East Iranian

Eastern Iranian
Geographic
distribution:
Central Asia, Scythia
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Subdivisions:
  • Northeastern
  • Southeastern

The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from c. the 4th century BC). The Avestan language is often classified as early Eastern Iranian. The largest living Eastern Iranian language is Pashto, with some 50 million speakers between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan. As opposed to the Middle Western Iranian dialects, the Middle Eastern Iranian preserves word-final syllables.

The living Eastern Iranian languages are spoken in a contiguous area, in Afghanistan as well as the adjacent parts of western Pakistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province of eastern Tajikistan, and the far west of Xinjiang region of China, while it also has two other living members in widely separated areas, the Yaghnobi language of northwestern Tajikistan (descended from Sogdian) and the Ossetic language of the Caucasus (descended from Scytho-Sarmatian). These are remnants of a vast ethno-linguistic continuum that stretched over most of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC.

History

Eastern Iranian is thought to have separated from Western Iranian in the course of the later 2nd millennium BC, and was possibly located at the Yaz culture.

With Greek presence in Central Asia, some of the easternmost of these languages were recorded in their Middle Iranian stage (hence the "Eastern" classification), while almost no records of the Scytho-Sarmatian continuum stretching from Kazakhstan west across the Pontic steppe to Ukraine have survived.

Classification

Eastern Iranian are divided into a Northeastern and a Southeastern branch. In spite of this separation, Eastern Iranian remained a single dialect continuum subject to common innovation.

Northeastern

According to Encyclopædia Iranica, the Northeastern group includes most Eastern Iranian languages, including Pashto and Pamir languages, while it does not include the Old-Iranian Avestan language.[1]

However, SIL Ethnologue lists the following languages as Northeastern Iranian:

Southeastern

The southern group includes Pashto, Pamir languages, and Ormuri-Parachi.[1] Pashto is spoken in eastern, southern and few other parts of Afghanistan, and western Pakistan. Pamir languages are spoken in the Pamir Mountains. Ormuri is spoken in Kaniguram in South Waziristan area of Pakistan, but there may be still some speakers in Baraki Barak in Logar province of Afghanistan. Parachi is spoken in the upper part of Nijrab, north of Kabul.

Contrary to Encyclopædia Iranica, SIL Ethnologue classifies Ormuri-Parachi as Northeastern Iranian, and it lists Pashto and the Pamir languages of Munji, Yidgha, Sanglechi-Ishkashimi, Shughni-Yazgulyami (Shughni, Sarikoli and Yazgulyam) and Wakhi as Southeastern Iranian.[2]

Phonological differences

Eastern Iranian languages have widespread sound changes, e.g. č > ts, d > ð > l, and b > v/w, as shown in the table below.

Avestan Pashto Munji Sanglechi Wakhi Shughni Parachi Ormuri Yaghnobi Ossetic
aēva-
"one"
yaw yu vak yi yiw žu ī iu
čaθwārō
"four"
tsalṓr čfūr tsəfúr tsībɨr tsavṓr čōr tsār tafór tsippar
hapta
"seven"
ōwə ōvda ōvδ ɨb ūvd hōt avd avd
dasa
"ten"
las los / dā1 dos δas δis dōs das das dæs
gav-
"cow"
ɣ ɣṓw uɣūi ɣīw žōw gū gioe ɣov x”ug
brātar-
"brother"
wrōr vəróy vrūδ vīrīt virṓd b marzā2 virūt ærvad

Another sound change found in the Shughni–Yazgulyam branch and Pashto dialects is ṣ̌ > x̌ > x, e.g. "meat" is ɡuṣ̌t in Wakhi but changes to guxt in Shughni, and Southern Pashto γwaṣ̌a ("meat") changes to γwaa in Central Pashto and γwaxa in Northern Pashto.

The neighboring Indo-Aryan languages have exerted a pervasive external influence on Eastern Iranian, as it is evident in the development in the retroflex consonants (in Pashto, Wakhi, Sanglechi, Khotanese, etc.) and aspirates (in Khotanese, Parachi and Ormuri).[1]

Notes

  • ^1 Munji is a borrowing from Persian but Yidgha still uses los.
  • ^2 Ormuri marzā has a different etymological origin, but generally Ormuri [b] is preserved unchanged, e.g. *bastra- > bēš, Ormuri for "cord" (cf. Avestan band- "to tie").

See also

References

External links

  • Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, ed. Schmitt (1989), p. 100.
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