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Banksia scabrella

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Title: Banksia scabrella  
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Subject: Banksia grossa, Banksia ser. Abietinae, Banksia subg. Banksia, Goings-on/August 22, 2010, The genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)
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Banksia scabrella

Burma Road Banksia
A yellow flowerhead next to an old grey cone
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae
Genus: Banksia
Subgenus: Banksia subg. Banksia
Section: Banksia sect. Oncostylis
Series: Banksia ser. Abietinae
Species: B. scabrella
Binomial name
Banksia scabrella
A.S.George

Banksia scabrella, commonly known as the Burma Road Banksia, is a species of woody shrub in the genus Banksia. It is classified in the series Abietinae, a group of several species of shrubs with small round or oval inflorescences. It occurs in a number of isolated populations south of Geraldton, Western Australia, with the largest population being south and east of Mount Adams. Found on sandy soils in heathland or shrubland, it grows to 2 m (7 ft) high and 3 m (10 ft) across with fine needle-like leaves. Appearing in spring and summer, the inflorescences are round to oval in shape and tan to cream with purple styles. Banksia scabrella is killed by fire and regenerates by seed.

Originally collected in 1966, Banksia scabrella was one of several species previously considered to be forms of horticultural potential.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Taxonomy 2
  • Distribution and habitat 3
  • Ecology 4
  • Cultivation 5
  • Notes 6
  • External links 7

Description

Banksia scabrella grows as a low shrub to 2 m (7 ft) in height and 3 m (10 ft) across, with a spreading habit. Its lateral branches are low and often rest on the ground. The small linear leaves measure 0.8 to 2.8 cm in length and 0.1 cm in width and are crowded along the stems. George recorded flowering as occurring in spring and summer (September to January),[1] but [1]

Taxonomy

An untidy-looking shrub around 1.5 m high in shrubland
Habit, near Walkaway Wind Farm

First collected on 4 September 1966, southeast of [3] It was one of several new species previously regarded as a form of Banksia sphaerocarpa.[4]

In 1996, botanists

  • "Banksia scabrella".  
  • "Banksia scabrella".  

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h George, Alex S. (1981). " 
  2. ^ a b c d e Taylor, Anne; Hopper, Stephen (1988).  
  3. ^ a b c d  
  4. ^ Blake, Trevor (1982). "The Banksia revision". Banksia Study Report (Ringwood, Victoria: Banksia Study Group) 6: 1–19.  
  5. ^ a b  
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Mast, Austin R; Thiele, Kevin (2007). "The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)". Australian Systematic Botany 20 (1): 63–71.  
  8. ^ a b Holliday, Ivan; Watton, Geoffrey (2008) [1977]. Banksias: A Field and Garden Guide (3rd ed.). Adelaide, South Australia:  
  9. ^ A.S.George"Banksia scabrella".  
  10. ^ Chapman, Alex (4 May 2010). "Western Australian Flora Conservation Taxa". FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 28 April 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010. 
  11. ^  
  12. ^ "Phytophthora cinnamomi"Part 2, Appendix 4: The responses of native Australian plant species to (PDF). for Biodiversity Conservation in AustraliaManagement of Phytophthora cinnamomi .  
  13. ^ L.f."Banksia".  
  14. ^ Chant, Alanna; Stack, Gillian (2009). ): Recovery Plan"Leucopogon marginatus"Thick-margined Leucopogon (. Department of Environment and Conservation website. Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australian Government. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  15. ^ Foulds, Bill; McMillan, Peter (1988). Burma Road Reserve report 1988: An ecological study of Burma Road Reserve, Greenough Shire, Western Australia. Perth: Western Australian College of Advanced Education. pp. 60, 67. NBD6563629 (Libraries Australia id). 
  16. ^ Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Gove, Aaron D.; Sanders Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert D. (2008). "Climate change, plant migration, and range collapse in a global biodiversity hotspot: the Banksia (Proteaceae) of Western Australia". Global Change Biology 14 (6): 1–16.  
  17. ^ Sweedman, Luke; Merritt, David. (2006). Australian Seeds: A Guide to their Collection, Identification and Biology. CSIRO Publishing. p. 203.  
  18. ^ a b Collins, Kevin; Collins, Kathy; George, Alex S. (2008). Banksias. Melbourne, Victoria: Bloomings Books. pp. 321–22.  

Notes

Seeds do not require any treatment, and take 14 to 16 days to germinate.[17] Rarely cultivated, Banksia scabrella flowers in 3 to 5 years from seed.[18] Information is limited on its reliability, but it has been grown successfully in South Australia.[8] It is fast-growing but ultimately untidy in habit, and would benefit from regular pruning. Some forms in the wild have a more compact habit, and are more promising for horticulture.[18]

Cultivation

The region between Geraldton and [1] It is also associated with the endangered heath shrub Leucopogon marginatus.[14] Burma Road Nature Reserve is one of the few protected conservation areas in its range; there, Banksia scabrella is found most commonly in (and forms a prominent part of) a mallee sedgeland, which is dominated by the cord rush Ecdeiocolea monostachya as a ground cover, and the mallee Eucalyptus eudesmoides as an emergent species. It is found occasionally in acacia scrub-heath, and rarely in acacia thickets and banksia woodland.[15] An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on this species found that its range is unlikely to contract and may actually grow, depending on how effectively it migrates into newly habitable areas.[16]

Killed by fire, the species regenerates from seed afterwards.[3] The resultant seedlings have been recorded flowering two or three years after bushfires, although records are few.[2] No pollinators were recorded during observations for the Banksia Atlas,[2] although banksia flowerheads in general play host to a variety of birds, mammals and insects.[13]

Most Proteaceae and all Banksia species, including B. scabrella, have proteoid roots, roots with dense clusters of short lateral rootlets that form a mat in the soil just below the leaf litter. These roots are particularly efficient at absorbing nutrients from nutrient-poor soils, such as the phosphorus-deficient native soils of Australia.[11] B. scabrella is highly susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi dieback.[12]

Ecology

Banksia scabrella is found in two disjunct areas of scattered populations; the first discovered being southeast of the small town of Walkaway south of [1] Banksia scabrella grows on flat areas or gentle slopes and is found in association with B. leptophylla and a dwarf form of B. attenuata.[2]

Map of Western Australia with two small green patches midway along the west coast
Distribution of Banksia scabrella. Lower region is that near Mount Adams.

Distribution and habitat

[7].Spathulatae subg. B. is placed in B. scabrella was complete; in the meantime, if Mast and Thiele's nomenclatural changes are taken as an interim arrangement, then Dryandra. They foreshadowed publishing a full arrangement once DNA sampling of cotyledons for the taxa having spoon-shaped B. subg. Spathulatae into it, and publishing Dryandra by merging Banksia Early in 2007, Mast and Thiele initiated a rearrangement of [6] A 2002 study by American botanists

Banksia
B. subg. Banksia
B. sect. Banksia (9 series, 50 species, 9 subspecies, 3 varieties)
B. sect. Coccinea (1 species)
B. sect. Oncostylis
B. ser. Abietinae
B. sphaerocarpa (3 varieties)
B. micrantha
B. grossa
B. telmatiaea
B. leptophylla (2 varieties)
B. lanata
B. scabrella
B. violacea
B. incana
B. laricina
B. pulchella
B. meisneri (2 subspecies)
B. nutans (2 varieties)
A pale green cylindrical bud in orange sand. Horizontal branches are nearby.
Bud developing on stems on ground, road verge, Burma Road

This clade became the basis for a new subseries [3]


B. telmatiaea



B. scabrella



B. leptophylla var. melletica



B. leptophylla var. leptophylla


B. lanata




[5]

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