World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Blender (software)

Article Id: WHEBN0000081926
Reproduction Date:

Title: Blender (software)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ton Roosendaal, Sintel The Game, Elephants Dream, Computer-generated imagery, Poser
Collection: 1995 Software, 3D Animation Software, 3D Computer Graphics Software for Linux, 3D Graphics Software, Amigaos 4 Software, Articles Containing Video Clips, Blender Foundation, Computer-Aided Design Software for Linux, Cross-Platform Free Software, Dutch Inventions, Formerly Proprietary Software, Free 3D Graphics Software, Free Computer-Aided Design Software, Free Software Programmed in C, Free Software Programmed in C++, Free Software Programmed in Python, Global Illumination Software, Irix Software, Morphos Software, Motion Graphics Software for Linux, Os X Graphics-Related Software, Portable Software, Technical Communication Tools, Video Game Development, Video Game Development Software, Windows Graphics-Related Software
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Blender (software)

Blender 2.75
Initial release 1995 (1995)
Stable release 2.76 / October 11, 2015 (2015-10-11)[1]
Written in C, C++, and Python
Operating system Windows, OS X, Linux, FreeBSD
Size 53.3 – 120.9 MB (depending on operating system)[2]
Type 3D computer graphics software
License GNU General Public License v2 or later[3]
Website .orgblender

Blender is a professional free and open-source 3D computer graphics software product used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games. Blender's features include 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, texturing, raster graphics editing, rigging and skinning, fluid and smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, sculpting, animating, match moving, camera tracking, rendering, video editing and compositing. Alongside the modeling features it also has an integrated game engine.


  • History 1
    • Suzanne 1.1
    • Clones 1.2
  • Features 2
    • User interface 2.1
    • Hardware requirements 2.2
    • File format 2.3
    • Video editing 2.4
    • Web export 2.5
  • Cycles 3
    • GPU rendering 3.1
    • Integrator 3.2
    • Open Shading Language 3.3
    • Materials 3.4
      • Surface shader 3.4.1
      • Volume shader 3.4.2
      • Displacement shader 3.4.3
    • Demo reels 3.5
  • Development 4
  • Support 5
  • Use in the media industry 6
  • Open projects 7
    • Elephants Dream (Open Movie Project: Orange) 7.1
    • Big Buck Bunny (Open Movie Project: Peach) 7.2
    • Yo Frankie! (Open Game Project: Apricot) 7.3
    • Sintel (Open Movie Project: Durian) 7.4
    • Tears of Steel (Open Movie Project: Mango) 7.5
    • Cosmos Laundromat (Open Movie Project: Gooseberry) 7.6
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11


The desktop scene in version 2.63

The Dutch animation studio Neo Geo and Not a Number Technologies (NaN) developed Blender as an in-house application, with the primary author being Ton Roosendaal. The name Blender was inspired by a song by Yello, from the album Baby.[4]

Ton Roosendaal founded NaN in June 1998 to further develop the program, initially distributing it as shareware until NaN went bankrupt in 2002.

On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started the "Free Blender" campaign, a crowdfunding precursor.[5][6] The campaign aimed for open-sourcing Blender for a one-time payment of €100,000 (US$100,670 at the time) collected from the community.[7] On September 7, 2002, it was announced that they had collected enough funds and would release the Blender source code. Today, Blender is free, open-source software and is—apart from the Blender Institute's two full-time and two part-time employees—developed by the community.[8]

The Blender Foundation initially reserved the right to use dual licensing, so that, in addition to GPL, Blender would have been available also under the Blender License that did not require disclosing source code but required payments to the Blender Foundation. However, they never exercised this option and suspended it indefinitely in 2005.[9] Currently, Blender is solely available under GNU GPL.

The following program developed in each version:

Version Release[10][11] Notes and key changes
Old version, no longer supported: 2.03 around 2002 Handbook The official Blender 2.0 guide.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.26 August 20, 2003 First ever free version.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.30 November 22, 2003 New GUI; edits are now revertible.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.32 February 3, 2004 Ray tracing in internal renderer; support for YafaRay.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.34 August 5, 2004 LSCM-UV-Unwrapping, object-particle interaction.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.37 May 31, 2005 Simulation of elastic surfaces; improved subdivision surface.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.40 December 22, 2005 Greatly improved system and character animations (with a non-linear editing tool), and added fluid and hair simulator. New functionality was based on Google Summer of Code 2005.[12]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.41 January 25, 2006 Improvements of the game engine (programmable vertex and pixel shaders, using Blender materials, split-screen mode, improvements to the physics engine), improved UV mapping, recording of the Python scripts for sculpture or sculpture works with the help of grid or mesh (mesh sculpting) and set-chaining models.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.42 July 14, 2006 The film Elephants Dream resulted in high developement as a necessity. In particular the Node-System (Material- and Compositor) has been implemented.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.43 February 16, 2007 Sculpt-Modeling as a result of Google Summer of Code 2006
Old version, no longer supported: 2.46 May 19, 2008 With the production of Big Buck Bunny Blender set to produce grass quickly and efficiently.[13]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.48 October 14, 2008 Due to development of Yo Frankie!, the game engine was improved substantially.[14]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.49 June 13, 2009 First official stable release 2.5. New window and file manager, new interface, new Python API, and new animation system.[15]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.57 April 13, 2011 First official stable release of 2.5er branch: new interface, new window manager and rewritten event — and tool — file processing system, new animation system (each setting can be animated now), and new Python API.[16]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.58 June 22, 2011 New features, and over 200 fixed bugs.
Old version, no longer supported: 2.58a July 4, 2011 Some bug fixes, along with small extensions in GUI and Python interface[17]
Old version, no longer supported: 2.59 August 13, 2011 3D mouse support, more bug fixes
Old version, no longer supported: 2.60 October 19, 2011 Developer branches integrated into main developer branch: among other things, B-mesh, a new rendering/shading system, NURBS, to name a few, directly from Google Summer of Code
Old version, no longer supported: 2.61 December 14, 2011 Render-Engine Cycles, Motion Tracking, Dynamic Paint, Ocean Simulator
Old version, no longer supported: 2.62 February 16, 2012 Motion tracking improvement, further expansion of UV tools, cycles render engine, and Remesh modifier, plus exactly 205 bug fixes
Old version, no longer supported: 2.63 April 27, 2012 Bug fixes, B-mesh project: completely new mesh system with n-corners, plus new tools: dissolve, inset, bridge, vertex slide, vertex connect, and bevel
2.64 Green screen keying, node based compositing and bug fixing



In January–February 2002 it was clear that NaN could not survive and would close the doors in March. Nevertheless, they put out one more release, 2.25. As a sort-of easter egg, a last personal tag, the artists and developers decided to add a 3D model of a chimpanzee head. It was created by Willem-Paul van Overbruggen (SLiD3), who named it Suzanne after the orangutan in the Kevin Smith film Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back.

Suzanne is Blender's alternative to more common test models such as the Utah Teapot and the Stanford Bunny. A low-polygon model with only 500 faces, Suzanne is often used as a quick and easy way to test material, animation, rigs, texture, and lighting setups and is also frequently used in joke images. Suzanne is still included in Blender. The largest Blender contest gives out an award called the Suzanne Award.


Due to Blender's open source nature, other programs have tried to take advantage of its success by repackaging and selling cosmetically-modified versions of it. Examples include IllusionMage, 3DMofun and Fluid Designer,[18] the latter recognized as Blender-based.


Steps of forensic facial reconstruction of a mummy made on Blender by the Brazilian 3D designer Cícero Moraes.

Official releases of Blender for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux,[19] as well as a port for FreeBSD,[20] are available in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Though it is often distributed without extensive example scenes found in some other programs,[21] the software contains features that are characteristic of high-end 3D software. Among its capabilities are:

  • Support for a variety of geometric primitives, including polygon meshes, fast subdivision surface modeling, Bezier curves, NURBS surfaces, metaballs, multi-res digital sculpting (including dynamic topology, maps baking, remeshing, resymetrize, decimation..), outline font, and a new n-gon modeling system called B-mesh.
  • Internal render engine with scanline rendering, indirect lighting, and ambient occlusion that can export in a wide variety of formats.
  • A pathtracer render engine called Cycles, which can take advantage of the GPU for rendering. Cycles supports the Open Shading Language since Blender 2.65.[22]
  • Integration with a number of external render engines through plugins.
  • Keyframed animation tools including inverse kinematics, armature (skeletal), hook, curve and lattice-based deformations, shape keys (morph target animation), non-linear animation, constraints, and vertex weighting.
  • Simulation tools for Soft body dynamics including mesh collision detection, LBM fluid dynamics, smoke simulation, Bullet rigid body dynamics, ocean generator with waves.
  • A particle system that includes support for particle-based hair.
  • Modifiers to apply non-destructive effects.
  • Python scripting for tool creation and prototyping, game logic, importing and/or exporting from other formats, task automation and custom tools.
  • Basic non-linear video/audio editing.
  • The Blender Game Engine, a sub-project, offers interactivity features such as collision detection, dynamics engine, and programmable logic. It also allows the creation of stand-alone, real-time applications ranging from architectural visualization to video game construction.
  • A fully integrated node-based compositor within the rendering pipeline accelerated with OpenCL.
  • Procedural and node-based textures, as well as texture painting, projective painting, vertex painting, weight painting and dynamic painting.
  • Realtime control during physics simulation and rendering.
  • Camera and object tracking.

User interface

Blender's user interface underwent a significant update during the 2.5x series

Blender's user interface incorporates the following concepts:

Editing modes
The two primary modes of work are Object Mode and Edit Mode, which are toggled with the Tab key. Object mode is used to manipulate individual objects as a unit, while Edit mode is used to manipulate the actual object data. For example, Object Mode can be used to move, scale, and rotate entire polygon meshes, and Edit Mode can be used to manipulate the individual vertices of a single mesh. There are also several other modes, such as Vertex Paint, Weight Paint, and Sculpt Mode.
Hotkey usage
Most of the commands are accessible via hotkeys. There are also comprehensive GUI menus.
Numeric input
Numeric buttons can be "dragged" to change their value directly without the need to aim at a particular widget, as well as being set using the keyboard. Both sliders and number buttons can be constrained to various step sizes with modifiers like the Ctrl and Shift keys. Python expressions can also be typed directly into number entry fields, allowing mathematical expressions to specify values.
Workspace management
The Blender GUI builds its own tiled (non-overlapping) windowing system on top of one or multiple windows provided by the underlying platform. One platform window (often sized to fill the screen) is divided into sections and subsections that can be of any type of Blender's views or window-types. The user can define multiple layouts of such Blender windows, called screens, and switch quickly between them by selecting from a menu or with keyboard shortcuts. Each window-type's own GUI elements can be controlled with the same tools that manipulate 3D view. For example, one can zoom in and out of GUI-buttons using similar controls one zooms in and out in the 3D viewport. The GUI viewport and screen layout is fully user-customizable. It is possible to set up the interface for specific tasks such as video editing or UV mapping or texturing by hiding features not used for the task.[23]

Hardware requirements

Blender hardware requirements[24]
Hardware Minimum Recommended Production-standard
Processor 32-bit dual core 2 GHz CPU with SSE2 support 64-bit quad core CPU 64-bit eight core CPU
Memory 2 GB RAM 8 GB 16 GB
Graphics card OpenGL card with 256 MB video RAM OpenGL card with 1 GB video RAM (CUDA or OpenCL for GPU rendering) Dual OpenGL cards with 3 GB RAM, (i.e. FirePro 3D or Nvidia Quadro)
Display 1280×768 pixels, 24-bit color 1920×1080 pixels, 24-bit color Dual 1920×1080 pixels, 24-bit color
Input mouse or trackpad Three-button mouse Three-button mouse and a graphics tablet

File format

Blender features an internal file system that can pack multiple scenes into a single file (called a ".blend" file).

  • All of Blender's ".blend" files are forward, backward, and cross-platform compatible with other versions of Blender, with the following exceptions:
    • Loading animations stored in post-2.5 files in Blender pre-2.5. This is due to the reworked animation subsystem introduced in Blender 2.5 being inherently incompatible with older versions.
    • Loading meshes stored in post 2.63. This is due to the introduction of BMesh, a more versatile/featureful mesh format.
  • All scenes, objects, materials, textures, sounds, images, post-production effects for an entire animation can be stored in a single ".blend" file. Data loaded from external sources, such as images and sounds, can also be stored externally and referenced through either an absolute or relative pathname. Likewise, ".blend" files themselves can also be used as libraries of Blender assets.
  • Interface configurations are retained in the ".blend" files.

A wide variety of import/export scripts that extend Blender capabilities (accessing the object data via an internal API) make it possible to inter-operate with other 3D tools.

Blender organizes data as various kinds of "data blocks", such as Objects, Meshes, Lamps, Scenes, Materials, Images and so on. An object in Blender consists of multiple data blocks – for example, what the user would describe as a polygon mesh consists of at least an Object and a Mesh data block, and usually also a Material and many more, linked together. This allows various data blocks to refer to each other. There may be, for example, multiple Objects that refer to the same Mesh, and making subsequent editing of the shared mesh result in shape changes in all Objects using this Mesh. Objects, meshes, materials, textures etc. can also be linked to from other .blend files, which is what allows the use of .blend files as reusable resource libraries.

Video editing

Video Editor (VSE)

Blender features a fully functional, production ready Non-Linear video editor or VSE for short. Blender's VSE has many features including effects like Gaussian Blur, color grading, Fade and Wipe transitions, and other video transformations.

Web export

Blend4Web, an open source WebGL framework, can be used to convert whole Blender scenes with graphics, animation, sound and physics to work in standard web browsers. Export can be performed with a single click, even as a standalone web page.[25]


Cycles is a ray-tracing render engine that is designed to be interactive and easy to use, while still supporting many production features.[26] It comes installed as an add-on that is available by default and can be activated in the top header.

GPU rendering

Cycles supports GPU rendering which is used to help speed up rendering times. There are two GPU rendering modes: CUDA, which is the preferred method for NVIDIA graphics cards; and OpenCL, which supports rendering on AMD graphics cards. Multiple GPUs are also supported, which can be used to create a render farm – although having multiple GPUs doesn't increase the available memory because each GPU can only access its own memory.[27]
Supported features[28]
Feature CPU CUDA OpenCL
Basic Shading Yes Yes Yes
Transparent Shadows Yes Yes No
Motion Blur Yes Yes Yes
Hair Yes Yes Yes
Volume Yes Yes No
Smoke/Fire Yes No No
Subsurface Scattering Yes Experimental No
Open Shading Language Yes No No
CMJ sampling Yes Experimental No
Branched Path integrator Yes Yes No
Displacement/Subdivision Experimental Experimental Experimental


The integrator is the rendering algorithm used for lighting computations. Cycles currently supports a path tracing integrator with direct light sampling. It works well for various lighting setups, but is not as suitable for caustics and some other complex lighting situations. Rays are traced from the camera into the scene, bouncing around until they find a light source such as a lamp, an object emitting light, or the world background. To find lamps and surfaces emitting light, both indirect light sampling (letting the ray follow the surface BSDF) and direct light sampling (picking a light source and tracing a ray towards it) are used.[29]

There are two types of integrators:

  1. The default path tracing integrator is a pure path tracer. At each hit it bounces light in one direction and picks one light to receive lighting from. This makes each individual sample faster to compute, but typically requires more samples to clean up the noise.
  2. The alternative is a branched path tracing integrator which at the first hit splits the path for different surface components and takes all lights into account for shading instead of just one. This makes each sample slower, but reduces noise, especially in scenes dominated by direct or one-bounce lighting.

Open Shading Language

Blender users can create their own nodes using the Open Shading Language although it is important to note that there is no support for it on GPUs.[30]


Materials define the look of meshes, NURBS curves and other geometric objects. They consist of three shaders, defining the mesh's appearance of the surface, volume inside, and displacement of the surface.[26]

Surface shader

The surface shader defines the light interaction at the surface of the mesh. One or more BSDFs can specify if incoming light is reflected back, refracted into the mesh, or absorbed.[26]

Volume shader

When the surface shader does not reflect or absorb light, it enters the volume. If no volume shader is specified, it will pass straight through to the other side of the mesh.

If one is defined, a volume shader describes the light interaction as it passes through the volume of the mesh. Light may be scattered, absorbed, or emitted at any point in the volume.[26]

Displacement shader

The shape of the surface may be altered by displacement shaders. This way, textures can be used to make the mesh surface more detailed.

Depending on the settings, the displacement may be virtual, only modifying the surface normals to give the impression of displacement (also known as bump mapping) or a combination of real and virtual displacement.[26]

Demo reels

The Blender website contains several demo reels that showcase various features of Blender.[31]


Game engine GLSL materials

Since the opening of the source, Blender has experienced significant refactoring of the initial codebase and major additions to its feature set.

Improvements include an animation system refresh;[32] a stack-based modifier system;[33] an updated particle system[34] (which can also be used to simulate hair and fur); fluid dynamics; soft-body dynamics; GLSL shaders support[35] in the game engine; advanced UV unwrapping;[36] a fully recoded render pipeline, allowing separate render passes and "render to texture"; node-based material editing and compositing; and projection painting.[37]

Part of these developments were fostered by Google's Summer of Code program, in which the Blender Foundation has participated since 2005.


Blender is extensively documented on its website,[38] with the rest of the support provided via community tutorials and discussion forums on the Internet. Professional support, provided by the Blender Network, contains support and social services for Blender Professionals. Additionally, YouTube is known to have a great many video tutorials available for either Blender amateurs or professionals at no cost.

Use in the media industry

Blender started out as an inhouse tool for a Dutch commercial animation company NeoGeo.[39] Blender has been used for television commercials in several parts of the world including Australia,[40] Iceland,[41] Brazil,[42][43] Russia[44] and Sweden.[45]

Blender is used by NASA for publicly available 3D models. Many 3D models on NASAs 3D resources page are in a native .blend format.[46]

NASA also used Blender and [50] The application was presented at the beginning of the WebGL section on SIGGRAPH 2015.[51]

The first large professional project that used Blender was Spider-Man 2, where it was primarily used to create animatics and pre-visualizations for the storyboard department.

As an animatic artist working in the storyboard department of Spider-Man 2, I used Blender‍ '​s 3D modeling and character animation tools to enhance the storyboards, re-creating sets and props, and putting into motion action and camera moves in 3D space to help make Sam Raimi‍ '​s vision as clear to other departments as possible.[52] – Anthony Zierhut,[53] Animatic Artist, Los Angeles.

The French-language film Friday or Another Day (Vendredi ou un autre jour) was the first 35 mm feature film to use Blender for all the special effects, made on Linux workstations.[54] It won a prize at the Locarno International Film Festival. The special effects were by Digital Graphics[55] of Belgium.

Blender has also been used for shows on the History Channel, alongside many other professional 3D graphics programs.[56]

Tomm Moore's The Secret of Kells, which was partly produced in Blender by the Belgian studio Digital Graphics, has been nominated for an Oscar in the category "Best Animated Feature Film".[57]

Plumíferos, a commercial animated feature film created entirely in Blender,[58] was premiered in February 2010 in Argentina. Its main characters are anthropomorphic talking animals.

Special effects for episode 6 of Red Dwarf season X were confirmed being created using Blender by half of Gecko Animation, Ben Simonds. The company responsible for the special effects, Gecko Animation, uses Blender for multiple projects, including Red Dwarf.[59] The episode screened in 2012.[60][61]

Open projects

Big Buck Bunny poster
Sintel promotional poster
Tears of Steel promotional poster

Every 1–2 years the Blender Foundation announces a new creative project to help drive innovation in Blender.

Elephants Dream (Open Movie Project: Orange)

In September 2005, some of the most notable Blender artists and developers began working on a short film using primarily free software, in an initiative known as the Orange Movie Project hosted by the Netherlands Media Art Institute (NIMk). The resulting film, Elephants Dream, premiered on March 24, 2006. In response to the success of Elephants Dream, the Blender Foundation founded the Blender Institute to do additional projects with two announced projects: Big Buck Bunny, also known as "Project Peach" (a 'furry and funny' short open animated film project) and Yo Frankie, also known as Project Apricot (an open game in collaboration with CrystalSpace that reused some of the assets created during Project Peach). This has later made its way to Nintendo 3DS's Nintendo Video between the years 2012 and 2013.

Big Buck Bunny (Open Movie Project: Peach)

On October 1, 2007, a new team started working on a second open project, "Peach", for the production of the short movie Big Buck Bunny. This time, however, the creative concept was totally different. Instead of the deep and mystical style of Elephants Dream, things are more "funny and furry" according to the official site.[62] The movie had its premiere on April 10, 2008.

Yo Frankie! (Open Game Project: Apricot)

"Apricot" is a project for production of a game based on the universe and characters of the Peach movie (Big Buck Bunny) using free software. The game is titled Yo Frankie. The project started February 1, 2008, and development was completed at the end of July 2008. A finalized product was expected at the end of August; however, the release was delayed. The game was released on December 9, 2008, under either the GNU GPL or LGPL, with all content being licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.[63]

Sintel (Open Movie Project: Durian)

The Blender Foundation's Project Durian[64] (in keeping with the tradition of fruits as code names) was this time chosen to make a

  • Official website
  • Blender Wiki
  • Blender Stack Exchange (Questions & Answers)
  • Blender Artists Community
  • BlenderNation: Blender news site
  • Blender at DMOZ
  • BlenderArt Magazine: A bi-monthly Blender magazine for Blender learners
  • Blender NPR: Dedicated to Stylize and Non-Photorealistic Rendering

External links

Further reading

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Blender Foundation Launches Campaign to Open Blender Source on linuxtoday (Jul 22, 2002)
  6. ^ 'Free Blender Fund' campaign archived 2002
  7. ^ Membership People can subscribe to become Foundation Member. Members who subscribe during the campaign period, get additional benefits for their support. During campaign: – Costs: minimum one time fee of EUR 50 (or USD 50) (archived 2002)
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Index of /source/ (englisch) – Seite bei; Stand: 13. Oktober 2010
  11. ^ Blender Dokumentation: Die Geschichte von Blender – Kapitel bei Wikibooks, vom 5. September 2009
  12. ^ Blender 2.40 (englisch) – Seite bei; Stand: 23. Dezember 2005
  13. ^ 3D-Software Blender 2.46 zum Download freigegeben – Artikel bei Heise online, vom 20. Mai 2008
  14. ^ Blender 2.48 (englisch) – Seite bei; Stand: 25. Dezember 2008
  15. ^ Blender 2.49 (englisch) – Seite bei; Stand: 21. Juni 2009
  16. ^ Blender 2.57 (englisch) – Mitteilung auf der offiziellen Website, vom 13. April 2011 Archived November 4, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b c d e
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^ Moodboard » Cosmos Laundromat – The Gooseberry Open Movie Project
  77. ^ Noesis
  78. ^ Open 3D Model viewer


  • Noesis (software):[77] an open-source tool that can import/export between many formats (no editing though)
  • Open 3D Model Viewer:[78] another (yet less advanced) open-source tool that can import/export between many formats

See also

On January 10, 2011, Ton Roosendaal announced that the fifth open movie project would be codenamed "Gooseberry" and that its goal would be to produce a feature-length animated film. He speculated that production would begin sometime between 2012 and 2014.[74] The film is to be written and produced by a coalition of international animation studios. The studio lineup was announced on January 28, 2014,[75] and production began soon thereafter. As of March 2014, a moodboard has been constructed[76] and development goals have been set.

Cosmos Laundromat (Open Movie Project: Gooseberry)

According the film's press release, "The film's premise is about a group of warriors and scientists, who gather at the 'Oude Kerk' in Amsterdam to stage a crucial event from the past, in a desperate attempt to rescue the world from destructive robots."[73]

Filming for Mango started on May 7, 2012, and the movie was released on September 26, 2012. As with the previous films, all footage, scenes and models were made available under a free content compliant Creative Commons license.[71][72]

On October 2, 2011, the fourth open movie project, codenamed "Mango", was announced by the Blender Foundation.[69][70] A team of artists assembled using an open call of community participation. It is the first Blender open movie to use live action as well as CG.

Derek de Lint in a scene from Tears of Steel

Tears of Steel (Open Movie Project: Mango)

Many of the new features integrated into Blender 2.5 and beyond were a direct result of Project Durian.


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.