrane and fur.

Wukongopterus[123]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Kellner
  • Jiang
  • Meng

Late Jurassic

Daohugou Beds

 China

A primitive long tailed pterosaur. The type specimen shows evidence of the animal having broken its shin while alive.

Lepidosauromorphs

Basal lepidosauromorphs

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pamelina[124]

Valid

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal kuehneosaurid

Sophineta[125]

Valid

  • Evans
  • Borsuk−Białynicka

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal lepidosauromorph

Plesiosaurs

  • O'Keefe, F. R.; Street, H. P. (2009). "Osteology of the cryptocleidoid plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with comments on the taxonomic status of the Cimoliasauridae". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (1): 48–57.  
Newly named plesiosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gallardosaurus[126]

Valid

  • Gasparini

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Jagua Formation

 Cuba

Nichollssaura[127]

Valid

  • Druckenmiller
  • Russell

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Clearwater Formation

 Canada

Replacement name for Nichollsia Druckenmiller & Russell, 2008, preoccupied by an isopod genus Nichollsia Chopra & Tiwari, 1950

Squamates

Newly named squamates
Name Status Authors Notes Images
Titanoboa[128] Valid

In February, the fossils of 28 individual T. cerrejonensis (Titanoboas) were announced to have been found in the coal mines of Cerrejón, La Guajira, Colombia.[129]

Synapsids

Non-mammalian

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Protuberum[130]

Valid

  • Reichel
  • Schultz
  • Soares

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

Raranimus[131]

Valid

  • Liu
  • Rubidge
  • Li

Middle Permian (Roadian)

Xidagou Formation

 China

Yuanotherium[132]

Valid

  • Hu
  • Meng
  • Clark

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Shishugou Formation

 China

Mammals

  • Fujiwara, S.-I. 2009. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology. doi:10.1002/jmor.10748.
  • Fujiwara, S.-I., Kuwazuru, O., Inuzuka, N., and Yochikawa, N. 2009. Relationship between scapular position and structural strength of rib cage in quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology. doi:10.1002/jmor.10744.
  • Mitchell, G., van Sittert, S.J., and Skinner, J.D. 2009. Sexual selection is not the origin of long necks in giraffes. Journal of Zoology. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00573.x.
Newly named mammals
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anoiapithecus[134]

Valid

Middle Miocene

 Spain

Arcantiodelphys[135]

Valid

Cenomanian

 France

Corriebaatar[136]

Valid

Aptian

Wonthaggi Formation

 Australia

First Australian multituberculate.

Darwinius[137]

Valid

early Geiseltalian

Messel Formation

 Germany

Diaceratherium massiliae[138]

Valid

  • Ménouret & Guérin

Late Oligocene

 France

A rhinoceros, a species of Diaceratherium.

Disallomys[139]

Valid

  • Korth

Late Oligocene

 United States

An aplodontiid rodent, a new genus for the species "Allomys" storeri Tedrow and Korth. Genus also contains two new species: Disallomys robustus and D. intermedius.

Douglassciurus sapphirus[140]

Valid

  • Korth

Late Oligocene

 United States

A sciurine squirrel, a species of Douglassciurus.

Duerotherium[141]

Valid

  • Cuesta
  • Badiola

Middle Eocene

An anoplotheriine artiodactyl

Eritherium[142]

Valid

  • Gheerbrant

Early Thanetian

Ouled Abdoun basin

 Morocco

The oldest, smallest and most primitive elephant relative.

Ganlea[143]

Valid

late Middle Eocene

Pondaung Formation

 Myanmar

Heliscomys walshi[144]

Valid

  • Kelly

Middle Eocene

Sespe Formation

 United States

A heliscomyid rodent, a species of Heliscomys.

Kahawamys[145]

Valid

Late Oligocene

Nsungwe Formation

 Tanzania

A thryonomyoid rodent

Legionarictis[146]

Valid

  • Tseng
  • Wang
  • Stewart

Miocene (Barstovian)

Temblor Formation

 United States

A mustelid. The type species is Legionarictis fortidens.

Maiacetus[147]

Valid

early Middle Eocene

Habib Rahi Formation

 Pakistan

Meiconodon[148]

Valid

Aptian/Albian

Fuxin Formation
Shahai Formation

 China

A alticonodontine triconodontid

Mustela nivalis kudarensis[149]

Valid

  • Baryshnikov

Middle to late Pleistocene

South Ossetia

A fossil subspecies of the least weasel.

Nalameryx[150]

Valid

  • Métais
  • Welcomme
  • Ducrocq

Middle Oligocene

Chitarwata Formation

 Pakistan

A lophiomerycid ruminant

Niglarodon brachyodon[139]

Valid

  • Korth

Late Oligocene

 United States

An aplodontiid rodent, a species of Niglarodon.

Oligospermophilus emryi[140]

Valid

  • Korth

Late Oligocene

 United States

A cedromurine squirrel, a species of Oligospermophilus emryi.

Praesinomegaceros venustus[151]

Valid

  • Vislobokova

Late Miocene (late Turolian)

 Russia

A megacerine deer, a species of Praesinomegaceros.

Prosciurus clausulus[139]

Valid

  • Korth

Late Oligocene

 United States

An aplodontiid rodent, a species of Prosciurus.

Proterix minimus[152]

Valid

  • Korth

Late Oligocene

 United States

An erinaceid, a species of Proterix.

Puijila[153]

Valid

  • Rybczynski
  • Dawson
  • Tedford

Early Miocene

 Canada

Extinct genus of pinniped.

Plants

Angiosperms

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucalyptolaurus[154]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Coiffard et al.

uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian

Charente-Maritimes

 France

Relevant research in other sciences

Evolutionary biology

  • A study is published that proposes that females from certain taxa use ornaments as a criterion for mate choice because other dimorphic structures, like biological "weaponry" could be used to coerce or force them to mate.[155]
  • A study concludes that biotic factors have more pronounced local and short term evolutionary impacts than abiotic factors, which in turn have a more pronounced effect through time and on biodiversity as a whole.[156]

Extinction

A study noting the effects of the KT mass extinction on Earth's modern biota is published.[157]

Geology

  • Zhang, H.; Wei, Z.-L.; Liu, X.-M.; Li, D. (2009). "Constraints on the age of the Tuchengzi Formation by LA-ICP-MS dating in northern Hebei-western Liaoning, China". Science China Earth Sciences 52 (4): 461–470.  

Ichnology

Paleobiogeography

  • Pereda-Suberbiola, X. 2009. Biogeographical affinities of Late Cretaceous

continental tetrapods of Europe: a review. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 180(1):57-71. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.180.1.57.

Paleoecology

  • Nicolas, M., and Rubidge, B.S. 2009. Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa. Lethaia. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Footnotes

Complete author list

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Mateus, Jacobs, Polcyn, Schulp, Vineyard, Neto, Antunes.
  2. ^ Vandermark, Tarduno, Brinkman, Cottrell, Mason.
  3. ^ Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubba, Wongko, Yuandetkla.
  4. ^ Anquetin, Barrett, Jones, Moore-Fay, Evans.
  5. ^ Kellner, Pinheiro, Azevedo, Henriques, de Carvalho, Oliveira.
  6. ^ Butler, Barrett, Abel, Gower.
  7. ^ Lauprasert, Cuny, Thirakhupt, Suteethorn.
  8. ^ Shan, Wu, Cheng, Sato.
  9. ^ Brusatte, Butler, Sulej, Niedźwiedzki.
  10. ^ Novas, Pais, Pol, Carvalho, Mones, Scanferla, Riglos.
  11. ^ Sereno, R. N. Martinez, J. A. Wilson, Varricchio, Alcober.
  12. ^ Xu X., Zhao Q., Norell, C. Sullivan, Hone, Erickson, Wang X. L., Han F., Guo.
  13. ^ Xabier Pereda-Suberbiolaa, José Ignacio Canudob, Penélope Cruzado-Caballerob, José Luis Barcoc, Nieves López-Martínezd, Oriol Omse, José Ignacio Ruiz-Omeñaca.
  14. ^ a b c Hocknull, White, Tischler, Cook, Calleja, Sloan, Elliott.
  15. ^ Zhang, X., Lü, J., Xu, L., Li, J., Yang, L.K., Hu, W., Jia, S., Ji, Q. Zhang, C.
  16. ^ Jin, Chen, Zan, Godefroit.
  17. ^ Li, Peng, Jiang, Huang.
  18. ^ a b Lü, Xu, Jiang, Jia, Li, Yuan, Zhang, Ji.
  19. ^ Sereno, Brusatte, Kriegstein, Zhao, Cloward.
  20. ^ Lu, Xu, Jia, Zhang, Zhang, Yang, You, Ji.
  21. ^ Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan, Hone.
  22. ^ Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan, Tang.
  23. ^ Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin, Novas.
  24. ^ Remes, Ortega, Fierro, Joger, Kosma, Ferrer.
  25. ^ Nesbitt, Smith, Irmis, Turner, Downs, Norell.
  26. ^ Zheng, You, Xu, Dong.
  27. ^ Hasegawa, Carpenter, Lamanna, Xu.
  28. ^ Norell, Makovicky, Bever, Balanoff, Clark, Barsbold, Rowe.
  29. ^ Moyà-Solà, Alba, Almécija, Casanovas-Vilar, Köhler, De Esteban-Trivigno, Robles, Galindo, Fortuny.
  30. ^ Vullo, Gheerbrant, de Muizon, Néraudeau.
  31. ^ Rich, Vickers-Rich, Flannery, Kear, Cantrill, Komarower, Kool, Pickering, Trusler, Morton, van Klaveren, Fitzgerald.
  32. ^ Franzen, Gingerich, Habersetzer, Hurum, von Koenigswald, Smith.
  33. ^ Beard, Marivaux, Chaimanee, Jaeger, Marandat, Tafforeau, Soe, Tun, Kyaw.
  34. ^ Stevens, Holroyd, Roberts, O'connor, Gottfried.
  35. ^ Gingerich, ul-Haq, von Koenigswald, Sanders, Smith, Zalmout.
  36. ^ Kusuhashi, Hu, Wang, Hirasawa, Matsuoka.

References

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