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Ganirelix

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Ganirelix

Ganirelix
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2R)-2-[[(2R)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2R)-2-[[(2R)-2-[[(2R)-2-acetamido-3-naphthalen-2-ylpropanoyl]amino]-3-(4-chlorophenyl)propanoyl]amino]-3-pyridin-3-ylpropanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]amino]-6-[bis(ethylamino)methylideneamino]hexanoyl]amino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-6-[bis(ethylamino)methylideneamino]hexanoyl]-N-[(2R)-1-amino-1-oxopropan-2-yl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com
Pregnancy
category
  • US: X (Contraindicated)
Legal status
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous injection
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 91.1%
Protein binding 81.9%
Biological half-life 16.2 hours
Excretion Faecal / Renal (approx. 75%/22%)
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  N
ATC code H01
PubChem CID:
IUPHAR/BPS
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
KEGG  N
ChEMBL  N
Chemical data
Formula C80H113ClN18O13
Molecular mass 1570.4 g/mol
 N   

Ganirelix acetate (or diacetate) is an injectable competitive gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist). It is primarily used in assisted reproduction to control ovulation. The drug works by blocking the action of GnRH upon the pituitary, thus rapidly suppressing the production and action of LH and FSH. Ganirelix is used in fertility treatment to prevent premature ovulation that could result in the harvesting of eggs that are too immature to be used in procedures such as in vitro fertilisation.[1]

GnRH agonists are also sometimes used in reproductive therapy, as well as to treat disorders involving sex-steroid hormones, such as endometriosis.[2] One advantage of using GnRH antagonists is that repeated administration of GnRH agonists results in decreased levels of gonadotropins and sex steroids due to desensitization of the pituitary. This is avoided when using GnRH antagonists such as Ganirelix.[2] The success of Ganirelix in reproductive therapy has been shown to be comparable to that when using GnRH agonists.[1]

Ganirelix is derived from GnRH itself, with amino acid substitutions made at positions 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, and 10.[3]

The European Commission gave marketing authorization for Ganirelix throughout the European Union to N.V. Organon in May 2000.[1] Ganirelix is marketed by Organon International as Antagon.

Location of the hypothalamus. GnRH is released from the hypothalamus, and subsequently acts on GnRH receptors on the anterior pituitary.

Contents

  • Treatment 1
  • Pharmacokinetics 2
  • Pharmacodynamics 3
  • Dosage and Administration 4
  • Side Effects 5
  • Implications for Pregnancy 6
  • Precautions 7
  • Drug Interactions 8
  • Similar Drugs 9
  • References 10

Treatment

Ganirelix is used as a fertility treatment drug for women. Specifically, it is used to prevent premature ovulation in women undergoing fertility treatment involving ovarian hyperstimulation that causes the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. When such premature ovulation occurs, the eggs released by the ovaries may be too immature to be used in in-vitro fertilisation. Ganirelix prevents ovulation until it is triggered by injecting human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG).[1]

Pharmacokinetics

When Ganirelix is given to healthy adult females, steady-state serum concentrations are reached, on average, after three days ("Ganirelix acetate injection," 2009). A study administering Ganirelix to healthy adult females (n=15) found the mean (SD) elimination half-life (t1/2) to be 16.2(1.6) hours, volume of distribution/absolute bioavailability (Vd/F) 76.5(10.3) liters, maximum serum concentration (Cmax) 11.2(2.4) ng/mL, and the time until maximum concentration (tmax) 1.1(0.2) hours. One 250 µg injection of Ganirelix resulted in a mean absolute bioavailability of 91.1%.[3]

Pharmacodynamics

Ganierlix is a synthetic peptide that works as an antagonist against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ("Ganirelix acetate injection," 2009). Ganirelix competitively blocks GnRH receptors on the pituitary gonadotroph, quickly resulting in the suppression of gonadotropin secretion.[3] This suppression is easily reversed by discontinuation of Ganirelix administration. Ganirelix has a significantly higher receptor binding affinity (Kd = 0.4 nM) than GnRH (Kd = 3.6 nM).[1]

Dosage and Administration

Ganirelix is administered by a subcutaneous injection of 250 µg once per day during the mid to late follicular phase of a woman’s menstrual cycle. Treatment should start on the 5th or 6th day after the start of ovarian stimulation, and the mean duration for its use is five days.[1] Preferably, the subcutaneous injections are delivered in the upper leg, and the patient can be trained to do this herself. Continued use of the drug should take place until the administration of hCG begins. hCG administration is begun when a sufficient number of follicles have developed due to the effects of endogenous and or exogenously administered follicle stimulating hormone.[1]

Side Effects

Clinical studies have shown that the most common side effect is a slight reaction at the site of injection in the form of redness, and sometimes swelling.[1] Clinical studies have shown that, one hour after injection, the incidence of at least one moderate or severe local skin reaction per treatment cycle was 12% in 4 patients treated with Ganirelix and 25% in patients treated subcutaneously with a GnRH agonist. The local reactions generally disappear within 4 hours after administration.[1] Other reported side effects are some that are known to be associated with ovarian hyperstimulation, including gynecological abdominal pain, headache, vaginal bleeding, nausea, and gastrointestinal abdominal pain. In some rare cases, less than 1 user in 10,000, hypersensitivity to Ganirelix can cause anaphylactoid reactions, most likely due to allergy.[3]

Implications for Pregnancy

A follow-up analysis for Ganirelix done by the Marketing Authorisation Holder compared the number of congenital malformations between individuals whose mothers were treated with Ganirelix compared with individuals whose mothers were treated with a GnRH agonist. The total number of congenital malformations was higher in the ganirelix group than in the GnRH agonist group (7.6% vs. 5.5%).[4] This falls within the range for the normal incidence of congenital malformations, and current data do not suggest that Ganirelix increases the incidence of congenital malformations or anomalies. No important differences in the frequency of ectopic pregnancies and miscarriage were noted with the use of Ganirelix.[4]

Precautions

Ganirelix should not be used in women who are already pregnant, and because of this the onset of pregnancy must be ruled out before it is administered. Women using Ganirelix should not breast feed, as it is not known whether Ganirelix is excreted in breast milk.[1]

Drug Interactions

Currently, no studies have been done to assess the possible drug-drug interactions between Ganirelix and other drugs.[4]

Similar Drugs

A number of other drugs used to control ovulation in assisted reproduction include Cetrorelix, a GnRH antagonist, and Nafarelin a GnRH agonist. See also:

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ a b c d
  4. ^ a b c


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