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Cockle (bivalve)

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Subject: Welsh cuisine, Gathering seafood by hand, Scallop, Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary, Morecambe Bay
Collection: British Cuisine, Cardiidae, Commercial Molluscs, Edible Molluscs, Seafood in Native American Cuisine, Street Food
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Cockle (bivalve)

Cockle
Live specimens of Cerastoderma edule from France
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Veneroida
Superfamily: Cardioidea
Lamarck, 1809[1]
Family: Cardiidae
Lamarck, 1809
Genera

Numerous, see text

Synonyms

Lymnocardiidae

A cockle is a small, edible, saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc. Although many small edible bivalves are loosely called cockles, true cockles are species in the family Cardiidae. True cockles live in sandy, sheltered beaches throughout the world. The distinctive rounded shells are bilaterally symmetrical, and are heart-shaped when viewed from the end. Numerous radial evenly spaced ribs are a feature of the shell in most but not all genera (for an exception, see the genus Laevicardium, the egg cockles, which have very smooth shells).

The shell of a cockle is able to close completely (i.e., there is no "gape" at any point around the edge). Though the shell of a cockle may superficially resemble that of a scallop because of the ribs, cockles can be distinguished from scallops morphologically in that cockle shells lack "auricles" (triangular ear-shaped protrusions near the hinge line) and scallop shells lack a pallial sinus. Behaviorally, cockles live buried in sediment, whereas scallops are either free-living and will swim in the sea water to avoid a predator, or in some cases they live attached by a byssus to a substrate.

The mantle has three apertures (inhalant, exhalant, and pedal) for siphoning water and for the foot to protrude. Cockles typically burrow using the foot, and feed by filtering plankton from the surrounding water. Cockles are capable of "jumping" by bending and straightening the foot. As is the case in many bivalves, cockles display gonochorism (the sex of an individual varies according to conditions),[2] and some species reach maturity rapidly.

The common name "cockle" is also given by seafood sellers to a number of other small, edible marine bivalves which have a somewhat similar shape and sculpture, but are in other families such as the Veneridae (Venus clams) and the Arcidae (ark clams). Cockles in the family Cardiidae are sometimes referred to as "true cockles" to distinguish them from these other species.

Contents

  • Species 1
  • Genera 2
  • In cuisine and culture 3
  • Alternative meanings 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Species

There are more than 200 living species of cockles, with many more fossil forms.[3]

The common cockle, Cerastoderma edule, is widely distributed around the coastlines of Northern Europe, with a range extending west to Ireland, the Barents Sea in the north, Norway in the east, and as far south as Senegal.

The dog cockle, Glycymeris glycymeris, has a similar range and habitat to the common cockle, but is not at all closely related, being in the family Glycymerididae. The dog cockle is edible, but due to its toughness when cooked it is generally not eaten, although a process is being developed to solve this problem.[4]

The blood cockle, Anadara granosa (not related to the true cockles, instead in the family Arcidae) is extensively cultured from southern Korea to Malaysia.[5]

Genera

Genera within the family Cardiidae include:

In cuisine and culture

Cockles are a popular type of edible shellfish in both Eastern and Western cooking. They are collected by raking them from the sands at low tide. However, collecting cockles is hard work and, as seen from the Morecambe Bay disaster, in which 23 illegal immigrants died, can be dangerous if local tidal conditions are not carefully watched. In England and Wales, Magna Carta grants every citizen the right to collect up to eight pounds of cockles from the foreshore. However, pickers wishing to collect more than eight pounds are deemed to be engaging in commercial fishing and are required to obtain a permit from the Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority.[6]

Cockles are sold freshly cooked as a snack in the United Kingdom, particularly in those parts of the British coastline where cockles are abundant. Boiled, then seasoned with malt vinegar and white pepper, they can be bought from seafood stalls, which also often have for sale mussels, whelks, jellied eels, crabs and shrimp. Cockles are also available pickled in jars, and more recently, have been sold in sealed packets (with vinegar) containing a plastic two-pronged fork. A meal of cockles fried with bacon, served with laver bread, is known as a traditional Welsh breakfast.

Boiled cockles (sometimes grilled) are sold at many hawker centers in Southeast Asia, and are used in laksa, char kway teow and steamboat. They are called kerang in Malay and see hum in Cantonese.

In Japan, Japanese Egg Cockle Leavicardium laevigatum is used to create torigai sushi.

A study conducted in England in the early 1980s showed a correlation between the consumption of cockles, presumed to be incorrectly processed, and an elevated local occurrence of hepatitis.[7]

Cockles are an effective bait for a wide variety of sea fishes. The folk song "Molly Malone" is also known as "Cockles and Mussels" because the title character's sale of the two foods is referred to in the song's refrain. The shells of cockles are mentioned in the English nursery rhyme "Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary". Cockles are also eaten by the indigenous peoples of North America.[8]

In New Zealand cockles are eaten raw, just after picking them up on the beach.

Alternative meanings

The common English phrase "it warms the cockles of my heart", is used to mean that a feeling of deep-seated contentment has been generated.

Differing derivations of this phrase have been proposed, either directly from the perceived heart-shape of a cockleshell, or indirectly (the scientific name for the type genus of the family is Cardium, from the Latin for heart), or from the Latin diminutive of the word heart, corculum. Another proposed derivation is from the Latin for the ventricles of the heart, cochleae cordis, where the second word is an inflected form of cor, heart, while cochlea is the Latin for snail.

References

  1. ^ Serge Gofas (2013). "Cardioidea".  
  2. ^ "Synthesis on biology of Common European Cockle (Cerastoderma edule" (PDF). Reservebaiedesaintbrieuc.com. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  3. ^ "Cardiidae (Cockles)". Shells.tricity.wsu.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  4. ^ {\phi_s}. "European Food Research and Technology, Volume 210, Number 1". SpringerLink. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  5. ^ "Status of mollusc culture in selected Asian countries". Fao.org. Retrieved 2012-10-13. 
  6. ^ "Cocklers barred from Ribble estuary after coastguard checks". BBC News. 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ O'Mahony MC, Gooch CD, Smyth DA, Thrussell AJ, Bartlett CL, Noah ND (1983). "Epidemic hepatitis A from cockles". NIH. Retrieved 2006-03-25. 
  8. ^ Great Blue Heron - Robert William Butler, Robert Butler - Google Books

External links

  • Cockles
  • Nutrition Facts for Cockles
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