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Fob James

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Fob James

Fob James
48th Governor of Alabama
In office
January 16, 1995 – January 18, 1999
Lieutenant Don Siegelman
Preceded by Jim Folsom, Jr.
Succeeded by Don Siegelman
In office
January 15, 1979 – January 17, 1983
Lieutenant George McMillan
Preceded by George Wallace
Succeeded by George Wallace
Personal details
Born Forrest Hood James, Jr.
(1934-09-15) September 15, 1934
Lanett, Alabama
Political party Democratic (first term)
Republican (second term)
Spouse(s) Bobbie Mooney James
Children Tim James
Profession Football player, civil engineer
Religion Episcopalian
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1956-1958
Rank Second Lieutenant
Unit Corps of Engineers

Forrest Hood James, Jr., known as Fob James (born September 15, 1934), is an American politician, and civil engineer. He served two terms as the 48th Governor of Alabama, from 1979 to 1983 as a Democrat, and again from 1995 to 1999 as a Republican.

Contents

  • Education, football, and early career 1
  • Political career 2
    • First term 2.1
    • Between terms 2.2
    • Second term 2.3
      • Crime and justice 2.3.1
      • Education 2.3.2
      • Religion controversies 2.3.3
      • Campaign for a third term 2.3.4
  • Life after politics 3
  • Notes 4
  • References and external Links 5

Education, football, and early career

James was born in Lanett, Alabama, the son of Rebecca (Ellington) and Forrest Hood James, Sr.[1] After graduation in 1952 from Baylor School, a private high school in Chattanooga, Tennessee. James played football (1952–1955) at Auburn University, where he played for head coach Ralph "Shug" Jordan.[2] In 1955 James was named All-American as a halfback. He received a civil engineering degree in 1957. He played professional football in Canada as a member of the Montreal Alouettes during the 1956 season and entered the Army to serve two years as a lieutenant in the U.S. Corps of Engineers.

From 1958–59, James was a heavy construction engineer with Burford-Toothaker Tractor Company in Montgomery, AL. In 1959, his second born, Gregory Fleming James, was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. Needing money to pay Greg's medical bills, James left Montgomery in 1960 to take a job as construction superintendent with Laidlaw Contracting Company, a road-paving company in Mobile, AL. In 1961, the James decided that he could earn a living from the manufacture of plastic-coated barbells. In 1962, he founded Diversified Products Inc., a manufacturer of fitness equipment known for the plastic-disc barbells filled with "Orbatron," which DP patented. The company name had been changed to "Diversified Products Corporation" after originally being called Health-Disc Inc.[3] In addition to physical fitness equipment, the company manufactured ballasts and counterweights for farms, industry and trucking. James founded DP in his basement and, over the next 15 years, the company ultimately grew to employ 1,500 people with plants in Opelika, AL, Los Angeles, and Toronto, with sales of about $1 billion annually. James served as the CEO of DP until it was bought by the Liggett Group in 1977.

James lost his 8-year-old son to cystic fibrosis. The Gregory Fleming James Cystic Fibrosis Research Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, established in 1981, is named in his honor. James played an integral role in the establishment of the Center.

From 1972 to 1974, James served as president of the Alabama Citizens for Transportation, a statewide committee which developed a twenty-year highway program subsequently adopted by the Alabama Legislature.

Political career

First term

During his 1978 campaign for Governor, James campaigned as a "born-again Democrat". James had left the Democratic Party in the early 1970s but returned to the party before the election. In the first primary, he defeated Bill Baxley 296,196 votes to 210,089 votes. In the second primary, James easily outdistanced Baxley and defeated the Republican candidate, Guy Hunt, in the November general election.

During James' first administration, the state faced considerable financial difficulties; however, James was reasonably successful in attaining his education reform package, improving the state's mental health system, rectifying some prison overcrowding problems and re-establishing the once financially strapped Medicaid system. Furthermore, James consolidated various state agencies to reduce state spending. Additionally, he implemented a ten percent State spending cut, instituted a hiring freeze and laid off a considerable number of the state employee workforce. He also chose to emphasize funding for k-12 education over that for Alabama's colleges and universities, a highly contested action. He also worked to acquire stiffer penalties for convicted drug traffickers and was quite instrumental in the improvement of the state's highways as a result of earmarking a substantial amount of money for such improvements from the state's oil windfall funds. However, James was unsuccessful in his attempts to: have a new state constitution drafted, levy a fuel tax, rectify the court-ordered desegregation of some of the state's post-secondary institutions and secure passage of his bill to eliminate income tax deductions for Social Security payments.

One of his greatest accomplishments was his success in integrating Alabama government. During his inauguration, he "claim(ed) for all Alabamians a New Beginning (his campaign theme) free from racism and discrimination." During his first term as governor, he named Oscar Adams to fill a vacancy on the Alabama Supreme Court, the first African American chosen for such a position. In addition, he appointed other blacks to cabinet positions, including Gary Cooper as director of the Department of Pensions and Security, the first African American to be named to head a major state agency in Alabama in a century.

During his first term, James caused controversy by signing into law a measure passed by the legislature allowing teachers to lead willing students in prayer. The law was declared unconstitutional in May 1983.

Between terms

James's decision not to run again for governor in 1982 eased the way for State Senator Ann Bedsole, a Moderate Republican from Mobile. Bedsole refused to endorse James in the general election, but he still defeated Folsom by a narrow margin and won his second term as governor, this time as a Republican.

Second term

James governed as a staunch conservative during his second term, reflecting individualistic,

Political offices
Preceded by
George Wallace
Governor of Alabama
January 15, 1979 – January 17, 1983
Succeeded by
George Wallace
Preceded by
Jim Folsom, Jr.
Governor of Alabama
January 16, 1995 – January 18, 1999
Succeeded by
Don Siegelman
Party political offices
Preceded by
George Wallace
Democratic Party nominee for Governor of Alabama
1978 (won)
Succeeded by
George Wallace
Preceded by
H. Guy Hunt
Republican Party nominee for Governor of Alabama
1994 (won), 1998 (lost)
Succeeded by
Bob Riley
  • Forrest Hood "Fob" James Jr. Alabama Department of Archives and History.
  • Alabama G.O.P. Governor Sees a Different New South
  • Fob James Wins GOP Primary Runoff For Alabama Governor
  • Former Alabama Gov. Fob James and his son oppose prosecutor of Judge Moore
  • Encyclopedia of Alabama

References and external Links

  1. ^ http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1469
  2. ^ http://www.chattanoogan.com/articles/article_116529.asp
  3. ^ http://www.eastalabama.org/DP%20exhibit.htm
  4. ^
  5. ^ Kathleen A. O'Shea, Women and the death penalty in the United States, 1900–1998, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0-275-95952-X, 9780275959524
  6. ^ a b The Post Online – Fob James discusses Judith Ann Neelley commutation
  7. ^ Inmates Executed in Alabama
  8. ^ Clemency
  9. ^ "James helps arrange return of fugitive from Europe." Associated Press at the Times Daily. Friday October 25, 1996. 9 of 16. Retrieved on September 28, 2010.
  10. ^ Fob James Wins GOP Primary Runoff For Alabama Governor – July 1, 1998
  11. ^ Alabama Citizens for Science Education

Notes

James has 10 grandchildren and resides in Alabama. He is the CEO of Escambia County Environmental Corporation.

Life after politics

James's longest and most publicized religious battle was the controversy surrounding the posting of the Ten Commandments and the offering of a daily prayer in the courtroom of Christian right. James struggled through the bitter Republican primary runoff and defeated Blount but had little money left to finance the general election campaign. Lieutenant Governor Don Siegelman, on the other hand, easily won the Democratic primary on the sole issue of establishing a state lottery to provide college scholarships. James opposed the lottery and was soundly defeated by Siegelman in the general election in 1998. He returned to semi-retirement, saying he wanted to spend more time with his children and grandchildren.

James was frequently criticized for the influence his religious beliefs had over his governing. At a 1995 Alabama State Board of Education meeting, James criticized the teaching of evolution in textbooks by imitating a "slump-shouldered ape turning into an upright human".[10] He supported the adoption of a textbook warning sticker that stated, among other things, that "No one was present when life first appeared on earth. Therefore, any statement about life's origins should be considered as theory, not fact."[11]

Religion controversies

James refused to accept federal monies from the U.S. Department of Education's Goals 2000 program because he believed that accepting the money would lead to increased federal involvement and control over the state's schools. When Secretary of Education Richard Riley promised that the Department of Education would not interfere in the use of the funds, Alabama's state board of education ignored the governor's protests and voted to accept the funding and use it to purchase computers for K–12 classrooms.

The Alabama legislature joined James in passing an educational reform package known as the James Educational Foundation Act. This legislation required local school systems that were not already at a minimum level of support to raise local property taxes to 10 mills, and it increased the number of credit hours in academic subjects that students were required to have in order to graduate. This legislation also empowered the state superintendent of education to take control of schools that scored poorly on national achievement tests. Prioritizing K-12 education, James stripped funding from the state's colleges and universities and further strained relations between higher education and the governor's office.

Education

James helped arrange a State of Alabama-paid voluntary return of Lester Coleman, a former journalist accused by the Federal Government of the United States of committing perjury who was residing in Europe, to the United States. According to Redding Pitt, a federal government attorney from Montgomery, Alabama, Coleman called James, an acquaintance of Coleman from the 1970s, for help in his case. Coleman promoted alternative theories regarding the Lockerbie bombing, and his perjury charges stemmed from his statements about incident. Joe Boohaker, Coleman's attorney, said that James apparently knew Coleman from the time when Coleman worked at a Birmingham, Alabama radio station.[9]

During his second term James, who firmly supported the death penalty,[6] presided over post-Furman commutation of a death sentence by a Governor in Alabama.[8] James explained that, in his view, executing Neelley would not have been just.[6] His reason was that the Neelley case was the only time he had seen a judge overrule the jury in issuing a death penalty.

James took a "tough" position on crime and criminals. He and his prison commissioner, Ronald Jones, reinstituted chain gangs for Alabama's prison inmates. The Governor approved other strict policies instituted by Jones but balked at the commissioner's suggestion that chain gangs be extended to include female prisoners, and James put an end to the chain gang shortly thereafter because of a lawsuit brought by a coalition of community human rights groups. Regarding crime issues, James also cited as one of his "major accomplishments" the revision of the Alabama Criminal Code, which made it one of the toughest in the U.S.[5]

Crime and justice

In a widely reported incident, James remarked that he wished the state's government ran as well as the Waffle House restaurants he enjoyed frequenting. Editorial observers responded by suggesting that running a state was significantly more complicated than running a restaurant.

The Governor appointed Aubrey Miller, an African-American, to head the Alabama Tourism Department. He also appointed Beth Chapman, the first woman in Alabama’s history to serve as Appointments Secretary, to his cabinet.

as a hopeful remedy to years of legislative standstills, which is still in effect in the Legislature today. [4]

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