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German American


German American

German Americans
Total population


17.1% of the U.S. population (2009)
Regions with significant populations

Throughout the entire United States

Plurality in the Midwestern states[3]
American English and German
Related ethnic groups

German Americans (German: Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who are of German descent. They comprise about 50 million people,[1] making them the largest self-reported ancestry group ahead of Irish Americans, African Americans and English Americans, although English Americans more than likely form the largest ancestry group in the U.S. due to Americans primarily of English ancestry identifying as simply American or with an ancestry group more recent in their family.[5][6][7][8][9][10] They comprise about 13 of the German diaspora in the world.[11][12][13]

None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling primarily in New York and Pennsylvania. Immigration continued in very large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, and pushed out of Europe by shortages of land and religious or political oppression.[14] Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, and others for the chance to start fresh in the New World. The arrivals before 1850 were mostly farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities, where "Germania"—German-speaking districts—soon emerged.[15][16][17]

German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States,[18] introduced the Christmas tree tradition,[19][20] and originated popular American foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers.[21] Like many other immigrants that came to the United States, an overwhelming number of people of German or partial German descent have essentially become Americanized.

German American celebrations are held throughout the country, one of the most well-known being the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City, held every third Saturday in September. Also traditional Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, St. Louis and other cities.

A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census.


  • History 1
    • Colonial era 1.1
      • Palatines 1.1.1
      • Louisiana 1.1.2
      • Southeast 1.1.3
      • New England 1.1.4
      • Pennsylvania 1.1.5
    • 19th century 1.2
      • Jews 1.2.1
      • Cities of the Midwest 1.2.2
      • Texas 1.2.3
      • Germans from Russia 1.2.4
      • Civil War 1.2.5
      • Farms 1.2.6
      • Politics 1.2.7
    • World Wars 1.3
      • World War I anti-German sentiment 1.3.1
      • World War II 1.3.2
    • Contemporary period 1.4
  • Demographics 2
    • By percentage 2.1
    • By absolute number 2.2
    • German-American communities 2.3
      • Communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry 2.3.1
      • Large communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry 2.3.2
      • Communities with the most residents born in Germany 2.3.3
  • Culture 3
    • Music 3.1
    • Turners 3.2
    • Media 3.3
    • Athletics 3.4
    • Religion 3.5
    • Language 3.6
  • Assimilation 4
  • German American influence 5
  • Notable German Americans 6
    • German-American presidents 6.1
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9
    • Historiography 9.1
    • Primary sources 9.2
    • In German 9.3
  • External links 10
    • German-American history and culture 10.1
    • German-American organizations 10.2
    • Local German-American history and culture 10.3


The Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing religious and cultural values.[22] Lutherans and Catholics typically opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, and favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs.[23][24] They generally opposed woman suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German American became pariahs during World War I.[25] On the other hand there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; they more closely resembled the Yankee Methodists in their moralism.[26]

Colonial era

The first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, and were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer. He was followed in 1608 by five glassmakers and three carpenters or house builders.[27] The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, Pennsylvania, founded near Philadelphia on October 6, 1683.[28]

John Jacob Astor, in an oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1794, was the first of the Astor family dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, making his fortune in the fur trade and New York City real estate.

Large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination. They migrated to America for a variety of reasons.[28] Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, and military conscription; pull factors were better economic conditions, especially the opportunity to own land, and religious freedom. Often immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants.[29]

Large sections of Pennsylvania and upstate New York attracted Germans. Most were Lutheran or German Reformed; many belonged to small religious sects such as the Moravians and Mennonites. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the war of 1812.[30]


In 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of hardship, traveling first to Rotterdam and then to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped them get to her colonies in America. The trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus. Many immigrants, particularly children, died before reaching America in June 1710.[31]

The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River in work camps, to pay off their passage. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans occupied a strip some 12 miles (19 km) long along both sides of the Mohawk River. The soil was excellent; some 500 houses were built, mostly of stone, and the region prospered in spite of Indian raids. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats".[31]

The most famous of the early German Palatine immigrants was editor John Peter Zenger, who led the fight in colonial New York City for freedom of the press in America. A later immigrant, John Jacob Astor, who came from Baden after the Revolutionary War, became the richest man in America from his fur trading and real estate investments in New York City.


Mississippi Company settled thousands of German pioneers in French Louisiana during 1721. It encouraged Germans, particularly Germans of the Alsatian region who had recently fallen under French rule, and the Swiss to immigrate. Alsace was sold to France within the greater context of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).

The Jesuit Charlevoix went from Canada to Louisiana. His letter said "these 9,000 Germans, who were raised in the Palatinate (Alsace part of France) were in Arkansas. The Germans left Arkansas en masse. They went to New Orleans and demanded passage to Europe. The Mississippi Company gave the Germans rich lands on the right bank of the Mississippi River about 25 miles (40 km) above New Orleans. The area is now known as 'the German Coast'."

A thriving population of Germans lived upriver from New Orleans, Louisiana, known as the German Coast. They were attracted to the area through pamphlets such as J. Hanno Deiler's "Louisiana: A Home for German Settlers".[32]

Carl Schurz was the first German born US Senator (Missouri, 1868) and later US Secretary of the Interior


Two waves of German colonists in 1714 and 1717 founded a large colony in Virginia called Germanna,[33] located near modern-day Culpeper, Virginia.

In North Carolina, German Moravians living around Bethlehem, Pennsylvania purchased nearly 100,000 acres (400 km2) from Lord Granville (one of the British Lords Proprietor) in the Piedmont of North Carolina in 1753. They established German settlements on that tract, especially in the area around what is now Winston-Salem.[34] They also founded the transitional settlement of Bethabara, North Carolina, translated as House of Passage, the first planned Moravian community in North Carolina, in 1759. Soon after, the German Moravians founded the town of Salem in 1766 (now a historical section in the center of Winston-Salem) and Salem College (an early female college) in 1772.

In the Swabia region settled in Savannah, St. Simon's Island and Fort Frederica in the 1730s and 1740s. They were actively recruited by James Oglethorpe and quickly distinguished themselves through improved farming, advanced tabby (cement)-construction, and leading joint Lutheran-Anglican-Reformed religious services for the colonists.

German immigrants also settled in other areas of the American South, including around the Dutch (Deutsch) Fork area of South Carolina,[30] and Texas, especially in the Austin area.

New England

Between 1742 and 1753, roughly 1,000 Germans settled in Broad Bay, Massachusetts (now Waldoboro, Maine). Many of the colonists fled to Boston, Nova Scotia, and North Carolina after their houses were burned and their neighbors killed or carried into captivity by Native Americans. The Germans who remained found it difficult to survive on farming, and eventually turned to the shipping and fishing industries.[35]


The tide of German immigration to Pennsylvania swelled between 1725 and 1775, with immigrants arriving as redemptioners or indentured servants. By 1775, Germans constituted about one-third of the population of the state. German farmers were renowned for their highly productive animal husbandry and agricultural practices. Politically, they were generally inactive until 1740, when they joined a Quaker-led coalition that took control of the legislature, which later supported the American Revolution. Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society.[36] The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch (from Deutsch).[37][38][39] Etymologically, the word Dutch originates from the Old High German word "diutisc" (from "diot" "people"), referring to the Germanic "language of the people" as opposed to Latin, the language of the learned (see also theodiscus). Only later did the word come to refer to the people who spoke the language.[40] Other Germanic language variants for "deutsch/deitsch/dutch" are: Dutch "Duits" and "Diets", Yiddish "daytsh", Danish "tysk", Norwegian "tysk", and Swedish "tyska".[41]). There were few German Catholics in Pennsylvania before the 1810s.[42]

The Studebaker brothers, forefathers of the wagon and automobile makers, arrived in Pennsylvania in 1736 from the famous blade town of Solingen. With their skills, they made wagons that carried the frontiersmen westward; their cannons provided the Union Army with artillery in the American Civil War, and their automobile company became one of the largest in America, although never eclipsing the "Big Three", and was a factor in the war effort and in the industrial foundations of the Army.[43]

When the American Revolutionary War broke out, Britain made arrangements with German princes to hire some 30,000 "Hessian" soldiers to fight against the American army. The largest group came from the country of Hesse, and the soldiers are often referred to as Hessians. Many became prisoners on American farms, some of whom permanently settled in America.[44]

From names in the 1790 U.S. census, historians estimate Germans constituted nearly 9% of the white population in the United States.[45]

19th century

German population density in the United States, 1872
German Immigration to United States (1820-2004)
Number of
Number of
1820–1840 160,335 1921–1930 412,202
1841–1850 434,626 1931–1940 114,058
1851–1860 951,667 1941–1950 226,578
1861–1870 787,468 1951–1960 477,765
1871–1880 718,182 1961–1970 190,796
1881–1890 1,452,970 1971–1980 74,414
1891–1900 505,152 1981–1990 91,961
1901–1910 341,498 1991–2000 92,606
1911–1920 143,945 2001–2004 61,253
Total : 7,237,594

The largest flow of German immigration to America occurred between 1820 and World War I, during which time nearly six million Germans immigrated to the United States. From 1840 to 1880, they were the largest group of immigrants. Following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, a wave of political refugees fled to America, who became known as Forty-Eighters. They included professionals, journalists, and politicians. Prominent Forty-Eighters included Carl Schurz and Henry Villard.[46]

"From the Old to the New World" shows German emigrants boarding a steamer in Hamburg, to New York. Harper's Weekly, (New York) November 7, 1874

"Latin farmer" or Latin Settlement is the designation of several settlements founded by some of the Dreissiger and other refugees from Europe after rebellions like the Frankfurter Wachensturm beginning in the 1830s—predominantly in Texas and Missouri, but also in other US states—in which German intellectuals (freethinkers, German: Freidenker, and Latinists) met together to devote themselves to the German literature, philosophy, science, classical music, and the Latin language. A prominent representative of this generation of immigrants was Gustav Koerner who lived most of the time until his death in Belleville, Illinois.


Some German Jews came in the colonial era. The largest numbers arrived after 1820, especially in the mid-19th century. Before the Civil War many went to the South, were they formed small German-Jewish communities in many parts of the South, especially in cities and towns, where they most often worked as local and regional merchants, cattle/livestock dealers, agricultural commodity traders, bankers, and business owners. Henry Lehman, who founded Lehman Brothers in Alabama with his brother, is a particularly prominent example of such a German-Jewish immigrant. German Jews settled in cities such as Charleston, South Carolina, where they founded the first Reform synagogue (Congregation Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim) in the country.[47] Many settled in western cities. German Jews also settled in northern cities where they built German-Jewish synagogues.[48]

Cities of the Midwest

The Midwestern cities of Milwaukee, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago, as well as port cities of New York, and Baltimore were favored destinations of German immigrants. Also, the Northern Kentucky area along the Ohio River was a favored destination. By 1900, the populations of the cities of Cleveland, Milwaukee, Hoboken, and Cincinnati were all more than 40% German American. Dubuque and Davenport, Iowa had even larger proportions, as did Omaha, Nebraska, where the proportion of German Americans was 57% in 1910. In many other cities of the Midwest, such as Fort Wayne, Indiana, German Americans were at least 30% of the population.[35][49] Many concentrations acquired distinctive names suggesting their heritage, such as the "Over-the-Rhine" district in Cincinnati and "German Village" in Columbus, Ohio.[50]

A favorite destination was Milwaukee, known as "the German Athens". Radical Germans trained in politics in the old country dominated the city's Socialists. Skilled workers dominated many crafts, while entrepreneurs created the brewing industry; the most famous brands included Pabst, Schlitz, Miller, and Blatz.[51]

Whereas half of German immigrants settled in cities, the other half established farms in the Midwest. From Ohio to the Plains states, a heavy presence persists in rural areas into the 21st century.[30][52] Few Germans settled in the Deep South, apart from some in New Orleans.[53]


The Wahrenberger House in Austin served as a German-American school.[54]

Texas attracted many Germans who entered through Galveston and Indianola, both those who came to farm, and later immigrants who more rapidly took industrial jobs in cities such as Houston. As in Milwaukee, Germans in Houston built the brewing industry. By the 1920s, the first generation of college-educated German Americans were moving into the chemical and oil industries.[30]

Texas had about 20,000 German Americans in the 1850s. They did not form a uniform bloc, but were highly diverse and drew from geographic areas and all sectors of European society, except that very few aristocrats or upper middle class businessmen arrived. In this regard, Texas Germania was a microcosm of the Germania nationwide.

The Germans who settled Texas were diverse in many ways. They included peasant farmers and intellectuals; Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and atheists; Prussians, Saxons, and Hessians; abolitionists and slave owners; farmers and townsfolk; frugal, honest folk and ax murderers. They differed in dialect, customs, and physical features. A majority had been farmers in Germany, and most arrived seeking economic opportunities. A few dissident intellectuals fleeing the 1848 revolutions sought political freedom, but few, save perhaps the Wends, went for religious freedom. The German settlements in Texas reflected their diversity. Even in the confined area of the Hill Country, each valley offered a different kind of German. The Llano valley had stern, teetotaling German Methodists, who renounced dancing and fraternal organizations; the Pedernales valley had fun-loving, hardworking Lutherans and Catholics who enjoyed drinking and dancing; and the Guadalupe valley had freethinking Germans descended from intellectual political refugees. The scattered German ethnic islands were also diverse. These small enclaves included Lindsay in Cooke County, largely Westphalian Catholic; Waka in Ochiltree County, Midwestern Mennonite; Hurnville in Clay County, Russian German Baptist; and Lockett in Wilbarger County, Wendish Lutheran.[55]

Germans from Russia

Temporary quarters for Volga Germans in central Kansas, 1875

Germans from Russia were the most traditional of German-speaking arrivals. They were Germans who had lived for generations throughout the Russian Empire, but especially along the Volga River in Russia, near the Crimea in the current Ukraine. Their ancestors had come from all over the German-speaking world, invited by Catherine the Great in 1762 and 1763 to settle and introduce more advanced German agriculture methods to rural Russia. They had been promised by the manifesto of their settlement the ability to practice their respective Christian denominations, retain their culture and language, and retain immunity from conscription for them and their descendants. As time passed, the Russian monarchy gradually eroded the ethnic German population's relative autonomy. Conscription eventually was reinstated; this was especially harmful to the Mennonites, who practice pacifism. Throughout the 19th century, pressure increased from the Russian government to culturally assimilate. Many Germans from Russia found it necessary to emigrate to avoid conscription and preserve their culture. About 100,000 immigrated by 1900, settling primarily in the Dakotas, Kansas and Nebraska. The southern central part of North Dakota was known as "the German-Russian triangle". A smaller number moved farther west, finding employment as ranchers and cowboys.

Negatively influenced by the violation of their rights and cultural persecution by the Tsar, the Germans from Russia who settled in the northern Midwest saw themselves a downtrodden ethnic group separate from Russian Americans and having an entirely different experience from the German Americans who had immigrated from German lands; they settled in tight-knit communities that retained their German language and culture. They raised large families, built German-style churches, buried their dead in distinctive cemeteries using cast iron grave markers, and created choir groups that sang German church hymns. Many farmers specialized in sugar beets—still a major crop in the upper Great Plains. During World War I, their identity was challenged by anti-German sentiment. By the end of World War II, the German language, which had always been used with English for public and official matters, was in serious decline. Today, German is preserved mainly through singing groups and recipes, with the Germans from Russia in the northern Great Plains states speaking predominantly English. German remains the second most spoken language in North and South Dakota, and Germans from Russia often use loanwords, such as Kuchen for cake. Despite the loss of their language, the ethnic group remains distinct, and has left a lasting impression on the American West.[56]

Civil War

Sentiment among German Americans was largely anti-slavery, especially among Forty-Eighters.[46] Hundreds of thousands of German Americans volunteered to fight for the Union in the American Civil War (1861–1865).[57] The Germans were the largest immigrant group to participate in the Civil War; over 176,000 U.S. soldiers were born in Germany.[58] A popular Union commander among Germans, Major General Franz Sigel was the highest-ranking German officer in the Union Army, with many German immigrants claiming to enlist to "fight mit Sigel".[59]

The German vote in 1900 was in doubt; they opposed the "repudiation" policy of Bryan (right poster), but also disliked the overseas expansion McKinley had delivered (left poster)

Although only one in four Germans fought in all-German regiments, they created the public image of the German soldier. Pennsylvania fielded five German regiments, New York eleven, and Ohio six.[57]


Western railroads, with large land grants available to attract farmers, set up agencies in Hamburg and other German cities, promising cheap transportation, and sales of farmland on easy terms. For example, the Santa Fe railroad hired its own commissioner for immigration, and sold over 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) to German-speaking farmers.[60]

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the German Americans showed a high interest in becoming farmers, and keeping their children and grandchildren on the land. While they needed profits to stay in operation, they used profits as a tool "to maintain continuity of the family."[61] They used risk averse strategies, and carefully planned their inheritances to keep the land in the family. Their communities showed smaller average farm size, greater equality, less absentee ownership and greater geographic persistence. As one farmer explained, "To protect your family has turned out to be the same thing as protecting your land."[62]


Many Germans in late 19th century America were anarchists or other types of socialists.[63] Six of the eight defendants in the Haymarket Affair were German, and Germans played a significant role in the early American labor movement. Relatively few German Americans held office, but the men voted once they became citizens. In general during the Third party System (1850s–1890s), the Protestants and Jews leaned toward the Republican party and the Catholics were strongly Democratic. When prohibition was on the ballot, the Germans voted solidly against it. They strongly distrusted moralistic crusaders, whom they called "Puritans", including the temperance reformers and many Populists. The German community strongly opposed Free Silver, and voted heavily against crusader William Jennings Bryan in 1896. In 1900, however, many German Democrats returned to their party and voted for Bryan, perhaps because of President William McKinley's foreign policy.[64]

World Wars

World War I war propaganda bond posters depicted caricatures of Germans.

World War I anti-German sentiment

During World War I (1917–18), German Americans were often accused of being too sympathetic to Imperial Germany. Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced "hyphenated Americanism", insisting that dual loyalties were impossible in wartime. A small minority came out for Germany, or ridiculed the British (as did H. L. Mencken). Similarly, Harvard psychology professor Hugo Münsterberg dropped his efforts to mediate between America and Germany, and threw his efforts behind the German cause.[65]

The Justice Department attempted to prepare a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 1917–18. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort.[66] Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty.[67] The Red Cross barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, Illinois, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched.[68] A Minnesota minister was tarred and feathered when he was overheard praying in German with a dying woman.[69]

In Chicago, Frederick Stock temporarily stepped down as conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra until he finalized his naturalization papers. Orchestras replaced music by German composer Wagner with French composer Berlioz. In Cincinnati, the public library was asked to withdraw all German books from its shelves.[70] German-named streets were renamed. The town, Berlin, Michigan, was changed to Marne, Michigan (honoring those who fought in the Battle of Marne). In Iowa, in the 1918 Babel Proclamation, the governor prohibited all foreign languages in schools and public places. Nebraska banned instruction in any language except English, but the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the ban illegal in 1923 (Meyer v. Nebraska).[71] The response of German Americans to these tactics was often to "Americanize" names (e.g., Schmidt to Smith, Müller to Miller) and limit the use of the German language in public places, especially churches.[72]

World War II

Marlene Dietrich signing a soldier's cast (Belgium, 1944).

Between 1931 and 1940, 114,000 Germans moved to the United States, many of whom—including Nobel prize winner Albert Einstein and author Erich Maria Remarque—were Jewish Germans or anti-Nazis fleeing government oppression.[73] About 25,000 people became paying members of the pro-Nazi German American Bund during the years before the war.[74] German aliens were the subject of suspicion and discrimination during the war, although prejudice and sheer numbers meant they suffered as a group generally less than Japanese Americans. The Alien Registration Act of 1940 required 300,000 German-born resident aliens who had German citizenship to register with the Federal government and restricted their travel and property ownership rights.[75][76] Under the still active Alien Enemy Act of 1798, the United States government interned nearly 11,000 German citizens between 1940 and 1948. Civil rights violations occurred.[77] An unknown number of "voluntary internees" joined their spouses and parents in the camps and were not permitted to leave.[78][79][80]

President Franklin D. Roosevelt sought out Americans of German ancestry for top war jobs, including General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, and USAAF General Carl Andrew Spaatz. He appointed Republican Wendell Willkie as a personal representative. German Americans who had fluent German language skills were an important asset to wartime intelligence, and they served as translators and as spies for the United States.[81] The war evoked strong pro-American patriotic sentiments among German Americans, few of whom by then had contacts with distant relatives in the old country.[30][82]
Number of German Americans
Year Number

Contemporary period

Parking meter checker stands by his police vehicle which is imprinted with the German word for police (Polizei). It is part of the town's highlighting its German ethnic origins. New Ulm, Minnesota, July 1974.

In the aftermath of World War II, millions of ethnic Germans were forcibly expelled from their homes within the redrawn borders of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Most resettled in Germany, but others came as refugees to the United States in the late 1940s, and established cultural centers in their new homes. Some Danube Swabians, for instance, ethnic Germans who had maintained language and customs after settlement along the Danube in Hungary, later Yugoslavia (now Serbia), immigrated to the U.S. after the war.

After 1970, anti-German sentiment aroused by World War II faded away.[87] Today, German Americans who immigrated after World War II share the same characteristics as any other Western European immigrant group in the U.S. They are mostly professionals and academics who have come for professional reasons. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and reunification, Germany has become a preferred destination for immigrants rather than a source of migrating peoples.[88]

US Ancestries by County, Germany in light blue, as of 2000 census

In the 1990 U.S. Census, 58 million Americans claimed to be solely or partially of German descent.[89] According to the 2005 American Community Survey, 50 million Americans have German ancestry. German Americans represent 17% of the total U.S. population and 26% of the non-Hispanic white population.[90]


Distribution of German Americans according to the 2000 Census

California, Texas (see German Texan) and Pennsylvania have the largest numbers of German origin, although upper Midwestern states, including Ohio, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska, and the Dakotas, have the highest proportion of German Americans at over one-third.[91]

Of the four major US regions, German was the most-reported ancestry in the Midwest, second in the West, and third in both the Northeast and the South. German was the top reported ancestry in 23 states, and it was one of the top five reported ancestries in every state except Maine and Rhode Island.[92]

At the 2000 census, this was the breakdown of German Americans by state, including the District of Columbia:

By percentage

  1. North Dakota 46.8
  2. Wisconsin 43.9
  3. South Dakota 44.5
  4. Nebraska 42.7
  5. Minnesota 38.4
  6. Iowa 35.7
  7. Montana 27.0
  8. Ohio 26.5
  9. Wyoming 25.9
  10. Kansas 25.8
  11. Pennsylvania 25.4
  12. Missouri 23.5
  13. Indiana 22.6
  14. Colorado 22.0
  15. Oregon 20.5
  16. Michigan 20.4
  17. Illinois 19.6
  18. Idaho 18.8
  19. Washington 18.8
  20. Maryland 15.7
  21. Arizona 15.6
  22. Delaware 14.3
  23. Alaska 14.2
  24. Nevada 14.1
  25. West Virginia 14.0
  26. Kentucky 12.7
  27. Oklahoma 12.6
  28. New Jersey 12.6
  29. Florida 11.8
  30. Virginia 11.7
  31. Utah 11.5
  32. New York 11.2
  33. Texas 9.9
  34. California 9.8
  35. Connecticut 9.8
  36. New Mexico 9.8
  37. North Carolina 9.5
  38. Arkansas 9.3
  39. Vermont 9.1
  40. New Hampshire 8.6
  41. Maine 8.6
  42. South Carolina 8.4
  43. Tennessee 8.3
  44. Georgia 7.0
  45. Louisiana 7.0
  46. Massachusetts 5.9
  47. Hawaii 5.8
  48. Alabama 5.7
  49. Rhode Island 5.7 (first ancestry)[93]
  50. District of Columbia 4.8
  51. Mississippi 4.5
Nationwide: 15.2

By absolute number

  1. California 5,517,470
  2. Pennsylvania 3,491,269
  3. Ohio 3,231,788
  4. Illinois 2,668,955
  5. Texas 2,542,996
  6. Wisconsin 2,455,980
  7. Michigan 2,271,091
  8. New York 2,250,309
  9. Florida 2,270,456
  10. Minnesota 1,949,346
  11. Indiana 1,629,766
  12. Missouri 1,576,813
  13. Washington 1,319,975
  14. Iowa 1,169,638
  15. New Jersey 1,092,054
  16. Colorado 1,090,983
  17. North Carolina 1,020,432
  18. Arizona 977,613
  19. Virginia 973,438
  20. Maryland 937,887
  21. Kansas 856,348
  22. Oregon 811,780
  23. Georgia 757,769
  24. Nebraska 738,894
  25. Kentucky 638,231
  26. Tennessee 612,669
  27. Oklahoma 531,375
  28. South Carolina 425,455
  29. Louisiana 403,222
  30. Massachusetts 402,176
  31. Connecticut 365,727
  32. Arkansas 358,764
  33. West Virginia 354,704
  34. Nevada 338,717
  35. South Dakota 334,068
  36. Idaho 317,536
  37. Utah 313,733
  38. Alabama 354,259
  39. North Dakota 290,452
  40. Montana 282,130
  41. New Mexico 219,278
  42. Mississippi 172,456
  43. Wyoming 144,972
  44. Delaware 133,757
  45. New Hampshire 124,430
  46. Alaska 121,832
  47. Maine 109,401
  48. Hawaii 83,967
  49. Vermont 67,706
  50. Rhode Island 60,634 (first ancestry)[93]
  51. Dist. of Columbia 27,450
Nationwide: 42,902,103[94]

German-American communities

Today, most German Americans have assimilated to the point that they no longer have readily identifiable ethnic communities, though there are still many metropolitan areas where German is the most reported ethnicity, such as Cincinnati, Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis – Saint Paul, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis.[95][96]

Communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry

The 25 U.S. communities with the highest percentage of residents claiming German ancestry are:[97]

  1. Monterey, OH 83.6%
  2. Granville, OH 79.6%
  3. St. Henry, OH 78.5%
  4. Germantown, IL (township) 77.6%
  5. Jackson, IN 77.3%
  6. Washington, OH 77.2%
  7. St. Rose, IL 77.1%
  8. Butler, OH 76.4%
  9. Marion, OH 76.3%
  10. Jennings, OH and Germantown, IL (village) 75.6%
  11. Coldwater, OH 74.9%
  12. Jackson, OH 74.6%
  13. Union, OH 74.1%
  14. Minster, OH and Kalida, OH 73.5%
  15. Greensburg, OH 73.4%
  16. Aviston, IL 72.5%
  17. Teutopolis, IL (village) 72.4%
  18. Teutopolis, IL (township) and Cottonwood, MN 72.3%
  19. Dallas, MI 71.7%
  20. Gibson, OH 71.6%
  21. Marshfield, Fond du Lac County, WI 71.5%
  22. Santa Fe, IL 70.8%
  23. Recovery, OH 70.4%
  24. Brothertown, WI 69.9%
  25. Herman, Dodge County, WI 69.8%

Large communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry

U.S. communities with the highest percentage of residents claiming German ancestry are:[98]

  1. Dubuque, Iowa 43%
  2. Fargo, North Dakota 43%
  3. Madison, Wisconsin 29%
  4. Green Bay, Wisconsin 29%
  5. Levittown, Pennsylvania 22%
  6. Erie, Pennsylvania 22%
  7. Cincinnati, Ohio 19.8%
  8. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 19.7%
  9. Columbus, Ohio 19.4%
  10. Beaverton, Oregon 17%

Communities with the most residents born in Germany

The top 25 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Germany are:[99]

  1. Lely Resort, FL 6.8%
  2. Pemberton Heights, NJ 5.0%
  3. Kempner, TX 4.8%
  4. Cedar Glen Lakes, NJ 4.5%
  5. Alamogordo, NM 4.3%
  6. Sunshine Acres, FL and Leisureville, FL 4.2%
  7. Wakefield, KS 4.1%
  8. Quantico, VA 4.0%
  9. Crestwood Village, NJ 3.8%
  10. Shandaken, NY 3.5%
  11. Vine Grove, KY 3.4%
  12. Burnt Store Marina, FL and Boles Acres, NM 3.2%
  13. Allenhurst, GA, Security-Widefield, CO, Grandview Plaza, KS, and Fairbanks Ranch, CA 3.0%
  14. Standing Pine, MS 2.9%
  15. Millers Falls, MA, Marco Island, FL, Daytona Beach Shores, FL, Radcliff, KY, Beverly Hills, FL, Davilla, TX, Annandale, NJ, and Holiday Heights, NJ 2.8%
  16. Fort Riley North, KS, Copperas Cove, TX, and Cedar Glen West, NJ 2.7%
  17. Pelican Bay, FL, Masaryktown, FL, Highland Beach, FL, Milford, KS, and Langdon, NH 2.6%
  18. Forest Home, NY, Southwest Bell, TX, Vineyards, FL, South Palm Beach, FL, and Basye-Bryce Mountain, VA 2.5%
  19. Sausalito, CA, Bovina, NY, Fanwood, NJ, Fountain, CO, Rye Brook, NY and Desoto Lakes, FL 2.4%
  20. Ogden, KS, Blue Berry Hill, TX, Lauderdale-by-the-Sea, FL, Sherman, CT, Leisuretowne, NJ, Killeen, TX, White House Station, NJ, Junction City, KS, Ocean Ridge, FL, Viola, NY, Waynesville, MO and Mill Neck, NY 2.3%
  21. Level Plains, AL, Kingsbury, NV, Tega Cay, SC, Margaretville, NY, White Sands, NM, Stamford, NY, Point Lookout, NY, and Terra Mar, FL 2.2%
  22. Rifton, NY, Manasota Key, FL, Del Mar, CA, Yuba Foothills, CA, Daleville, AL. Tesuque, NM, Plainsboro Center, NJ, Silver Ridge, NJ and Palm Beach, FL 2.1%
  23. Oriental, NC, Holiday City-Berkeley, NJ, North Sea, NY, Ponce Inlet, FL, Woodlawn-Dotsonville, TN, West Hurley, NY, Littlerock, CA, Felton, CA, Laguna Woods, CA, Leisure Village, NJ, Readsboro, VT, Nolanville, TX, and Groveland-Big Oak Flat, CA 2.0%
  24. Rotonda, FL, Grayson, CA, Shokan, NY, The Meadows, FL, Southeast Comanche, OK, Lincolndale, NY, Fort Polk South, LA, and Townsend, MA 1.9%
  25. Pine Ridge, FL, Boca Pointe, FL, Rodney Village, DE, Palenville, NY, and Topsfield, MA 1.8%


The Germans worked hard to maintain and cultivate their language, especially through newspapers and classes in elementary and high schools. German Americans in many cities, such as Milwaukee, brought their strong support of education, establishing German-language schools and teacher training seminaries (Töchter-Institut) to prepare students and teachers in German language training. By the late 19th century, the Germania Publishing Company was established in Milwaukee, a publisher of books, magazines, and newspapers in German.[100]

"Germania" was the common term for German American neighborhoods and their organizations.[101] Deutschtum was the term for transplanted German nationalism, both culturally and politically. Between 1875 and 1915, the German American population in the United States doubled, and many of its members insisted on maintaining their culture. German was used in local schools and churches, while numerous Vereine, associations dedicated to literature, humor, gymnastics, and singing, sprang up in German American communities. German Americans tended to support the German government's actions, and, even after the United States entered World War I, they often voted for antidraft and antiwar candidates. 'Deutschtum' in the United States disintegrated after 1918.[102]


Beginning in 1741, the German-speaking Moravian Church Settlements of Bethlehem, Nazareth and Lititz, Pennsylvania, and Wachovia in North Carolina had highly developed musical cultures. Choral music, Brass and String Music and Congregational singing were highly cultivated. The Moravian Church produced many composers and musicians. Haydn's Creation had its American debut in Bethlehem in the early 19th century.

The spiritual beliefs of Johann Conrad Beissel (1690–1768) and the Ephrata Cloister—such as the asceticism and mysticism of this Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, group - are reflected in Beissel's treatises on music and hymns, which have been considered the beginning of America's musical heritage.[103]

In most major cities, Germans took the lead in creating a musical culture, with popular bands, singing societies, operas and symphonic orchestras.[104]

A small city, Wheeling, West Virginia could boast of 11 singing societies—Maennerchor, Harmonie, Liedertafel, Beethoven, Concordia, Liederkranz, Germania, Teutonia, Harmonie-Maennerchor, Arion, and Mozart. The first began in 1855; the last folded in 1961. An important aspect of Wheeling social life, these societies reflected various social classes and enjoyed great popularity until anti-German sentiments during World War I and changing social values dealt them a death blow.[105]

The Liederkranz, a German-American music society, played an important role in the integration of the German community into the life of

  • Germans in Chicago
  • German Traces NYC from the Goethe-Institut
  • Interactive German-History Map of Pittsburgh
  • Zinzinnati History (Cincinnati, Ohio)
  • Milwaukee German-American Radio Program
  • Teutonia Männerchor in Pittsburgh
  • Some German Contributions to Wisconsin Life
  • Deutschtown (East Allegheny), Pittsburgh, PA

Local German-American history and culture

  • German American Heritage Center
  • Germans from Russia Heritage Society
  • The Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies
  • The Germantown Historical Society (Philadelphia)
  • The German Society of Pennsylvania (oldest German Society in the U.S.)
  • The Pennsylvania German Society
  • Pennsylvania German Cultural Heritage Center
  • Indiana German Heritage Society
  • Max Kade German-American Research and Resource Center

German-American organizations

  • Chronology: Germans in America
  • German Immigrant Culture in America: Syllabus (1998)
  • Emigrant Letters to Germany (in German)
  • Why There Are So Many German Americans in the US
  • Famous Americans of German, Austrian, or German-Swiss Ancestry
  • German-American Hall of Fame
  • How German Is American?
  • The German-Hollywood Connection

German-American history and culture

External links


  • Kazal, Russell A. "Revisiting Assimilation: The Rise, Fall, and Reappraisal of a Concept". American Historical Review 100 (1995): 437–71.
  • Ortlepp, Anke. "Deutsch-Athen Revisited: Writing the History of Germans in Milwaukee" in Margo Anderson and Victor Greene (eds.), Perspectives on Milwaukee's Past. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009.
  • Miller, Zane L. "Cincinnati Germans and the Invention of an Ethnic Group", Queen City Heritage: The Journal of the Cincinnati Historical Society 42 (Fall 1984): 13–22.
  • Parish, Peter J., ed. (2013). Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. pp. 294–95. 

Primary sources

  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., and Wolfgang Helbich (Eds.). Germans in the Civil War; The Letters They Wrote Home. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Johannes Helbich and Ulrike Sommer (Eds.). News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.
  • "German". Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey. Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the   (English translations of selected German-language newspaper articles, 1855-1938).

In German

  • Emmerich, Alexander. Geschichte der Deutschen in Amerika von 1680 bis in die Gegenwart. (2013).
  • Rehs, Michael. Wurzeln in fremder Erde: Zur Geschichte der südwestdeutschen Auswanderung nach Amerika DRW-Verlag, 1984. ISBN 3-87181-231-5
  • "List of Newspapers and Periodicals Printed Wholly or in Part in Languages Other Than English: German", American Newspaper Directory, New York:  
  • Adams, Willi Paul. The German-Americans: An Ethnic Experience (1993).
  • Bank, Michaela. Women of Two Countries: German-American Women, Women's Rights and Nativism, 1848–1890 (Berghahn, 2012).
  • Baron, Frank, "Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters," Yearbook of German-American Studies, 4 (Supplemental Issue 2012), 1–254.
  • Barry, Colman J. The Catholic Church and German Americans. (1953).
  • Brancaforte, Charlotte L., ed. The German Forty-Eighters in the United States. (1989).
  • Coburn, Carol K. Life at Four Corners: Religion, Gender, and Education in a German-Lutheran Community, 1868–1945. (1992).
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. "Germans" in Stephan Thernstrom, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. (1980). pp. 405–425.
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Germans in Minnesota. (2003).
  • Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Immigrant Milwaukee, 1836–1860: Accommodation and Community in a Frontier City. (1976).
  • DeWitt, Petra. Degrees of Allegiance: Harassment and Loyalty in Missouri's German-American Community during World War I (Ohio University Press, 2012).
  • Dobbert, Guido A. "German-Americans between New and Old Fatherland, 1870–1914". American Quarterly 19 (1967): 663–680.
  • Efford, Alison Clark. German Immigrants: Race and Citizenship in the Civil War Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Ellis, M. and P. Panayi. "German Minorities in World War I: A Comparative Study of Britain and the USA", Ethnic and Racial Studies 17 (April 1994): 238–259.
  • Emmerich, Alexander. John Jacob Astor and the First Great American Fortune. (2013).
  • Faust, Albert Bernhardt. The German Element in the United States with Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence. 2 vol (1909). vol. 1, vol. 2
  • Fogleman, Aaron. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996) online
  • German Historical Institute. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present. (2010, updated continually)
  • Gross, Stephen John. "Handing down the farm: Values, strategies, and outcomes in inheritance practices among rural German Americans", Journal of Family History, (1996) 21: 2, 192–217.
  • Grubb, Farley. German Immigration and Servitude in America, 1709–1920 (Routledge Explorations in Economic History) (2011).
  • Hawgood, John. The Tragedy of German-America. (1940).
  • Iverson, Noel. Germania, U.S.A.: Social Change in New Ulm, Minnesota. (1966). emphasizes Turners.
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest, Social and Political Conflict 1888–1896. (1971). Voting behavior of Germans, prohibition, language, and school issues.
  • Johnson, Hildegard B. "The Location of German Immigrants in the Middle West". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 41 (1951): 1–41.
  • Jordon, Terry G. German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-century Texas. (1966).
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. and Wolfgang Helbich, eds. German-American Immigration and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Madison, Wisconsin: Max Kade Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison (2004).
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Uprooted or Transplanted? Reflections on Patterns of German Immigration to Missouri," Missouri Historical Review, 103 (Jan. 2009), 71-89.
  • Kamphoefner, Walter D. "Immigrant Epistolary and Epistemology: On the Motivators and Mentality of Nineteenth-Century German Immigrants." Journal of American Ethnic History (2009): 34-54. in JSTOR, on deep-reading their letters
  • Kazal, Russell A. Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity. (2004).
  • Keller, Christian B. "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Myths and Realities of Ethnic Civil War Soldiers," Journal of Military History, 73 (January 2009), 117–145.
  • Knarr, Mary L. "Faith, frauen, and the formation of an ethnic identity: German Lutheran women in south and central Texas, 1831–1890". Ph.D. dissertation, Texas Christian University, 2009.
  • Lohne, Raymond. "Team of Friends: A New Lincoln Theory and Legacy", Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Fall/Winter 2008, vol. 101 no. 3/4, pp. 285–314. German American politics and Abraham Lincoln
  • Luebke, Frederick C. Bonds of Loyalty: German Americans During World War I. (1974).
  • Luebke, Frederick C., ed. Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln. (1971).
  • Luebke, Frederick C. Germans in the New World. University of Illinois Press (1990).
  • Luebke, Frederick. Immigrants and Politics: The Germans of Nebraska, 1880–1900. (1969).
  • O'Connor, Richard. German-Americans: an Informal History. (1968).
  • Pickle, Linda. Contented among Strangers: Rural German-Speaking Women and Their Families in the Nineteenth-Century Midwest (1996).
  • Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600–1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences. (1957).
  • Ritter, Luke, "Sunday Regulation and the Formation of German American Identity in St. Louis, 1840–1860," Missouri Historical Review, (2012), vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 23–40.
  • Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America. (1998).
  • Salamon, Sonya. Prairie Patrimony: Family, Farming, and Community in the Midwest (U of North Carolina Press, 1992), focus on German Americans.
  • Schiffman, Harold. "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: The Case of an Over-confident Minority" (1987).
  • Schirp, Francis. "Germans in the United States". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Appleton, 1909.
  • Schlossman, Steven L. "Is there an American tradition of bilingual education? German in the public elementary schools, 1840-1919." American Journal of Education (1983): 139-186. in JSTOR
  • Tatlock, Lynne and Matt Erlin, eds. German Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Reception, Adaptation, Transformation. (2005).
  • Tischauser, Leslie V. The Burden of Ethnicity: The German Question in Chicago, 1914–1941. (1990).
  • Tolzmann, Don H., ed. German Americans in the World Wars, 2 vols. Munich, Germany: K.G. Saur, (1995).
  • Tolzmann, Don H. German-American Literature (Scarecrow Press, 1977).
  • Trommler, Frank & Joseph McVeigh, eds. America and the Germans: An Assessment of a Three-Hundred-Year History. (2 vol 1985); vol 1: Immigration, Language, Ethnicity; vol 2: The Relationship in the Twentieth Century. Essays by scholars covering broad themes.
  • Turk, Eleanor L. "Germans in Kansas: Review Essay". Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains 28 (Spring 2005): 44–71.
  • van Ravenswaay, Charles. The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri: A Survey of a Vanishing Culture (1977; reprint University of Missouri Press, 2006).
  • Walker, Mack. Germany and the Emigration, 1816–1885 (1964).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. The German-Language Press in America. (1957).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. (1952).
  • Wittke, Carl Frederick. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant. (1939), ch. 6, 9.
  • Wood, Ralph, ed. The Pennsylvania Germans. (1942).
  • Zeitlin, Richard. Germans in Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin (2000).


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  109. ^ Carl Wittke, The German-Language Press in America (1957)
  110. ^ Peter Conolly-Smith, "Transforming an Ethnic Readership Through "Word and Image": William Randolph Hearst's Deutsches Journal and New York's German-Language Press, 1895–1918", Volume 19, Number 1, 2009 in Project MUSE; Peter Conolly-Smith, Translating America: An Ethnic Press Visualizes Popular American Culture, 1895–1918 (2004); Carl Wittke, The German-Language Press in America (1957).
  111. ^ Richard Jensen, The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896 (1971) ch. 5
  112. ^ Wittke, The German-Language Press in America. p. 6
  113. ^ Shore, "Introduction." in The German-American Radical Press.
  114. ^ Arndt, The German Language Press of the Americas
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  116. ^ La Verne Rippley, The German Americans, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1984, p. 164.
  117. ^ a b Dobbert, G.A. "German-Americans between New and Old Fatherland, 1870-1914." American Quarterly. 19.4 (1967): 663-680.
  118. ^ Shell, Marc. "Hyphens: Between Deitsch and American." Multilingual America. Ed.. Werner Sollors. New York City: New York University Press, 1998.
  119. ^ Thomas Adam (Ed.), Germany and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 319.
  120. ^ Rippley, p. 166.
  121. ^ Annette R. Hofmann, "Between Ethnic Separation and Assimilation: German Immigrants and Their Athletic Endeavours in Their New American Home Country", International Journal of the History of Sport 2008 25(8): 993-1009,
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  123. ^ Allard, William Albert (2006), Hutterite Sojourn, Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society 
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  125. ^ Edward S. Shapiro, "Jews", in Elliott Barkan, ed. A Nation of Peoples (1999) 330–36.
  126. ^ "Appendix Table 2. Languages Spoken at Home: 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007.".  
  127. ^ "Detailed Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for Persons 5 Years and Over --50 Languages with Greatest Number of Speakers: United States 1990".  
  128. ^ "Language Spoken at Home: 2000".  
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  130. ^ "Mother Tongue of the Foreign-Born Population: 1910 to 1940, 1960, and 1970".  
  131. ^ Harold Schiffman, "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: The Case of an Over-confident Minority" (1987)
  132. ^ see U.S. State Department, "German Language in the U.S"
  133. ^ Robert J. Ulrich, The Bennett Law of Eighteen Eighty-Nine: Education and Politics in Wisconsin (1981).
  134. ^ a b c d e f g Ludden, Jennifer. [1]. National Public Radio. April 1, 2009. Accessed December 23, 2012.
  135. ^ Ebert, Roger. [2]. Chicago Sun-Times. April 12, 2002. Accessed December 23, 2012.
  136. ^ Edward R. Kantowicz, Corporation Sole: Cardinal Mundelein and Chicago Catholicism (1983)
  137. ^ Russell A. Kazal, "Revisiting Assimilation: The Rise, Fall, and Reappraisal of a Concept." American Historical Review 100 (1995): 437-71. in JSTOR
  138. ^ Russell A. Kazal, Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity (2004).
  139. ^ "Germans from Russia Heritage Collection". September 18, 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  140. ^ Brooke, James. [3]. The New York Times. March 2, 1996. Accessed December 23, 2012.
  141. ^ Skutsch, Carl (2005). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 101. 
  142. ^ "Ashley, North Dakota".  
  143. ^ SCHURZ, Carl, (1829 - 1906), United States Congress, retrieved 19 November 2009 
  144. ^ "Outstanding German Scientists Being Brought to U.S.", War Department press release (, 1945-10-01 
  145. ^ [4]"The Teutonia Männerchor German Food Cuisine - Pittsburgh, PA"
  146. ^ a b Amy Mittelman, Brewing Battles: A History of American Beer (2007)
  147. ^ Oktoberfest-Zinzinnati, retrieved 2007-04-29 
  148. ^ Oktoberfest-Zinzinnati Retrieved 9 October 2009
  149. ^ [5]"'About the Teutonia Männerchor' -- THE EARLY 1800s – Around the early and the mid-1800s and through the end of the 20th century, there was a mass immigration from all across Europe to the United States. Many of the immigrants from Germany and other German-speaking countries came to Pennsylvania to what was then "Allegheny City" (now the Northside – just across the river from the City of Pittsburgh. So many German speakers arrived, the area became known as "Deutschtown"."
  150. ^ [6]"In 1890, the population of Allegheny City was 105,287, of whom 30,216 were foreign born, and 12,022 were born in Germany. Deutschtown, also called Dutchtown, was the eastern expansion of the vital hub of Allegheny City (annexed by Pittsburgh in 1907), where the German-speaking peoples settled early in the 19th century."
  151. ^ [7]"The Teutonia Männerchor is a private membership club with the purpose of furthering choral singing, German cultural traditions and good fellowship."
  153. ^
  154. ^ Rating the Top Baseball Players of All Time, retrieved 2007-11-28 
  155. ^ Stephen E. Ambose Nixon chapter 1 (1987)
  156. ^ "Researchers: Obama has German roots", USA Today, June 4, 2009 


See also

There have been two presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Richard Milhous Nixon (Nixon's maternal ancestors were Germans who anglicized Melhausen to Milhous).[155] and Barack Obama, whose mother's family came to America in 1750 from the South German village of Besigheim.[156]

German-American presidents

Still others, such as Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Jack Nicklaus, Doris Day, Grace Kelly, Marlene Dietrich, Johnny Weissmuller, Ernst Lubitsch, Walter Damrosch, John Denver, John Kay, Meryl Streep, Sandra Bullock, David Hasselhoff, Leonardo DiCaprio, Kirsten Dunst and Steven Spielberg became prominent athletes, actors, film directors or artists.[154]

Others, including Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Wernher von Braun, John Peter Zenger, John Steinbeck, Kurt Vonnegut, Joseph Weizenbaum set intellectual landmarks, Neil Armstrong was the first human to land on the moon.

Some, such as Brooklyn Bridge engineer John A. Roebling and architects Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, left behind visible landmarks.

German Americans have also dominated beer brewing for much of American history, beginning with breweries founded in the 19th century by German immigrants August Schell (August Schell Brewing Company), Christian Moerlein (Christian Moerlein Brewing Co.), Eberhard Anheuser (Anheuser-Busch InBev), Adolphus Busch (Anheuser-Busch InBev), Adolph Coors (Molson Coors Brewing Company), Frederick Miller (Miller Brewing Company), Frederick Pabst (Pabst Brewing Company), Bernhard Stroh (Stroh Brewery Company) and Joseph Schlitz (Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company).[146]

Many German Americans have played a prominent role in industry and business, including John Jacob Astor (Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts), Conrad Hilton (Hilton Hotels & Resorts), Guggenheim family (Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation), (Guggenheim Partners), Marcus Goldman (The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.), Samuel Sachs (The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.), Lehman Brothers (Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.), Carl Laemmle (Universal Studios), Marcus Loew (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc.), Harry Cohn (Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.), Herman Hollerith (International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)), Steve Jobs (Apple Inc.),[153] Eric Schmidt (Google Inc.), Peter Thiel (PayPal Inc.), Adolph Simon Ochs and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger (The New York Times), Charles Bergstresser (The Wall Street Journal), Al Neuharth (USA Today), Eugene Meyer (The Washington Post) etc.

German Americans were famous American politicians, including Dwight D. Eisenhower, Herbert Hoover, Henry Kissinger and John Boehner.

German American general/flag military officers John Pershing, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Chester W. Nimitz, Carl Andrew Spaatz and Norman Schwarzkopf commanded the United States Army in the American Revolutionary War, American Civil War, Indian Wars, World War I, World War II, and the Persian Gulf War, respectively.

German Americans have been influential in almost every field in American society, including science, architecture, industry, sports, entertainment, theology, government, and the military.

Notable German Americans

Skat, the most popular card game in Germany, is also played in areas of the United States with large German American populations, such as Wisconsin and Texas.[95]

German-American celebrations, such as Oktoberfest, German-American Day and Von Steuben Day are held regularly throughout the country. One of the largest is the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City, held every third Saturday in September. There are also major annual events in Chicago's Lincoln Square neighborhood, a traditional a center of the city's German population, in Cincinnati, where its annual Octoberfest Zinzinnati[147] is the largest Oktoberfest outside of Germany[148] and in Milwaukee, which celebrates its German heritage with an annual German Fest.[95] Many of the immigrants from Germany and other German-speaking countries came to Pennsylvania to what was then "Allegheny City" (now part of the North Side of the City of Pittsburgh). So many German speakers arrived, the area became known as "Deutschtown" and has been revived as such.[149][150] Within Deutschtown and since 1854, The Teutonia Männerchor has been promoting and furthering German cultural traditions.[151][152]

Milwaukee was once the home to four of the world's largest German breweries (Schlitz, Blatz, Pabst, and Miller), and was the number one beer producing city in the world for many years. Almost half of all current beer sales in the United States can be attributed to German immigrants, Capt. A. Pabst, Eberhard Anheuser and Adolphus Busch, who founded Anheuser-Busch in St. Louis in 1860.[146] Later German immigrants figured prominently in the rebirth of craft brews following prohibition, culminating in the microbrew movement that swept the U.S. beginning in the late 1980s.

The influence of German cuisine is seen in the cuisine of the United States throughout the country, especially regarding pastries, meats and sausages, and above all, beer. Frankfurters (or "wieners", originating from Frankfurt am Main and Vienna, respectively), hamburgers, bratwurst, sauerkraut, and strudel are common dishes. German bakers introduced the pretzel. Germans have been the dominant ethnic group in the beer industry since 1850.[30][145]

After World War II, Wernher von Braun, and most of the leading engineers from the former German V-2 rocket base at Peenemünde, were brought to the U.S. They contributed decisively to the development of U.S. military rockets, as well as rockets for the NASA space program.[144]

Germans have contributed to a vast number of areas in American culture and technology. U.S. Army during the War for Independence and helped make the victory against British troops possible. The Steinway & Sons piano manufacturing firm was founded by immigrant Henry E. Steinway in 1853. German settlers brought the Christmas tree custom to the United States. The Studebakers built large numbers of wagons used during the Western migration; Studebaker, like the Duesenberg brothers, later became an important early automobile manufacturer. Carl Schurz, a refugee from the unsuccessful first German democratic revolution of 1848 became an influential politician first in the Republican then in the Democratic party, and served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior.[143]

Late-19th-century German-American buildings in Manhattan
Freie Bibliothek und Lesehalle (Free Library and Reading Hall) and Deutsches Dispensary (German Dispensary), both by William Schickel (1883–1884) on Second Avenue at St Mark's Place in the East Village
Deutsch-Amerikanische Schuetzen Gesellschaft (German-American Shooting Society) by William C. Frohne (1885) on St. Mark's Place in the East Village
Scheffel Hall by Weber and Drosser (1894) on Third Avenue between 17th and 18th Streets, near Gramercy Park

German American influence

Despite this assimilation, it is worth noting that a distinct German American ethnicity survived well into the mid-20th century in some places. Writing about the town of Hustisford, Wisconsin, Jennifer Ludden discusses Mel Grulke, who was born in 1941, with German his first language at home; "Grulke's great-grandparents immigrated to the U.S. in the late 1880s, yet three generations later, his farmer parents still spoke German at home, attended German language church services and chatted in German with shopkeepers when they brought their farm eggs into town to sell".[134] Bethany Lutheran Church in Hustisford offered German-language services into the 1970s.[134] Homer Rudolf, a man from North Dakota of German Russian descent, stated in 2004 that his maternal grandmother, who died in 1980 at the age of 90, "did not learn English".[139] As recently as 1990, one quarter of North Dakota's households included a German speaker.[140] To this day, relatively unassimilated people of German-speaking heritage can be found in the United States - the Old Order Amish speak Pennsylvania Dutch and High German (though they are generally fluent in English),[141] and the German Russian-founded settlement of Ashley, in McIntosh County, North Dakota, continues to cling tightly to its cultural heritage.[142]

Historians have tried to explain what became of the German Americans and their descendents. Kazal (2004) looks at Germans in Philadelphia, focusing on four ethnic subcultures: middle-class Vereinsdeutsche, working-class socialists, Lutherans, and Catholics. Each group followed a somewhat distinctive path toward assimilation. Lutherans, and the better situated Vereinsdeutsche with whom they often overlapped, after World War I abandoned the last major German characteristics and redefined themselves as old stock or as "Nordic" Americans, stressing their colonial roots in Pennsylvania and distancing themselves from more recent immigrants. On the other hand, working-class and Catholic Germans, groups that heavily overlapped, lived and worked with Irish and other European ethnics; they also gave up German characteristics but came to identify themselves as white ethnics, distancing themselves above all from African American recent arrivals in nearby neighborhoods. Well before World War I, women in particular were becoming more and more involved in a mass consumer culture that lured them out of their German-language neighborhood shops and into English language downtown department stores. The 1920s and 1930s brought English language popular culture via movies and radio that drowned out the few surviving German language venues.[138]

The transition to the English language was abrupt, forced by World War One. After 1917 the German language was seldom heard in public; most newspapers and magazines closed; churches and parochial schools switched to English. Film critic Roger Ebert wrote how "I could hear the pain in my German-American father's voice as he recalled being yanked out of Lutheran school during World War I and forbidden by his immigrant parents ever to speak German again".[135] Youth increasingly attended high schools, where they mingled, in English, and dated (and later married) people of other ethnicities. The Catholic high schools were deliberately structured to commingle ethnic groups so as to promote intermarriage.[136] German-speaking taverns, beer gardens and saloons were all shut down by prohibition; those that reopened in 1933 spoke English. By the 1940s Germania had largely vanished outside remote areas and the Germans were thoroughly assimilated.[137]

"Assimilation" in this context means the steady loss of distinctive characteristics (especially language), as the Germans melted into a common American nationality. By 1910 German Americans had created their own distinctive, vibrant, prosperous German-language communities, called "Germania". According to historian Walter Kamphoefner, a "number of big cities introduced German into their public school programs".[134] Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Cleveland and other cities "had what we now call two-way immersion programs: school taught half in German, half in English".[134] This was a tradition which continued "all the way down to World War I."[134] According to Kamphoefner, German "was in a similar position as the Spanish language is in the 20th and 21st century"; it "was by far the most widespread foreign language, and whoever was the largest group was at a definite advantage in getting its language into the public sphere."[134] Kamphoefner has come across evidence that as late as 1917, a German version of the "The Star-Spangled Banner" was still being sung in public schools in Indianapolis.[134]


There were fierce battles in Wisconsin and Illinois around 1890 regarding proposals to stop the use of German as the primary language in public and parochial schools. The Bennett Law was a highly controversial state law passed in Wisconsin in 1889 that required the use of English to teach major subjects in all public and private elementary and high schools. It affected the state's many German-language private schools (and some Norwegian schools), and was bitterly resented by German American communities. The German Catholics and Lutherans each operated large networks of parochial schools in the state. Because the language used in the classroom was German, the law meant the teachers would have to be replaced with bilingual teachers, and in most cases shut down. The Germans formed a coalition between Catholics and Lutherans, under the leadership of the Democratic Party, and the language issue produced a landslide for the Democrats, as Republicans dropped the issue until World War I. By 1917, almost all schools taught in English, but courses in German were common in areas with large German populations. These courses were permanently dropped.[133]

About 1.5 million Americans speak German at home, according to the 2000 census. From 1860–1917, German was widely spoken in German neighborhoods; see German in the United States. There is a false myth, called the Muhlenberg legend, that German was almost the official language of the U.S. There was never any such proposal. The U.S. has no official language, but use of German was strongly discouraged during World War I and fell out of daily use in many places.[132]

After two or three generations, German Americans adopted mainstream American customs—some of which they heavily influenced—and switched their language to English. As one scholar concludes, "The overwhelming evidence ... indicates that the German-American school was a bilingual one much (perhaps a whole generation or more) earlier than 1917, and that the majority of the pupils may have been English-dominant bilinguals from the early 1880s on."[131] By 1914, the older members attended German-language church services, while younger ones attended English services (in Lutheran, Evangelical and Catholic churches). In German parochial schools, the children spoke English among themselves, though some of their classes were in German. In 1917–18, after the US entry into World War I on the side of the British, nearly all German language instruction ended, as did most German-language church services.[72]

German speakers in the US
^a Foreign-born population only[130]


Some 19th-century immigrants, especially the "Forty-Eighters", were secular, rejecting formal religion. About 250,000 German Jews had arrived by the 1870s, and they sponsored reform synagogues in many small cities across the country. About 2 million Central and Eastern European Jews arrived from the 1880s to 1924, bringing more traditional religious practices.[125]

Immigrants from Germany in the mid-to-late-19th century brought many different religions with them. The most numerous were Lutheran or Catholic, although the Lutherans were themselves split among different groups. The more conservative Lutherans comprised the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Other Lutherans formed various synods, most of which merged with Scandinavian-based synods in 1988, forming the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[124] Catholic Germans started immigrating in large numbers in the mid to latter 19th century, spurred in particular by the Kulturkampf.

The Hutterites are another example of a group of German Americans who continue a lifestyle similar to that of their ancestors. Like the Amish, they fled persecution for their religious beliefs, and came to the United States in 1870. Today, Hutterites mostly reside in Montana, the Dakotas, and Minnesota, and the western provinces of Canada. Hutterites continue to speak German. Most are able to speak Standard German in addition to their dialect.[123]

Before 1800, communities of Amish, Mennonites, Moravians and Hutterites had formed and are still in existence today. Some still speak dialects of German, including Pennsylvania German, informally known as Pennsylvania Dutch. The Amish, who were originally from southern Germany and Switzerland, arrived in Pennsylvania during the early 18th century. Amish immigration to the United States reached its peak between the years 1727 and 1770. Religious freedom was perhaps the most pressing cause for Amish immigration to Pennsylvania, which became known as a haven for persecuted religious groups.[122]

German immigrants who arrived before the 19th century tended to have been members of the Evangelical Lutheran Churches in Germany, and created the Lutheran Synods of Pennsylvania, North Carolina and New York. The largest Lutheran denominations in the U.S. today—the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod—are all descended from churches started by German immigrants among others. Calvinist Germans founded the Reformed Church in the United States (especially in New York and Pennsylvania), and the Evangelical Synod of North America (strongest in the Midwest), which is now part of the United Church of Christ. Many immigrants joined different churches from those that existed in Germany. Protestants often joined the Methodist church.[30] In the 1740s, Count Nicolas von Zinzendorf tried to unite all the German-speaking Christians—(Lutheran, Reformed, and Separatists)—into one "Church of God in the Spirit". The Moravian Church in America is one of the results of this effort, as are the many "Union" churches in rural Pennsylvania.

This 1850 census map shows the Lutheran population. Nearly all were German, since few Scandinavians had arrived yet.


Germans brought organized gymnastics to America, and were strong supporters of sports programs. They used sport both to promote ethnic identity and pride and to facilitate integration into American society. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Buffalo Germans basketball team, winners of 762 games (against only 85 losses) in the early years of the 20th century. These examples, and others, reflect the evolving place of sport in the assimilation and socialization of much of the German-American population.[121]


By the end of the 19th century, there were over 800 German-language publications in the United States.[116] German immigration was on the decline, however, and with subsequent generations integrating into English-speaking society, the German language press began to struggle.[117] The periodicals that managed to survive in immigrant communities faced an additional challenge with anti-German sentiment during World War I[118] and with the Espionage and Sedition Acts, which authorized censorship of foreign language newspapers.[119] Prohibition also had a destabilizing impact on the German immigrant communities upon which the German-language publications relied.[117] By 1920, there were only 278 German language publications remaining in the country.[120]

[115] Other cities experienced similar turnover among immigrant publications, especially from opinion press, which published little news and focused instead on editorial commentary.[114], lasted nearly a century.Cincinnati Freie Presse For example, during the latter half of the 19th century, at least 176 different German-language publications began operations in the city of Cincinnati alone. Many of these publications folded within a year, while a select few, such as the [113][112] They published at least two-thirds of all foreign language newspapers in the U.S. The papers were owned and operated in the U.S., with no control from Germany. As Wittke emphasizes, press. it was "essentially an American press published in a foreign tongue." The papers reported on major political and diplomatic events involving Germany, with pride but from the viewpoint of its American readers.[111] The Germans were proud of their language, supported many German-language public and private schools, and conducted their church services in German.[110] in Chicago, promoted middle-class values and encouraged German ethnic loyalty among their readership.Illinois Staats-Zeitung in St. Louis, and the Anzeiger des Westens, the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung By the late 19th century, Germania published over 800 regular publications. The most prestigious daily newspapers, such as the [109]As for any immigrant population, the development of a foreign-language press helped immigrants more easily learn about their new home, maintain connections to their native land, and unite immigrant communities.
German newspapers in North America, 1922


By the 1890s, Turners numbered nearly 65,000. At the turn of the 21st century, however, with the ethnic identity of European Americans in flux and Americanization a key element of immigrant life, there were few Turner groups, athletic events were limited, and non-Germans were members. A survey of surviving groups and members reflects these radical changes in the role of Turner societies and their marginalization in 21st-century American society, as younger German Americans tended not to belong, even in strongholds of German heritage in the Midwest.[108]

Turner societies in the United States were first organized during the mid-19th century so German American immigrants could visit with one another and become involved in social and sports activities. The National Turnerbund, the head organization of the Turnvereine, started drilling members as in militia units in 1854. Nearly half of all Turners fought in the Civil War, mostly on the Union side, and a special group served as bodyguards for President Lincoln.


The Imperial government in Berlin promoted German culture in the U.S., especially music. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the preponderance of German music on American symphony stages went hand in hand with the Kaiser's agenda for Germany's global expansion. After Germany's unification in 1871, German cultural diplomacy aimed increasingly to convince Anglo-American elites of the superiority of German culture to win political allies in the United States. A steady influx of German-born conductors, including Arthur Nikisch and Karl Muck, spurred the reception of German music in the United States, while German musicians seized on Victorian Americans' growing concern with 'emotion'. The performance of pieces such as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony established German serious music as the superior language of feeling, filling audiences with awe for the superiority not just of German art, but also of Germany in general—precisely the respect for German greatness and emotionalism that William II wanted to convey.[107]


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