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Forty-fourth United States Congress

 

Forty-fourth United States Congress

44th United States Congress
United States Capitol (1869)

Duration: March 4, 1875 – March 4, 1877

Senate President: Henry Wilson (Mar.–Nov. 1875)
Vacant (1875–1877)
Senate Pres. pro tem: Thomas W. Ferry
House Speaker: Michael C. Kerr
Samuel J. Randall
Members: 76 Senators
293 Representatives
9 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Democratic

Sessions
1st: December 6, 1875 – August 15, 1876
2nd: December 4, 1876 – March 3, 1877
<43rd 45th>

The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875 to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

Contents

Major events

Major legislation

State admitted

  • August 1, 1876: Colorado admitted as the 38th state

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

During this Congress, two Senate seats and one House seat were added for the new state, Colorado.

Senate

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 20 51 0 (Liberal
Republican
)

2
73 1
Begin 26 44 1 0 73 1
End 28 45 76 0
Final voting share 36.8% 63.2% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 33 42 0 (Independent)
1
76 0

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic

(ID)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Republican
(R)
Independent
(I)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 95 7 0 199 0 (Liberal
Republican
)

4
290 2
Begin 177 1 3 101 4 0 287 5
End 182 100 292 2
Final voting share 62.8% 35.8% 1.4% 0.%
Beginning of the next Congress 144 2 0 146 0 0 292 1

Leadership


Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1880; Class 2 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1878.

House of Representatives


The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 4
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • interim appointments: 3
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 7

Template:Ordinal US Congress Senate

|- | Louisiana (3) | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Vacancy caused by the Senate in declining to seat rival claimants William L. McMillen and P. B. S. Pinchback.[1] Successor was elected. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James B. Eustis (D) | January 10, 1876 |- | Tennessee (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Andrew Johnson (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died July 31, 1875. An interim successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | David M. Key (D) | August 18, 1875 |- | Connecticut (3) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Orris S. Ferry (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died November 21, 1875. An interim successor was appointed. | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James E. English (D) | November 27, 1875 |- | Connecticut (3) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James E. English (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Successor elected May 17, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William H. Barnum (D) | May 18, 1876 |- | Maine (2) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Lot M. Morrill (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned July 7, 1876 after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James G. Blaine (R) | July 10, 1876 |- | West Virginia (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Allen T. Caperton (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died July 26, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Samuel Price (D) | August 26, 1876 |- | Colorado (2) | rowspan=2 | New seats | rowspan=2 style="font-size:80%" | Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876. Seats remained vacant until November 15, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Henry M. Teller (R) | rowspan=2 | November 15, 1876 |- | Colorado (3) | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Jerome B. Chaffee (R) |- | Tennessee (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | David M. Key (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Successor elected January 19, 1877 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James E. Bailey (D) | January 19, 1877 |- | West Virginia (1) | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Samuel Price (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Successor elected January 26, 1877 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Frank Hereford (D) | January 31, 1877 |}

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 14
  • deaths: 9
  • resignations: 6
  • contested election: 5
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 21


Template:Ordinal US Congress Rep

|- | Georgia 9th | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Rep-elect Garnett McMillan died before taking seat | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Benjamin H. Hill (D) | May 5, 1875 |- | Maine 4th | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Rep. Samuel F. Hersey died during previous congress | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Harris M. Plaisted (R) | September 13, 1875 |- | New York 33rd | Vacant | style="font-size:80%" | Rep.-elect Augustus F. Allen died before taking seat | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Nelson I. Norton (R) | December 6, 1875 |- | Massachusetts 1st | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James Buffington (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died March 7, 1875 | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | William W. Crapo (R) | November 2, 1875 |- | Oregon At-large | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | George A. La Dow (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died May 1, 1875 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Lafayette Lane (D) | October 25, 1875 |- | Tennessee 4th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Samuel M. Fite (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died October 23, 1875 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Haywood Y. Riddle (D) | December 14, 1875 |- | Connecticut 3rd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Henry H. Starkweather (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Died January 28, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | John T. Wait (R) | April 12, 1876 |- | Florida 2nd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Josiah T. Walls (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Lost contested election April 19, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Jesse J. Finley (D) | April 19, 1876 |- | Illinois 3rd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Charles B. Farwell (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Lost contested election May 6, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | John V. Le Moyne (D) | May 6, 1876 |- | Connecticut 4th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William H. Barnum (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned May 18, 1876 after being elected to the US Senate | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Levi Warner (D) | December 4, 1876 |- | Louisiana 5th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Frank Morey (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Lost contested election June 8, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William B. Spencer (D) | June 8, 1876 |- | Idaho Territory At-large | nowrap style="background:#fdfd7f" | Thomas W. Bennett) (I) | style="font-size:80%" | Lost contested election June 23, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Stephen S. Fenn (D) | June 23, 1876 |- | Maine 3rd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James G. Blaine (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned July 10, 1876 after being appointed to the US Senate | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Edwin Flye (R) | December 4, 1876 |- | Kentucky 5th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Edward Y. Parsons (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died July 18, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Henry Watterson (D) | August 12, 1876 |- | Pennsylvania 12th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Winthrop W. Ketcham (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned July 19, 1876 after being appointed judge to the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William H. Stanton (D) | November 7, 1876 |- | South Carolina 2nd | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Edmund W. M. Mackey (IR) | style="font-size:80%" |Seat declared vacant July 19, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Charles W. Buttz (R) | November 7, 1876 |- | Massachusetts 4th | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | Rufus S. Frost (R) | style="font-size:80%" | Lost contested election July 28, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Josiah G. Abbott (D) | July 28, 1876 |- | Colorado Territory At-large | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Thomas M. Patterson (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876 | colspan=2 | Statehood achieved |- | Colorado At-large | New seat | style="font-size:80%" | Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876. Seat remained vacant until October 3, 1876. | nowrap style="background:#FFB6B6" | James B. Belford (R) | October 3, 1876 |- | Indiana 3rd | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Michael C. Kerr (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Died August 19, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Nathan T. Carr (D) | December 15, 1876 |- | Indiana 2nd | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | James D. Williams (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned December 1, 1876 after being elected Governor of Indiana | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Andrew Humphreys (D) | December 5, 1876 |- | New York 7th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Smith Ely, Jr. (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned December 11, 1876 | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | David D. Field II (D) | January 11, 1877 |- | Louisiana 5th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | William B. Spencer (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned January 8, 1877 to become an associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court | Vacant | Not filled this term |- | West Virginia 3rd | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Frank Hereford (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned January 31, 1877 after being elected to the US Senate | Vacant | Not filled this term |- | Georgia 9th | nowrap style="background:#B0CEFF" | Benjamin H. Hill (D) | style="font-size:80%" | Resigned March 3, 1877 after being elected to the US Senate | Vacant | Not filled this term |}

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

External links

  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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