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Rama II of Siam

 

Rama II of Siam

Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai
พระพุทธเลิศหล้านภาลัย
King Rama II
King of Siam
Reign 7 September 1809 – 21 July 1824
Coronation 1809
Predecessor Phra Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I)
Successor Nangklao (Rama III)
Vice King Maha Senanurak
Vice King of Siam
Tenure 1808 – 7 September 1809
Appointed Phutthayotfa Chulalok
Predecessor Maha Sura Singhanat
Successor Maha Senanurak
Born (1767-02-24)24 February 1767
Amphawa, Samut Songkhram, Ayutthaya Kingdom
Died 21 July 1824(1824-07-21) (aged 57)
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon, Phra Nakhon, Kingdom of Siam
Spouse Queen Sri Suriyendra
Princess Kunthon Thipphayawadi
Princess Sri Sulalai
Issue 73 sons and daughters[1]
House Chakri Dynasty
Father Phutthayotfa Chulalok
Mother Amarindra
Religion Buddhism

Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai (Thai: พระพุทธเลิศหล้านภาลัย; 24 February 1767 – 21 July 1824) or Rama II was the second monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1809 to 1824. In 1809, Itsarasunthon succeeded his father Rama I, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Loetlanaphalai the King of Siam. His reign was largely peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Loetlanaphalai was patron to a number of poets in his court and the King himself was a renowned poet and artist. The most notable poet in his employ was the illustrious Sunthorn Phu, the author of Phra Aphai Mani.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Ascension 2
  • Culture and literature 3
  • Foreign relations 4
  • Death and succession 5
  • Titles and styles 6
  • References 7
  • See also 8

Early life

Privy seal of King Loetlanaphalai, "a garuda hold the nāgas" (Wat Arun, Bangkok)

Chim was born in 1767 during the (Ayutthaya period) in Amphoe Amphawa, Samut Songkram. Chim was a son of Luang Yokbat of Ratchaburi and Nak of Samut Sakorn, as his father and mother was then known. They would later become King Rama I and Queen Amarindra, respectively. In 1767, Ayutthaya fell to Burmese invaders. His father, Phraya Ratchaburi, joined Phraya Wachira Prakarn's (or Taksin's) forces to recapture the city. Under King Taksin, Chim's father rose rapidly to high rank as a military leader and was assigned with the campaigns to subjugate Laos and Cambodia. In 1782, his father crowned himself King of Siam (later named Rama I) and Chim himself was raised to the title of Prince Itsarasunthon of Siam.

Loetlanaphalai, with his concubine Concubine Waen. Unfortunately, the baby died just after its birth.

With Princess Bunrod, Loetlanaphalai also fathered Prince Mongkut (1804) and Prince Chutamani (1808). Prince Itsarasunthon was appointed to the Front Palace as Vice King or Uparaja in 1807 to succeed his uncle Maha Sura Singhanat who had died in 1803, though he continued to stay at the Thonburi Palace.

Ascension

As the eldest surviving legitimate son of Rama I, Prince Itsarasunthon succeeded to throne when Buddha Yotfa Chulaloke died in 1809. No royal naming system was established at the time Rama II was crowned. He was later named by his son Nangklao as Loetlanaphalai and by the Rama convention, called Rama II. His consort, Princess Bunrod, was raised to Queen Sri Suriyendra.

As soon as Loetlanaphalai ascended the throne, Prince Kshatranichit, the surviving son of Taksin, rebelled as pretender to the throne. Loetlanaphalai's son, Prince Tub effectively crushed the rebellion, proving himself to be competent, thus gaining his father's favor. Prince Tub was raised to Kromma Muen, given the Sanskrit-derived name "Jessadabodindra," and made Kromma Tha (minister of trade and foreign Affair.[2])

King Bodawpaya of Burma, seeing that Rama I was dead, marched an army into Chumporn and conquered Thalang (Phuket) in the same year. Loetlanaphalai sent his brother Maha Senanurak the Front Palace to recapture Thalang, which had been razed to the ground. This "Thalang campaign" was the last invasion by the Burmese into Siamese territory.

Culture and literature

Monarchs of
the Chakri Dynasty
Yotfachulalok
(Rama I)
Loetlanaphalai
(Rama II)
Nangklao
(Rama III)
Mongkut
(Rama IV)
Chulalongkorn
(Rama V)
Vajiravudh
(Rama VI)
Prajadhipok
(Rama VII)
Ananda Mahidol
(Rama VIII)
Bhumibol Adulyadej
(Rama IX)

It was said that during Rama II's reign, if one could write a refined piece of poetry, then one would be able to become a royal favorite, as Loetlanaphalai himself was a poet. The reign was a cultural renaissance after the massive wars that plague the First Reign; particularly in the fields of arts and literature. Poets employed by Rama II included Sunthorn Phu the drunken writer (Phra Aphai Mani) and Narin Dhibet (Nirat Narin). His sons, Prince Jessadabodindra and Prince Poramanuchit, were encouraged to excel in poetry. Prince Poramanuchit later became a Sangharaj (Buddhist hierophant) and was well known for his religious works.

Rama II's reign saw the reconstruction of Siamese culture and royal traditions. In 1811, the Grand Royal Funeral was held for King Rama I. In the same year, a cholera epidemic broke out in Bangkok. Loetlanaphalai ordered the "Apat Pinat" or sickness-repelling ceremonies to be performed. He also established the education and the examination system of Buddhism, by dividing it into nine levels. In 1817, the Vesak festival was restored.

Foreign relations

In 1810, the first Rattanakosin-to-China mission was sent to the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.

Since the Revolution of 1688, Western presence in Siam had been reduced to a small scale as the Siamese Kings ceased to encourage foreign influence, this coupled with the Napoleonic Wars meant there was little contact between Siam and foreigners.

However, the wars caused many subsequent changes, which were observed in Southeast Asia. The British interest in Malaya increased as their trade with China increased. The Sultan of Kedah, a Siamese vassal, gave Penang off to the British without consulting Siam in 1786, followed by the British acquisition of Province Wellesley. Soon the British replaced the Dutch as the dominating naval power south of Siam.

The mission of the Portuguese governor of Macau in 1818 was the first formal Western contact in Siam since the Ayutthaya times. The British founded Singapore in 1819 and Jaslis, the missionary from Rangoon, introduced the printing press to Siam in the same year. The Portuguese established the first western consulate in Siam in 1820. The first renewed formal British visit was made by Sir John Crawfurd in 1822.

Death and succession

In July 1824, the king died very suddenly, it was said of strangury, but not without strong suspicions of his being poisoned.[3] According to the succession rule then theoretically in force,[4] the throne would go to the son of Queen Sri Suriyendra, Prince Mongkut; however, his elder half-brother Jessadabodindra succeeded the same day. Though only the son of a concubine, he had served their father in putting down a revolt and then as Kromma Tha (Ministry of Trade and Foreign Relations.) The elder brother's experience counted for more than the theoretical claim of the much younger and inexperienced brother, who nevertheless did much later succeed his elder brother, who sired many son but raised none of their mothers to the rank of queen, thus technically none of his sons had claim to the throne over their half-uncle whose mother was a Rama II's principal consort.

Titles and styles

  • 1767–1782: Nai Chim
  • 1782–1808: Somdet Phra Chao Lukya Thoe Chaofa Kromma Luang Itsarasunthon
  • 1808–1809: Krom Phraratchawang Bowon Maha Itsarasunthon (Krom Phrarajawang Bovorn Sathan Mongkol)
  • 1809–1824: Phrabat Somdet Phra Borommarajadhiraj Ramadhibodi
  • Posthumously renamed by King Mongkut as: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Borommarajabongjet Mahesvarasundorn Phra Loetlanaphalai

References

  1. ^ A History of Thailand (2009), page 31
  2. ^ Norman G. Owen (2005). The Emergence Of Modern Southeast Asia.  
  3. ^  
  4. ^  
Rama II of Siam
Chakri Dynasty
Born: 24 February 1767 Died: 21 July 1824
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Phutthayotfa Chulalok
King of Siam
1809–1824
Succeeded by
Nangklao
Preceded by
Maha Sura Singhanat
Front Palace
1808–1809
Succeeded by
Maha Senanurak

See also

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