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Battle of Cape Kaliakra

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Title: Battle of Cape Kaliakra  
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Subject: Naval actions at the siege of Ochakov (1788), Kaliakra, Battle of Tendra, Battle of Kerch Strait (1790), Siege of Belgrade (1789)
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Battle of Cape Kaliakra

Battle of Cape Kaliakra
Part of the Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792
Date 11 August 1791
Location Cape Kaliakra off the coast of northern Bulgaria in the Black Sea
Result Decisive Russian Victory
End of the 1787-92 Russo-Turkish War
Treaty of Jassy signed afterwards
Belligerents
 Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Admiral Fyodor Ushakov Hussein Pasha,
Said Ali
Strength
15 battleships
2 frigates,
19 small crafts
18 battleships
10 frigates,
7 small frigates,
48 small crafts,
The coastal battery
Casualties and losses
17 killed and 28 wounded, and 1 ship damaged Unknown

The Battle of Cape Kaliakra was the last naval battle of the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792. It took place on 11 August 1791 off the coast of Cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria in the Black Sea. Neither side lost a ship, but the Ottomans retreated to Constantinople afterward.

The Russian fleet under Admiral Fyodor Ushakov, of 15 battleships and two frigates (990 guns), and several small craft sailed from Sevastopol on 8 August, and at midday on 11 August encountered the Ottoman-Algerian fleet under Hussein Pasha of 18 battleships and 17 frigates (1,500–1,600 guns) and some smaller craft at anchor just south of Cape Kaliakra. Ushakov sailed, in three columns, from the northeast, between the Ottomans and the cape, despite the presence on the cape of several guns.

Admiral Said Ali, the commander of the Algerian ships, weighed anchor and sailed east, followed by Hussein Pasha with the 18 battleships. The Russians then turned around south to a parallel east-south-east course and formed up mostly into one line, with Ushakov in third position and one ship out of line on the off-battle side. Said Ali, leading the line, turned north to try to double the Russian van, but Ushakov sailed out of the line and attacked him, as the rest of the Russian fleet approached. This was at 16:45 (4:45 p.m.). Gradually the Turks turned to the south and when darkness put an end to fighting at 20:30 (8:30 p.m.) they were in full retreat to Constantinople. Russian casualties were 17 killed and 28 wounded, and the Alexander Nevsky was damaged.

Contents

  • Ships involved 1
    • Russian Empire 1.1
  • Consequence 2
  • References 3

Ships involved

Some of the Russian vessels involved and their crew were:

Russian Empire

Consequence

The battle occurred near the end of Russian-Turkish war, which ended with the signing of the Jassy peace treaty.

The tactics used by Ushakov were a serious innovation in the theory of sea warfare. After that, a similar maneuver used Admiral Nelson in the Battle of Aboukir in 1799 and the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

For the victory at Cape Kaliakra, the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was awarded to Admiral Ushakov.

References

  • Naval wars in the Levant 1559-1853 (1952) - R. C. Anderson ISBN 1-57898-538-2

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