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Germacrene

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Germacrene

Germacrene A
Names
IUPAC name
(1E,5E,8S)-1,5-dimethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclodeca-1,5-diene
Other names
(−)-Germacrene A

Germacra-3,9,11-triene, (E,E)- 1,5-cyclodecadiene, 1,5-dimethyl-8-(1-methylethenyl)-, (1E,5E,8S)- 1,5-cyclodecadiene, 1,5-dimethyl-8-(1-methylethenyl)-,

(S-(E,E))-
Identifiers
 YesY
ChemSpider  N
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
C15H24
Molar mass 204.35 g/mol
Density 0.793 g/mL
Boiling point 236.4 °C (457.5 °F; 509.5 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: YesY/N?)
Germacrene D
Names
IUPAC name
(S,1Z,6Z)-8-isopropyl-1-methyl-5-methylenecyclodeca-1,6-diene
Other names
1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-1,6-cyclodecadiene 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-
Identifiers
ChemSpider
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
C15H24
Molar mass 204.35 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Germacrenes are a class of volatile organic hydrocarbons, specifically, sesquiterpenes. Germacrenes are typically produced in a number of plant species for their antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, though they also play a role as insect pheromones. Two prominent molecules are germacrene A and germacrene D.

Structures

Germacrene has five isomers.

Germacrene isomers
Germacrene A Germacrene B Germacrene C Germacrene D Germacrene E
A B C D E

Natural occurrences

The essential oil of the red deadnettle (Lamium purpureum) is characterized by its high contents of germacrene D, [1] as is Clausena anisata.

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^

General

Germacrene A

  • Deguerry F, Pastore L, Wu S, Clark A, Chappell J, Schalk M. The diverse sesquiterpene profile of patchouli, Pogostemon cablin, is correlated with a limited number of sesquiterpene synthases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Oct 15;454(2):123-36.
  • Omura H, Honda K, Feeny P. From terpenoids to aliphatic acids: further evidence for late-instar switch in osmeterial defense as a characteristic trait of swallowtail butterflies in the tribe papilionini. J Chem Ecol. 2006 Sep;32(9):1999-2012.
  • Forcat S, Allemann RK. Stabilisation of transition states prior to and following eudesmane cation in aristolochene synthase. Org Biomol Chem. 2006 Jul 7;4(13):2563-7.
  • Bertea CM, Voster A, Verstappen FW, Maffei M, Beekwilder J, Bouwmeester HJ. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua: cloning and heterologous expression of a germacrene A synthase from a glandular trichome cDNA library. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Apr 15;448(1-2):3-12.
  • Lou Y, Baldwin IT. Silencing of a germin-like gene in Nicotiana attenuata improves performance of native herbivores. Plant Physiol. 2006 Mar;140(3):1126-36.
  • Chang YJ, Jin J, Nam HY, Kim SU. Point mutation of (+)-germacrene A synthase from Ixeris dentata. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Mar;27(5):285-8.

Germacrene D

  • Rivero-Cruz B, Rivero-Cruz I, Rodriguez JM, Cerda-Garcia-Rojas CM, Mata R. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the active components of the essential oil from Brickellia veronicaefolia by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Nat Prod. 2006 Aug;69(8):1172-6.
  • Yang FQ, Li SP, Chen Y, Lao SC, Wang YT, Dong TT, Tsim KW. Identification and quantitation of eleven sesquiterpenes in three species of Curcuma rhizomes by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Sep 15;39(3-4):552-8.
  • Umlauf D, Zapp J, Becker H, Adam KP. Biosynthesis of the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone, the sesquiterpene germacrene D and other isoprenoids in Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae). Phytochemistry. 2004 Sep;65(17):2463-70.
  • Agnihotri VK, Thappa RK, Meena B, Kapahi BK, Saxena RK, Qazi GN, Agarwal SG. Essential oil composition of aerial parts of Angelica glauca growing wild in North-West Himalaya (India). Phytochemistry. 2004 Aug;65(16):2411-3.
  • Raal A, Paaver U, Arak E, Orav A. Content and composition of the essential oil of Thymus serpyllum L. growing wild in Estonia. Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40(8):795-800.
  • He X, Cane DE. Mechanism and stereochemistry of the germacradienol/germacrene D synthase of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Mar 10;126(9):2678-9.
  • Arimura, G-I., Huber, DPW, Bohlmann, J. Forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) induce local and systemic diurnal emissions of terpenoid volatiles in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides): cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and patterns of gene expression of (−)-germacrene D synthase, PtdTPS1. The Plant Journal 2004 37: 603-616.
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