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Charles Albert

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Charles Albert

Charles Albert
King of Sardinia
Reign 27 April 1831 – 23 March 1849
Predecessor Charles Felix
Successor Victor Emmanuel II
Spouse Maria Theresa of Austria
Issue
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa
Full name
Carlo Alberto Amedeo di Savoia
House House of Savoy
Father Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano
Mother Maria Christina of Saxony
Born (1798-10-02)2 October 1798
Palazzo Carignano, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
Died 28 July 1849(1849-07-28) (aged 50)
Porto, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Basilica of Superga, Turin

Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto Amedeo; 2 October 1798 – 28 July 1849) was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. He succeeded his distant cousin Charles Felix, and his name is bound with the first Italian statute and the First War of Independence (1848–49). He abdicated after his forces were defeated by the Austrian army at the Battle of Novara (1849), and died in exile soon thereafter.

Biography

He was born in Turin in 1798, to Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano and Maria Cristina of Saxony. His father was a fifth-generation descendant of Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano, founder of the Savoy-Carignano line of the House of Savoy. Because none of the sons of Victor Amadeus III themselves had sons, Charles Albert was throughout his life known to be their likely successor on the throne of Sardinia.

He was educated in the intellectually liberal and Francophile atmosphere of Geneva, then in Paris during the First French Empire. Napoleon I of France named him lieutenant of the dragoons in 1814. After the fall of Napoleon, Charles Albert returned to Turin. Two mentors were entrusted with countering the dangerous ideas about national liberation Charles had learned in France. However, he continued to display some sympathies with liberals.

In 1821, as regent for the kingdom in the absence of the new king, Charles Felix (then in Modena), he conceded a constitution that was disavowed by the king, who sent him to join the French army in Spain to suppress the liberal revolution there and restore Ferdinand VII. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Trocadero in 1823, which annihilated hopes of a constitutional monarchy for Spain and also gained him the favour of Austria.


Charles Albert succeeded Charles Felix to the throne of Sardinia in 1831. Although an Italian patriot allegedly opposed to the Austrian hegemony in Northern Italy, he put down the Mazzini conspiracy. He introduced a series of reforms that abolished domestic customs barriers within the kingdom, promulgated a constitutional law code (Statuto Albertino) inspired to those of France and Belgium, and supported the arts and sciences.

During the Revolutions of 1848 he agreed to a constitutional regime that remained in place for the century that the Kingdom of Italy lasted. The same year he declared war on Austria, with the small army supported by volunteers from the whole of Italy. However, after his initial victories lost him the support of the Pope and the other Italian monarchs, he was defeated at Battle of Custoza (24 July 1848), being forced to sign an armistice at Vigevano on 9 August. When, pushed by the increasing influence of the Republicans in Piedmont, he attempted to resume the war the next year, the Piedmontese were again crushed by Radetzky's troops at Novara. Rather than redrawing the Statute, he abdicated in favour of his son, Victor Emmanuel fleeing in exile to Portugal.

He died at Porto the same year. His remains were transferred to the Basilica of Superga.

Friedrich Engels said of Charles Albert:

Among the indigenous princes, the number one enemy of Italian freedom was and is Charles Albert. The Italians should bear in mind and repeat every hour the old saying: "God watch over my friends, so that I can watch over my enemies." From Ferdinand of the House of Bourbon, there is nothing to fear; he has for a long time been discredited. Charles Albert on the other hand calls himself pompously the "liberator of Italy" while on the very people he is supposed to be liberating he imposes as a condition the yoke of his rule (Neue Rheinische Zeitung No. 73, 12 August 1848).

Family and children

In 1817, Charles Albert married his second cousin once removed, Maria Theresa of Austria, the youngest daughter of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily. The couple had the following children:

  1. Victor Emmanuel II (1820–78) married Adelaide of Austria
  2. Prince Ferdinand of Savoy (1822–55), Duke of Genoa married Princess Elisabeth of Saxony
  3. Princess Maria Cristina of Savoy (1826–27) died in infancy.

Ancestry

See also

External links

  • Carlo Alberto
  • Genealogy of recent members of the House of Savoy
Charles Albert of Sardinia
Born: 2 October 1798 Died: 28 July 1849
Italian nobility
Preceded by
Charles Felix
King of Sardinia
1831–1849
Succeeded by
Victor Emmanuel II


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