World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Emanuel Swedenborg

Article Id: WHEBN0000224173
Reproduction Date:

Title: Emanuel Swedenborg  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg
Portrait of Swedenborg by Carl Frederik von Breda.
Born Emanuel Swedberg
(1688-01-29)29 January 1688
Stockholm, Sweden
Died 29 March 1772(1772-03-29) (aged 84)
London, England, Great Britain
  • Mining engineer
  • Anatomist
  • Astronomer
  • Author
Notable work
  • True Christian Religion
  • Heaven and Hell
Theological work
Era 18th-century
Tradition or movement Lutheran Christianity
Main interests
  • Theology
  • Science
  • Philosophy
Notable ideas

Emanuel Swedenborg (;[1]    ; born Emanuel Swedberg on 29 January 1688;[2] died 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Heaven and Hell (1758).[4][5]

Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at age 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits; and the Last Judgment had already occurred, in 1757.[7]

For the remaining 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote eighteen published theological works, and several more which were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion,[8] a work he published himself.[9] Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that, of his theological works, only those which Swedenborg published himself are fully divinely inspired.[10]


  • Biography 1
    • Early life 1.1
    • Scientific period 1.2
    • New direction of studies, ahead of his time 1.3
    • Journal of Dreams 1.4
    • Visions and spiritual insights 1.5
    • Scriptural commentary and writings 1.6
    • The Last Judgment and Second Coming of Christ 1.7
  • Veracity 2
  • Scientific beliefs 3
  • Prophetic accounts 4
    • Fire anecdotes 4.1
    • Queen of Sweden 4.2
    • Lost document 4.3
  • Kant on Swedenborg 5
  • Theology 6
    • Marriage 6.1
    • Trinity 6.2
    • Sola Fide (Faith Alone) 6.3
  • Later history 7
  • Works 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13


Early life

Memorial plaque at the former location of Emanuel Swedenborg's house at Hornsgatan on Södermalm, Stockholm.

Swedenborg's father, Jesper Swedberg (1653–1735), descended from a wealthy mining family. He travelled abroad and studied theology, and on returning home he was eloquent enough to impress the Swedish king, Charles XI, with his sermons in Stockholm. Through the King's influence he would later become professor of theology at Uppsala University and Bishop of Skara.[11][12]

Jesper took an interest in the beliefs of the dissenting Lutheran Pietist movement, which emphasised the virtues of communion with God rather than relying on sheer faith (sola fide).[13] Sola fide is a tenet of the Lutheran Church, and Jesper was charged with being a pietist heretic. While controversial, the beliefs were to have a major impact on his son Emanuel's spirituality. Jesper furthermore held the unconventional belief that angels and spirits were present in everyday life. This also came to have a strong impact on Emanuel.[11][12][14]

In 1703–1709 Swedenborg lived in "The Northern Genesis and Exodus.[134]


One often discussed aspect of Swedenborg's writing is his ideas on marriage. Swedenborg himself remained a bachelor all his life, but that did not hinder him from writing voluminously on the subject. His work on Marriage Love (Conjugial Love in older translations) (1768) was dedicated to this purpose.[135][136]

A central question with regard to marriage is whether it stops at death or continues into heaven. The question arises due to a statement of Jesus’ that there is no marriage in heaven (Luke 20:27–38, Matthew 22:23–32, and Mark 12:18–27). For a detailed analysis of what he meant, according to Swedenborg, see The Lord God Jesus Christ on Marriage In Heaven. [137]

The quality of the relationship between husband and wife resumes in the spiritual world in whatever state it was at their death in this world. Thus, a couple in true marriage love remain together in that state in heaven into eternity. A couple lacking in that love by one or both partners, however, will separate after death and each will be given a compatible new partner if they wish. A partner is also given to a person who loved the ideal of marriage but never found a true partner in this world. The exception in both cases is a person who hates chaste marriage and thus cannot receive such a partner.[138]

Swedenborg saw creation as a series of pairings, descending from the Divine love and wisdom[139] that define God and are the basis of creation. This duality can be seen in the pairing of good and truth,[140] charity and faith,[141] God and the church,[142] and husband and wife.[143] In each case, the goal for these pairs is to achieve conjunction between the two component parts. In the case of marriage, the object is to bring about the joining together of the two partners at the spiritual and physical levels, and the happiness that comes as a consequence.


Swedenborg rejected the common explanation of the Trinity as a Trinity of Persons, which he said was not taught in the early Christian church. There was, for instance, no mention in the Apostolic writings of any "Son from eternity".[144] Instead he explained in his theological writings how the Divine Trinity exists in One Person, in One God, the Lord Jesus Christ, which he said is taught in Colossians 2:9. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, Jesus, the Son of God, came into the world due to the spread of evil here.[145][146][147][148]

Swedenborg spoke in virtually all his works against what he regarded as the incomprehensible Trinity of Persons concept. He said that people of other religions opposed Christianity because of its doctrine of a Trinity of Persons. He considered the separation of the Trinity into three separate Persons to have originated with the First Council of Nicaea and the Athanasian Creed. According to The Heavenly Doctrine the Athanasian Creed is true, however, if the Trinity is understood to mean a Trinity in one person and that person being the Lord God Jesus Christ.

Sola Fide (Faith Alone)

The Heavenly Doctrine rejects the concept of salvation through faith alone (sola fide in Latin), since he considered both faith and charity necessary for salvation, not one without the other, whereas the Reformers taught that faith alone procured justification, although it must be a faith which resulted in obedience. The purpose of faith, according to The Heavenly Doctrine, is to lead a person to a life according to the truths of faith, which is charity, as is taught in 1 Corinthians 13:13 and James 2:20.

In other words, Swedenborg spoke sharply against faith alone, or that justification based upon imputed righteousness before God is achievable by a gift of God's grace (sola gratia), through faith alone, not on the basis of the person's deeds in life. Sola fide was a doctrine averred by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli and others during the Protestant Reformation, and was a core belief especially in the theology of the Lutheran reformers charity. He further states that faith and charity must be exercised by doing good out of willing good whenever possible, which are good works or good uses or the conjunction perishes. In one section he wrote:

Later history

Swedenborg made no attempt to found a church.[151][152] A few years after his death – 15 by one estimate[153] – for the most part in England, small reading groups formed to study his teachings.[154] As one scholar states, The Heavenly Doctrine particularly appealed to the various dissenting groups that sprang up in the first half of the 18th century who were "surfeited with revivalism and narrow-mindedness" and found his optimism and comprehensive explanations appealing.[155]

A variety of important cultural figures, both writers and artists, were influenced by Swedenborg's writings, including

  • Works by Emanuel Swedenborg at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Emanuel Swedenborg at Internet Archive
  • Works by Emanuel Swedenborg at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
  • A Journal of Dreams
  • The Heavenly Doctrines, a searchable library of Swedenborg's "revelatory phase" theological writings.
  • Source of commercially available Latin editions of New Church Writings.
  • Information Swedenborg Inc The mission of Information Swedenborg Inc. is to raise awareness of the life and work of Swedenborg. Sells books by, about and related to Swedenborg, world wide but especially within Canada.
  • The Swedenborg Foundation is a non-profit publisher, book seller, and educational organization which publishes the theological works of Swedenborg, contemporary books and videos on spiritual growth, offers lectures and workshops, and maintains a library of Swedenborgian literature.
  • Small Canon Search Swedenborg enumerated in his Arcana Coelestia #10,325 the books of the Bible that were, according to his revelation, Divinely inspired. In his True Christian Religion # 779 he indicated that books of his revelation that he published were also Divine revelation. This search engine, then, for the convenience of the reader, searches only the works thus inspired. For further review of this issue, see Which of Swedenborg's books are Divine revelation?
  • Emanuel Swedenborg Swicki, a collaborative community searching the World Wide Web for information about Emanuel Swedenborg.
  • The Swedenborg Project A 501(c)(3) non-profit organization incorporated in the state of Maryland for the purpose of disseminating the teachings of the Second Coming of Jesus Christ, revealed to Swedenborg. The Project’s website provides an overview and reference information in keeping with that goal.
  • The Swedenborg Digital Library contains online full-text versions of books about Swedenborg and the Second Coming as well as access to the books of the Second Coming teachings that Swedenborg himself published.
  • Standard and high resolution images of every page of first Latin edition of Swedenborg's writings Includes only books Swedenborg published himself, which are considered only ones to be fully authoritative: "Which of Swedenborg's books are Divine revelation?"
  • Arcana CœlestiaFirst Translation of Swedenborg's theological writings: 16th Chapter of Genesis as explained in the (This translation from Latin into English was commissioned by Swedenborg himself and is a photocopy of a first edition copy: PDF – 12MB).
  • The Swedenborg Society The Swedenborg Society translates, prints and publishes works by the Swedish scientist, philosopher and visionary, Emanuel Swedenborg.
  • The New Christian Bible Study A site for people who are interested in the Bible, not just in its literal sense, but in its inner, spiritual sense. The theological underpinnings of the site are based on Emanuel Swedenborg's religious works from the 1700s.
  • TheNew Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine According to What Has Been Heard from Heaven With an Introduction Concerning The New Heaven and the New Earth (Swedenbog Society 1911; Swedenborg Foundation 1951) This book is one of the Writings but is included in the present section because it provides an extremely compact summary of the Writings that was written by Swedenborg himself.
  • Australian centre providing a range of services and information about Swedenborg and his spiritual teachings. Full on-line catalogue.
  • Hovercraft Resource
  • Emanuel Swedenborg Studies is dedicated to collecting, analyzing, and preserving the historical record of the life and times of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772). Among the existing broad context of apologists and critics of Emanuel Swedenborg, it is the mission of Emanuel Swedenborg Studies to establish an objective and comprehensive record of the facts of Emanuel Swedenborg’s Life
  • Principia Rerum Naturalium, sive ; Novorum Tentaminum Phænomena Mundi Elementaris Philosophice Explicandi Cum Figuris Æneis – full digital facsimile at Linda Hall Library

External links

  • The Arms of Morpheus—Essays on Swedenborg and Mysticism, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2007), ISBN 978-0-85448-150-7.
  • Between Method and Madness—Essays on Swedenborg and Literature, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2005), ISBN 978-0-85448-145-3.
  • In Search of the Absolute—Essays on Swedenborg and Literature, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2005), ISBN 978-0-85448-141-5.
  • On the True Philosopher and the True Philosophy—Essays on Swedenborg, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2005), ISBN 978-0-85448-134-7.
  • Swedenborg and His Influence, ed. Erland J. Brock, (Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania: The Academy of the New Church, 1988), ISBN 0-910557-23-3.
  • Jonathan S. Rose, ed. Emanuel Swedenborg: Essays for the New Century Edition on His Life, Work, and Impact (West Chester, Pennsylvania: Swedenborg Foundation, 2002), ISBN 0-87785-473-4. 580 pages. Multiple scholars contributed to this collection of information on Swedenborg, his manuscripts, and his cultural influence. Republished in 2004 under new title, Scribe of Heaven: Swedenborg's Life, Work, and Impact ISBN 0-87785-474-2.
  • Wilson van Dusen, The Presence of Other Worlds, Swedenborg Foundation, Inc., New York, Harper & Row, 1974. ISBN 0-87785-166-2
  • "The Madness Hypothesis," a special issue of The New Philosophy (1998;101: whole number), a journal produced by the Swedenborg Scientific Association, reviews the question of Swedenborg's sanity in scholarly detail, making the case that he was in fact quite sane.
  • Donald L. Rose, ed., Afterlife: A Guided Tour of Heaven and Its Wonders. Swedenborg Foundation, 2006. (abridged version of Heaven and Hell)
  • Adrastea (Werke zur Phil. und Gesch., xii. 110–125).
  • Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress (London, 1910), summarized in The New Church Magazine (August 1910).
  • Swedenborg and Esoteric Islam (Swedenborg Studies, No 4) by Henry Corbin, Leonard Fox
  • Emerson: Essays and Lectures (New York, New York: The Library of America, 1983), ISBN 978-0-940450-15-8.
  • William White, Emmanuel Swedenborg, His Life and Writings, 2nd Ed., Rev. (xx, 767 p.; London, Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., 1868) – This is the second of White’s two biographies of Swedenborg, the first one published in 1856 (White, W. Swedenborg: his life and writings Bath : I. Pitman, Phonetic Institution, 1856) and this second one in 1867. White worked for the Swedenborg Society in London and wrote an affirmative biography of Swedenborg. However, he was fired for publishing spiritist books and selling them at the Society’s store, as well as otherwise interfering with the Society’s function. White’s response was the 1867 biography, in which he, in Tafel’s words, “turn[ed] a complete somersault in his convictions,” and wrote a highly derogatory biography of Swedenborg and his teachings.(The Swedenborg Epic footnote # 769) (R. Tafel, Documents Concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg, Vol. 3, p. 1284. London. Swedenborg Society 1890)

Newer material:

Further reading

  • Ahlstrom, S.E. A Religious History of the American People (Yale 1972) Includes section on Swedenborg by this scholar.
  • Benz, Ernst, Emanuel Swedenborg: Visionary Savant in the Age of Reason (Swedenborg Foundation, 2002) ISBN 0-87785-195-6, a translation of the thorough German language study on life and work of Swedenborg, Emanuel Swedenborg: Naturforscher und Seher by the noted religious scholar Ernst Benz, published in Munich in 1948.
  • Bergquist, Lars, Swedenborg's Secret, (London, The Swedenborg Society, 2005) ISBN 0-85448-143-5, a translation of the Swedish language biography of Swedenborg, Swedenborgs Hemlighet, published in Stockholm in 1999. ISBN 91-27-06981-8
  • Block, M. B. The New Church in the New World. A study of Swedenborgianism in America (Holt 1932; Octagon reprint 1968) A detailed history of the ideational and social development of the organized churches based on Swedenborg's works.
  • Crompton, S. Emanuel Swedenborg (Chelsea House, 2005) Recent biography of Swedenborg.
  • Johnson, G., ed. Kant on Swedenborg. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and Other Writings. Translation by Johnson, G., Magee, G.E. (Swedenborg Foundation 2002) New translation and extensive set of supplementary texts.
  • Lamm, Martin, Swedenborg: En studie (1987; first ed. 1915). A popular biography that is still read and quoted. It is also available in English: Emanuel Swedenborg: The Development of His Thought, Martin Lamm (Swedenborg Studies, No. 9, 2001), ISBN 0-87785-194-8
  • Lagercrantz, Olof, Dikten om livet på den andra sidan (Wahlström & Widstrand 1996), ISBN 91-46-16932-6. In Swedish.
  • Leon, James, Overcoming Objections to Swedenborg's Writings Through the Development of Scientific Dualism An examination of Swedenborg's discoveries. The author is a professor of psychology (1998; published in New Philosophy, 2001)
  • Moody, R. A. Life after Life (Bantam 1975) Reports correlation of near-death experience with Swedenborg's reports of life after death.
  • Price, R. Johnny Appleseed. Man and Myth (Indiana 1954) Definitive study of this legendary man. Includes details of his interest in Swedenborg and the organizational New Church
  • Robsahm, Carl, Hallengren, Anders (translation and comments), Anteckningar om Swedenborg (Föreningen Swedenborgs Minne: Stockholm 1989), ISBN 91-87856-00-X. Hallengren writes that the first complete publication of the Robsam manuscript was in R. L. Tafel's Documents, Vol. I, 1875 (see section "#Further reading")
  • Sigstedt, C.,The Swedenborg Epic. The Life and Works of Emanuel Swedenborg (New York: Bookman Associates, 1952). The whole book is available online at Swedenborg Digital Library.
  • Toksvig, Signe, Emanuel Swedenborg. Scientist and Mystic., Yale University Press, (1948), and Swedenborg Foundation, (1983), ISBN 0-87785-171-9


  1. ^ "Swedenborg". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ 29 January 9 Old Style 8 February New Style
  3. ^ and the Encyclopedia of Religion (1987), which starts its article with the description that he was a "Swedish scientist and mystic." Others have not used the term, e.g. Encyclopedia of ReligionWilliams-Hogan, Jane (2005) in Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  4. ^
  5. ^ Bergquist, Preface (p. 15–16)
  6. ^ See Swedenborg, E. The Heavenly Doctrine
  7. ^ (Swedenborg Foundation 1952, Paragraphs 1–74)The Last Judgment and Babylon Destroyed. All the Predictions in the Apocalypse are at This Day Fulfilled.Swedenborg, E. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ See “Which of Swedenborg’s books are Divine revelation?”
  11. ^ a b (Swedish) Nordisk familjebok, 2nd edition (Ugglan) article Svedberg, Jesper (1918)
  12. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition. article Emanuel Swedenborg
  13. ^ Svedberg's pietistic interests are described in Bergquist (1999), pp. 230–232.
  14. ^ Martin Lamm (1978 [1915]; pp.1–19) notes how all Swedenborg biographies at that draw similarities between the beliefs of Jesper and Emanuel. Lamm himself partially agrees with them, but he maintains that there were marked differences between them too.
  15. ^ Lagercrantz, preface.
  16. ^ a b c d x
  17. ^ Söderberg, H. Swedenborg's 1714 Airplane: A Machine to Fly in the Air (1988)
  18. ^
  19. ^ The meeting between the King, Polhelm and Swedenborg is described in detail in Liljegren, Bengt, Karl XII i Lund : när Sverige styrdes från Skåne, (Historiska media, Lund, 1999). ISBN 91-88930-51-3
  20. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp.114–115
  21. ^ Berquist (1999), pp. 118–119
  22. ^ Proposed by Lagercrantz, also mentioned by Bergquist (1999), p. 119.
  23. ^ Fodstad, H. The neuron theory Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2001;77:20-4
  24. ^ Gordh, E. et al.Swedenborg, Linnaeus and Brain Research and the Roles of Gustaf Retzius and Alfred Stroh in the Rediscovery of Swedenborg’s Manuscripts.] Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 2007; 112:143–164.
  25. ^ Gross C. G. Emanuel Swedenborg: A neuroscientist before his time. The Neuroscientist’’ 3: 2(1997).
  26. ^ Gross, C. "Three before their time: neuroscientists whose ideas were ignored by their contemporaries] Experimental Brain Research 192:321 2009.
  27. ^ Tubbs RS, Riech S, Verma K, Loukas M, Mortazavi M, Cohen-Gadol A. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772): pioneer of neuroanatomy. Childs Nervous System 2011 Aug;27(8):1353-5.
  28. ^ Filley CM. Chapter 35: The frontal lobes. Handbook Clinical Neurology 2010;95:557-70
  29. ^ Abruzzo, A. J. The Origins of the Nebular Hypothesis – Or, the Genesis of a Theoretical Cul-de-sac The General Science Journal June 15; 2009
  30. ^ , October 1983, pp. 441–6The Physics TeacherBaker, Gregory L. (1983) "Emanuel Swedenborg – An 18th century cosmologist" in Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  31. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 142–155.
  32. ^ Lamm (1987), pp. 42–43, notes that by assuming that the soul consists of matter, as Swedenborg did, one becomes a materialist. He further notes that this was also noted by contemporaries.
  33. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth, p. 321.
  34. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 165–178.
  35. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc and Lönnroth, p.325.
  36. ^ Bergquist, pp. 200–208.
  37. ^ Bergquist, p. 206.
  38. ^ Analysis by Bergquist, p. 209. Bergquist has previously published a separate book commenting on the Journal called Swedenborgs drömbok : glädjen och det stora kvalet (Stockholm, Norstedt, 1988).
  39. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 210–211.
  40. ^ Swedenborg (1975).
  41. ^ "Small Theological Works and Letters" by Emanuel Swedenborg. Edited and published by the Swedenborg Society (London, 1975)
  42. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 286–287.
  43. ^ Cf. Michelle Grier, 'Swedenborg and Kant on Spiritual Intuition' in On the True Philosopher: Essays on Swedenborg, ed. Stephen McNeilly (London: Swedenborg Society, 2002), p. 1. Accessed 2010-11-11.
  44. ^ Bergquist (1999), p. 287.
  45. ^ Bergquist (1999), p. 288.
  46. ^ Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth, p. 316.
  47. ^ . From 'De Ultimo Judicio Et De Babylonia DestructaThe Last Judgment and Babylon Destroyed. All the Predictions in the Apocalypse are At this Day Fulfilled from Things Heard and Seen,
  48. ^ Last Judgment, #60.
  49. ^ Heaven and Its Wonders From Things Heard and SeenSwedenborg, E. (Swedenborg Foundation 1946, #421–535).
  50. ^ Last Judgment #33–34.
  51. ^ For an extensive explanation of the inner spiritual sense of the book of the Apocalypse, see Swedenborg, E. The Apocalypse Revealed Wherein are Disclosed the Arcana Foretold Which Have Hitherto Remained Concealed (Swedenborg Foundation 1928).
  52. ^
  53. ^ True Christian Religion, paragraphs 753–786
  54. ^ Swedenborg, E. #1002, 1003Arcana Coelestia (Swedenborg Foundation 1956)
  55. ^
  56. ^ Sigstedt, C. The Swedenborg Epic: The life and works of Emanuel Swedenborg Bookman Associates, 1952, p. 476, # 642).
  57. ^ Swedenborg, E.The Earths in Our Solar System Which are called Planets and the Earths in the Starry Heaven, and Their Inhabitants; Also the Spirits and Angels There From Things Heard and Seen 1758. Also Rotch Edition. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, in The Divine Revelation of the New Jerusalem (2012), n. 9-178.
  58. ^ Earths in the Universe #2, 4
  59. ^ Many heavenly societies were also needed to increase the perfection of the angelic heaven, to fill in deficiencies and gaps in other societies. (Earths in the Universe, # 9
  60. ^ Arcana Coelestia #6698
  61. ^ Simons K. The Life on Other Planets Question The Swedenborg Project 2007
  62. ^ Bergquist (1999),p. 477–478.
  63. ^ Trobridge, G. Swedenborg, Life and Teaching (Swedenborg Foundation, 1976, p. 272).
  64. ^ Bergquist (1999), p. 464.
  65. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 471–476. Accounts of Swedenborg's last days were collected and published in Tafel II:1, pp. 577 ff, 556 ff, 560 ff.
  66. ^
  67. ^ Epic, pp. 430ff.
  68. ^ Swedenborg, E. True Christianity, Containing a Comprehensive Theology of the New Church That Was Predicted by the Lord in Daniel 7:13–14 and Revelation 21:1, 2 (Swedenborg Foundation 2006, Translator's Preface, Vol. 2, p. 36 ff.).
  69. ^ Epic, p. 431.
  70. ^ a b ’’Epic’’, p. 433
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^ History of Swedenborg Gardens
  74. ^ The Biographies
  75. ^ The Encyclopedia Britannica
  76. ^ The Famous People Encyclopedia
  77. ^
  78. ^ Encyclopedia 4u
  79. ^ "Who Was Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772)?" An article including a list of biographies about Swedenborg, with a brief analysis of each biographer's point of view. Accessed June 2012.
  80. ^ Bergquist (1999), p. 15.
  81. ^ The citation "Bergquist (1999)", which is used here repeatedly, appears to contain mislabeled quotes. See the "Talk" section of this page, under the heading "Bergquist footnote problem".
  82. ^ en dikt om ett främmande land med sällsamma lagar och seder. Largercrantz (1996), backpage.
  83. ^ Sigstedt (1952), p. 408.
  84. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 364–365.
  85. ^ Lamm (1987 [1915]), dedicates a chapter to the correspondence theories, pp. 85–109.
  86. ^ (Swedenborg E, The True Christian Religion Containing the Universal Theology of the New Church. Swedenborg Foundation 1946, # 200)
  87. ^ Bergquist (1999), p. 312.
  88. ^ The accounts are fully described in Bergquist, pp. 312–313 and in Chapter 31 of The Swedenborg Epic. The primary source for these accounts is a letter from Immanuel Kant in 1768 and the Swedenborg collection by Tafel (see references).
  89. ^ a b
  90. ^ Staffan Högberg, Stockholms historia (Stockholm’s history), part 1, p. 342; in Swedish)
  91. ^ Volume II, Part 1. (Swedenborg Society, British and Foreign. 36 Bloomsbury Street, London, 1877)Documents concerning the Life and Character of Emanuel Swedenborg Collected, Translated and Annotated by Tafel, RL.For July 19 date see especially Documents 271–273 in Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  92. ^
  93. ^ As noted above, primary source for these accounts is a letter from Immanuel Kant in 1768 and the Swedenborg collection by Tafel (Documents #271–273)
  94. ^ Sigstedt S. The Swedenborg Epic,’’ Chapter 35 Bookman 1952
  95. ^ Berguist, L. Swedenborg’s Secret Swedenborg Foundation, 2005, p. 270
  96. ^ Bergquist, L, Swedenborg's Secret (London, The Swedenborg Society, 2005, p. 270).
  97. ^ Johnson, p. 70
  98. ^ Sigstedt, Chapter 35
  99. ^
  100. ^ Swedenborg Epic pp. 278ff.
  101. ^ According to Bergquist (1999), pp. 314–315, There are several different accounts of the events which makes it difficult to conclude the exact details of the event. Carl Robsahm (see references) reports the story in this way.
  102. ^ According to Bergquist (1999), p. 316, there are some ten different reports of this event. There are two trustworthy descriptions, one by Robsahm (writing down Swedenborg's own description) and one by a priest who enquired of the woman in a letter fifteen years later.
  103. ^ a b Sigstedt, p. 329.
  104. ^ Benz, p. 11.
  105. ^ This letter is further discussed in Laywine, A., "Kant's Early Metaphysics". North American Kant Society Studies in Philosophy, volume 3 (Atascadero, California: Ridgeview Publishing Company, 1993), pp. 72–74.
  106. ^ Johnson 2002. p. 69.
  107. ^ Johnson 202, p. 71.
  108. ^ Benz 2001, p. 13.
  109. ^ Johnson, p. 69.
  110. ^ Johnson, G., Magee, G. E. (Swedenborg Foundation 2002).
  111. ^ Benz 2001, p. 31.
  112. ^ Benz, E., Heron, A. (Translator) Spiritual Vision and Revelation, Chapter VI. The Mystery of a Date – Fresh light on Kant's Criticism of Swedenborg, p. 13, reprinted in The New Philosophy 2001 104:7,
  113. ^ Johnson 2002, p. 83.
  114. ^ Johnson, G. Did Kant dissemble his interest in Swedenborg? "The New Philosophy" 1999, 102: 531
  115. ^ a b Johnson 1999, p. 29.
  116. ^ Johnson 1999, p. 84.
  117. ^ a b Benz 2001, p. 31.
  118. ^ Benz 2001, p. 31)
  119. ^ Benz 2001, p. 29.
  120. ^ Benz 2001, p. xiii.
  121. ^ a b Benz, 2001, p. xiv.
  122. ^ Benz 2001, pp. xiii, xv.
  123. ^ Johnson 2002, p. 73.
  124. ^ Johnson 2002, p. xv.
  125. ^ Johnson 2002, p. 123.
  126. ^ Johnson 2002, p. 85.
  127. ^ Benz 2001, xiii
  128. ^ Dole, G.F. The Ambivalent Kant. Studia Swedenborgiana 10:2 1997
  129. ^
  130. ^ a b Benz 2001, p. 15ff.
  131. ^ Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture#4, True Christian Religion # 859, 750, 779
  132. ^ Quoted by Bergquist (1999), p. 178, based on Swedenborg's Spiritual Experiences (1748), §767 (However, Spiritual Experiences is not among the works Swedenborg published himself, and thus may not be authoritative revelation. See “Which of Swedenborg’s books are Divine revelation?”
  133. ^
  134. ^ Bergquist (1999), pp. 286–309.
  135. ^
  136. ^ "conjugial" should not be confused with "conjugal," the general term for marriage
  137. ^
  138. ^
  139. ^
  140. ^
  141. ^
  142. ^
  143. ^
  144. ^
  145. ^ Swedenborg, E. , particularly sections 163–184The True Christian Religion (New York: Swedenborg Foundation, 1951).
  146. ^ Swedenborg, E. The Doctrine of the Lord (New York: Swedenborg Foundation, 1946)
  147. ^ Swedenborg, E. The Arcana Coelestia (New York: Swedenborg Foundation, various dates)
  148. ^ Swedenborg, E. particularly sections 280–310The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, New York: Swedenborg Foundation, 1951)
  149. ^
  150. ^
  151. ^ Block, M.B The New Church in the New World. A Study of Swedenborgianism in America (Holt 1932; reprint Octagan 1968), Chapter 3.]
  152. ^ Benz, E. Emanuel Swedenborg. Visionary Savant in The Age of Reason (translated by Goodrick-Clarke (Swedenborg Foundation, 2002, p. 487).
  153. ^ Crompton, S. Emanuel Swedenborg (Chelsea House, 2005, p. 76).
  154. ^ Block, Chapter 3.
  155. ^ Ahlstrom, S. E. A Religious History of the American People (Yale 1972, p. 483).
  156. ^
  157. ^
  158. ^
  159. ^ Johan Henrik Kellgren published an often quoted satirical poem entitled Man äger ej snille för det man är galen ("You Own Not Genius For That You are Mad") in 1787. See Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth (1999). (Link to the full poem, in Swedish)
  160. ^ The trial in 1768 was against Gabrial Beyer and Johan Rosén and was essentially concerned whether Swedenborg's theological writings were consistent with Christian doctrine. A royal ordinance in 1770 declared that writings were "clearly mistaken" and should not be taught. Swedenborg then begged the King for grace and protection in a letter from Amsterdam. A new investigation against Swedenborg stalled and was eventually dropped in 1778 (1999), pp. 453–463.
  161. ^
  162. ^ See "References" and "Further Reading" sections, below
  163. ^ Johan Henrik Kellgren published an often quoted satirical poem entitled Man äger ej snille för det man är galen (You Own Not Genius For That You are Mad) in 1787. See Jonsson, Inge, Swedenborg och Linné, in Delblanc & Lönnroth (1999). (Link to the full poem, in Swedish)
  164. ^
  165. ^ This subject is touched on in the preface of Bergquist (1999), who mentions the biography by Martin Lamm (originally published in 1917) and its focus on the similarities of Swedenborg's scientific and theological lives. He mentions an earlier biography by the Swedish physician Emil Kleen who concluded that Swedenborg was blatantly mad, suffering "Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. For a detailed review of these two articles, see the special issue of the academic journal The New Philosophy The Madness Hypothesis.)
  166. ^ Bergquist (1999), p. 474
  167. ^
  168. ^ Trobridge, G.Swedenborg, Life and Teaching (Swedenborg Foundation, 1976, p. 202).
  169. ^
  170. ^ Benz, E. Emanuel Swedenborg. Visionary Savant in the Age of Reason. (Swedenborg Foundation, 2002, p. 226, 227)
  171. ^ Block, p. 14
  172. ^ Online text from the Heavenly Doctrines database, From Heavenly Doctrine database.
  173. ^ Online photocopy of first Latin edition published by Swedenborg From Bayside Church image database.
  174. ^ The original title, and year of publication is based on Bergquist (1999), Litteraturförteckning (pp.525–534).
  175. ^ The Works of Emanuel Swedenborg in Chronological Order’’, Emanuel Swedenborg Studies, accessed February 3, 2011 .
  176. ^ .A Swedenborg Bibliography
  177. ^ Which of Swedenborg's books are Divine revelation? The Swedenborg canon


See also

  • 1716–1718, (Daedalus Hyperboreus) Swedish: Daedalus Hyperboreus, eller några nya mathematiska och physicaliska försök. (English: The Northern inventor, or some new experiments in mathematics and physics)
  • 1721, (Principles of Chemistry) Latin: Prodromus principiorum rerum naturalium: sive novorum tentaminum chymiam et physicam experimenta geometrice explicandi
  • 1722, (Miscellaneous Observations) Latin: Miscellanea de Rebus Naturalibus
  • 1734, (Principia) Latin: Opera Philosophica et Mineralia (English: Philosophical and Mineralogical Works), three volumes
    • (Principia, Volume I) Latin: Tomus I. Principia rerum naturlium sive novorum tentaminum phaenomena mundi elementaris philosophice explicandi
    • (Principia, Volume II) Latin: Tomus II. Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de ferro
    • (Principia, Volume III) Latin: Tomus III. Regnum subterraneum sive minerale de cupro et orichalco
  • 1734, (The Infinite and Final Cause of Creation) Latin: Prodromus Philosophiz Ratiocinantis de Infinito, et Causa Finali Creationis; deque Mechanismo Operationis Animae et Corporis.
  • 1744–1745, (The Animal Kingdom) Latin: Regnum animale, 3 volumes
  • 1745, (The Worship and Love of God) Latin: De Cultu et Amore Dei, 2 volumes
  • 1749–1756, (Arcana Cœlestia (or Caelestia) (Heavenly Mysteries) Latin: Arcana Cœlestia, quae in Scriptura Sacra seu Verbo Domini sunt, detecta, 8 volumes
  • 1758, (Heaven and Hell) Latin: De Caelo et Ejus Mirabilibus et de inferno. Ex Auditis et Visis.
  • 1758, (The Last Judgment) Latin: De Ultimo Judicio
  • 1758, (The White Horse) Latin: De Equo Albo de quo in Apocalypsi Cap. XIX.
  • 1758, (Earths in the Universe) Latin: De Telluribus in Mundo Nostro Solari, quæ vocantur planetæ: et de telluribus in coelo astrifero: deque illarum incolis; tum de spiritibus & angelis ibi; ex auditis & visis.
  • 1758, (The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine) Latin: De Nova Hierosolyma et Ejus Doctrina Coelesti
  • 1763, (Doctrine of the Lord) Latin:Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Domino.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Scriptura Sacra.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of Life) Latin: Doctrina Vitæ pro Nova Hierosolyma ex præceptis Decalogi.
  • 1763, (Doctrine of Faith) Latin: Doctrina Novæ Hierosolymæ de Fide.
  • 1763, (Continuation of The Last Judgement) Latin: Continuatio De Ultimo Judicio: et de mundo spirituali.
  • 1763, (Divine Love and Wisdom) Latin: Sapientia Angelica de Divino Amore et de Divina Sapientia. Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia.
  • 1764, (Divine Providence) Latin: Sapientia Angelica de Divina Providentia.
  • 1766, (Apocalypse Revealed) Latin: Apocalypsis Revelata, in quae detegunter Arcana quae ibi preedicta sunt.
  • 1768, (Conjugial Love, or Marriage Love) Latin: Deliciae Sapientiae de Amore Conjugiali; post quas sequumtur voluptates insaniae de amore scortatorio.
  • 1769, (Brief Exposition) Latin: Summaria Expositio Doctrinæ Novæ Ecclesiæ, quæ per Novam Hierosolymam in Apocalypsi intelligitur.
  • 1769, (Interaction of the Soul and the Body) Latin: De Commercio Animæ & Corporis.
  • 1771, (True Christian Religion) Latin: Vera Christiana Religio, continens Universam Theologiam Novae Ecclesiae
  • 1859, (Journal of Dreams)Drömboken, Journalanteckningar, 1743–1744
  • 1983–1997, (Spiritual Diary) Latin: Diarum, Ubi Memorantur Experientiae Spirituales.

Within parenthesis is the common name used in a New Church listing[176] Then follows the title in its original publication. All the titles listed were published by Swedenborg, except one, The Spiritual Diary, which was not.[177] Various minor reports and tracts have been omitted from the list.

List of referenced works by Swedenborg and the year they were first published.[174][175]

Copies of the original Latin version in which Swedenborg wrote his revelation are available from the following sources:[172][173]


In the two and a half centuries since Swedenborg's death, various [171]

[160] The foundation of Swedenborg's theology was laid down in

Swedenborg considered his theology a revelation of the true Christian religion that had become obfuscated through centuries of theology. However, he did not refer to his writings as theology since he considered it based on actual experiences, unlike theology,[16] except in the title of his last work. Neither did he wish to compare it to philosophy, a discipline he discarded in 1748 because, he claimed, it "darkens the mind, blinds us, and wholly rejects the faith".[132]

According to The Heavenly Doctrine the teachings of the Second Coming of Jesus Christ were revealed to and published by Emanuel Swedenborg.[131]


Finally, a case has been made that Kant wrote Dreams before, not after, the Knobloch letter and that this was accomplished by accidentally or deliberately falsifying the dates of the documents involved, notably that of the Knobloch letter.[130] This alteration, if true, would strengthen the case for Swedenborg’s work being viewed by Kant, in the last analysis, positively. However, the fact of the matter is difficult to determine since the key date involved is that of the original of the Knobloch letter, which is lost.[130]

For more examples of these discrepancies, see Heron's list in the original[127] and with the Dole corrections.[128][129]

(4) In one of his letters to Mendelssohn, Kant refers to Dreams less-than-enthusiastically as a "desultory little essay".[126]

(3) Kant's friend Moses Mendelssohn thought there was a "joking pensiveness" in Dreams that sometimes left the reader in doubt as to whether Dreams was meant to make "metaphysics laughable or spirit-seeking credible".[125]

(2) While he mocked Swedenborg in print, in the preserved notes of Kant's lectures on metaphysics taken by a student named Herder, Kant treated Swedenborg with respect, "not to be sneezed at".[122][123] At one point, Herder’s notes term Swedenborg's visions as "quite sublime".[124]

(1) Kant's writing style was usually "complex, labored, dry ...and earnest"[121] but in Dreams was often “playful, ironic and humorous".[121]

However, there has long been a suspicion among some scholars that, despite Dreams, Kant actually had a behind-the-scenes respect for Swedenborg.[120] Certainly there were inconsistencies in Kant's handling of this issue. For instance,

However, three years later, in 1766, Kant wrote and published anonymously a small book entitled Träume eines Geistersehers (Dreams of a Spirit-Seer)[110] that was a scathing critique of Swedenborg and his writings. He termed Swedenborg a "spook hunter"[111] "without official office or occupation".[112] As rationale for his critique, Kant said he wanted to stop "ceaseless questioning”[113] and inquiries about Dreams from "inquisitive" persons, both known and unknown",[114] and "importunate appeals from known and unknown friends",[115] as well as from "moon calves".[115] Kant also said he did not want to expose himself to ”mockery.”[116] More significantly, he became concerned about being seen as an apologist for both Swedenborg and for Spiritism in the guise of his interest in Swedenborg,[117] which might have damaged his career.[118] Dreams was intended as a refutation of all such thinking.[119] This left Kant in the ironic or hypocritical position of trying to free himself of ridicule while he at the same time ridiculed Swedenborg.[117]

In 1763, the philosopher [109]

Kant on Swedenborg

Although not typically cited along with these three episodes, there was one further piece of evidence: Swedenborg was noted by the seamen of the ships that he sailed between Stockholm and London to always have excellent sailing conditions.[103] When asked about this by a friend, Swedenborg played down the matter, saying he was surprised by this experience himself and that he was certainly not able to do miracles.[103]

The fourth incident involved a woman who had lost an important document, and came to Swedenborg asking if a recently deceased person could tell him where it was, which he (in some sources) was said to have done the following night.[102]

Lost document

[101][100] The third event was in 1758 when Swedenborg visited Queen

Queen of Sweden

A second fire anecdote, similar to the first one, but less cited, is the incident of the mill owner Bolander. Swedenborg warned him, again abruptly, of an incipient fire in one of his mills.[99]

It seems unlikely that the many witnesses to Swedenborg’s distress during the fire, and his immediate report of it to the provincial governor,[96][97] would have left room for doubt in the public eye of Swedenborg’s report. If Swedenborg had only received news of the fire by the normal methods there would have been no issue of psychic perception recorded for history. Instead, "when the news of Swedenborg's extraordinary vision of the fire reached the capital, public curiosity about him was very much aroused."[98]

(Bergquist states, but does not document, that Swedenborg confirmed his vision of the fire incident to his good friend, Consul Christopher Springer, "one of the pillars of the church, … "a man of enviable reputation for virtue and intelligence",[94] "and that Swedenborg's innkeeper, Erik Bergström, heard Swedenborg affirming the story.[95])

At that time, it took two to three days for news from Stockholm to reach Gothenburg by courier, so that is the shortest duration in which the news of the fire could reach Gothenburg. The first messenger from Stockholm with news of the fire was from the Board of Trade, who arrived Monday evening. The second messenger was a royal courier, who arrived on Tuesday. Both of these reports confirmed every statement to the precise hour that Swedenborg first expressed the information. The accounts are fully described in Bergquist, pp. 312–313 and in Chapter 31 of The Swedenborg Epic.[92][93]

When the fire broke out Swedenborg was at a dinner with friends in Gothenburg, about 400 km from Stockholm. He became agitated and told the party at six o'clock that there was a fire in Stockholm, that it had consumed his neighbor’s home and was threatening his own. Two hours later, he exclaimed with relief that the fire had stopped three doors from his home. In the excitement following his report, word even reached the ears of the provincial governor, who summoned Swedenborg that same evening and asked for a detailed recounting.

On Thursday, 19 July 1759 a great and well-documented fire broke out in [89]

Fire anecdotes

Four incidents of purported psychic ability of Swedenborg exist in the literature.[87] There are several versions of each story.

Prophetic accounts

[86] The basis of the correspondence theory is that there is a relationship among the natural ("physical"), the spiritual, and the divine worlds. The foundations of this theory can be traced to

One of his ideas that is considered most crucial for the understanding of his theology is his notion of correspondences. But, in fact, he first presented the theory of correspondences only in 1744, in the first volume of Regnum Animale dealing with the human soul.[16]

From 1745, when he considered himself to have entered a spiritual state, he tended to phrase his "experiences" in empirical terms, claiming to report accurately things he had experienced on his spiritual journeys.

Swedenborg proposed many scientific ideas during his lifetime. In his youth, he wanted to present a new idea every day, as he wrote to his brother-in-law Erik Benzelius in 1718. Around 1730, he had changed his mind, and instead believed that higher knowledge is not something that can be acquired, but that it is based on intuition. After 1745, he instead considered himself receiving scientific knowledge in a spontaneous manner from angels.[84]

Scientific beliefs

Swedenborg's approach to demonstrating the veracity of his theological teachings was to find and use voluminous quotations from the [83]

In the 1730s Swedenborg became increasingly interested in spiritual matters and was determined to find a theory which would explain how matter relates to spirit. Swedenborg's desire to understand the order and purpose of creation first led him to investigate the structure of matter and the process of creation itself. In the Some propose that he did not in fact have a revelation at all, but rather developed his theological ideas from sources ranging from his father to earlier figures in the history of thought, notably [79] Swedenborg has had a variety of biographers, favorable and critical.

Swedenborg's transition from scientist to revelator or mystic has fascinated many people ever since it occurred (see list of some of the people involved above, in introduction).


There are a list of biographies of Swedenborg available at "The Biographies" section of the Swedenborg Digital Library. [74] Further reviews of Swedenborg and his thought are available at online encyclopedias: [75][76] [77] [78]

[73][72][71] He was buried in the Swedish Church in

Swedenborg House, London

There is evidence that Swedenborg wrote a letter to [69]

In the summer of 1771, he traveled to London. Shortly before Christmas he suffered a stroke and was partially paralyzed and confined to bed. His health improved somewhat, but he died on March 29, 1772. There are several accounts of his last months, made by those he stayed with, and by Arvid Ferelius, a pastor of the Swedish Church in London, who visited him several times.[65]

In July 1770, at the age of 82, he traveled to Amsterdam to complete the publication of his last work. The book, Vera Christiana Religio (The True Christian Religion), was published in Amsterdam in 1771 and was one of the most appreciated of his works. Designed to explain his teachings to Lutheran Christians, it was the most concrete of his works.[64]

Swedenborg's crypt in Uppsala Cathedral

Swedenborg published his work in London or Holland due to the freedom of the press unique to those countries.[62][63]

[61], it is stated that he conversed with spirits from Earths in the Universe In

In another of his theological works, Swedenborg wrote that eating meat, regarded in itself, "is something profane," and was not practiced in the early days of the human race. However, he said, meat-eating today is a matter of conscience and no one is condemned for doing it.[54] Nonetheless, the early-days ideal appears to have given rise to the idea that Swedenborg was a pigeon pie.[56]

[53] also teaches that the Last Judgement was followed by the The Heavenly Doctrine

One of Swedenborg's lesser known works presents a startling claim, that the Last Judgment had begun in the previous year (1757) and was completed by the end of that year[47] and that he had witnessed the whole thing.[48] According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Last Judgment took place, not in the physical world, but in the World of Spirits, which is located half-way between heaven and hell, and which everyone passes through on their way to heaven or hell.[49] The Judgment took place because the Christian church had lost its charity and faith, resulting in a loss of spiritual free will that threatened the equilibrium between heaven and hell in everyone’s life[50][51]

The Last Judgment and Second Coming of Christ

His life from 1747 until his death in 1772 was spent in Stockholm, Holland, and London. During these 25 years he wrote another 14 works of a spiritual nature of which most were published during his lifetime.

The work was anonymous and Swedenborg was not identified as the author until the late 1750s. It consisted of eight volumes, published between 1749 and 1756. It attracted little attention, as few people could penetrate its meaning.[45][46]

In June 1747, Swedenborg resigned his post as assessor of the board of mines. He explained that he was obliged to complete a work he had begun and requested to receive half his salary as a pension.[42] He took up afresh his study of Hebrew and began to work on the spiritual interpretation of the Bible with the goal of interpreting the spiritual meaning of every verse. From sometime between 1746 and 1747, and for ten years henceforth, he devoted his energy to this task. Usually abbreviated as Arcana Cœlestia and under the Latin variant Arcana Caelestia[43] (translated as Heavenly Arcana, Heavenly Mysteries, or Secrets of Heaven depending on modern English-language editions), the book became his magnum opus and the basis of his further theological works.[44]

Arcana Cœlestia, first edition (1749), title page

Scriptural commentary and writings

In 1743, Swedenborg was dining in a private room at a tavern in London. By the end of the meal, a darkness fell upon his eyes, and the room shifted character. Suddenly he saw a person sitting at a corner of the room, telling Swedenborg: "Do not eat too much!". Swedenborg, scared, hurried home. Later that night, the same man appeared in his dreams. The man told Swedenborg that He was the Lord, that He had appointed Swedenborg to reveal the spiritual meaning of the Bible, and that He would guide Swedenborg in what to write. The same night, the spiritual world was opened to Swedenborg.[40][41]

In the last entry of the journal from 26–27 October 1744, Swedenborg appears to be clear as to which path to follow. He felt he should drop his current project, and write a new book about the worship of God. He soon began working on De cultu et amore Dei, or The Worship and Love of God. It was never fully completed, but Swedenborg still had it published in London in June 1745.[39]

Visions and spiritual insights

[38]. This process, which one biographer has proposed as cathartic and comparable to the Regnum animale The experiences continued as he traveled to London to progress the publication of [36] Swedenborg experienced many different dreams and visions, some greatly pleasurable, others highly disturbing.

By 1744 Swedenborg had traveled to the Netherlands. Around this time he began having strange dreams. Swedenborg carried a travel journal with him on most of his travels, and did so on this journey. The whereabouts of the diary were long unknown, but it was discovered in the Royal Library in the 1850s and published in 1859 as Drömboken, or Journal of Dreams.

Journal of Dreams

In 1743, at the age of 55, Swedenborg requested a leave of absence to go abroad. His purpose was to gather source material for Regnum animale (The Animal Kingdom, or Kingdom of Life), a subject on which books were not readily available in Sweden. The aim of the book was to explain the soul from an anatomical point of view. He had planned to produce a total of seventeen volumes.[35]

[34].Augustine and Plotinus, Aristotle, Plato; and earlier thinkers such as Descartes, and Leibniz, Christian von Wolff, John Locke He also conducted dedicated studies of the fashionable philosophers of the time such as [33][32] is connected to the body. This was the first manuscript where he touched upon these matters. He knew that it might clash with established theologies, since he presents the view that the soul is based on material substances.soul"), where he attempted to explain how the finite is related to the infinite, and how the "On the Infinite (de Infinito The same year he also published the small manuscript [31] In 1735, while in

) [30][29].[82]

[28][27][26][25][24] During the 1730s, Swedenborg undertook many studies of

New direction of studies, ahead of his time

[22] In 1724, he was offered the chair of

[20] Upon the death of Charles XII,

In 1718 Swedenborg published an article that attempted to explain spiritual and mental events in terms of minute vibrations or "tremulations".

[16] (Daedalus Hyperboreus From 1716 to 1718, Swedenborg published a scientific periodical entitled

[19].Stockholm) in Bergskollegium (Swedish Board of MinesIn 1715 Swedenborg returned to Sweden, where he devoted himself to natural science and engineering projects for the next two decades. A first step was his meeting with King

The Flying Machine, sketched in his notebook from 1714. The operator would sit in the middle, and paddle himself through the air. See Smithsonian model and explanation by Dr. Paul Garber, former Curator of the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, on the principle of flight of the aircraft. His descriptions may be found in a chapter of the Söderburg book,[17] p. 32, or on the video clip at 5:48 on its timeline.[18]

Scientific period


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.