This article is about the modern country of Ghana. For the Ghana Empire (c. 790–1076) northwest of modern Ghana, see Ghana Empire. For other uses, see Ghana (disambiguation).

Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: File:God Save Our Homeland Ghana Instrumental.ogg
Location of  Ghana  (red)
Largest city Accra
Official languages[2] English
Ethnic groups (2010[3])
Demonym Ghanaian
Government Unitary presidential
constitutional republic
 -  President John Dramani Mahama
 -  Vice-President Kwesi Amissah-Arthur
Legislature Parliament
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Declared 6 March 1957 
 -  Republic 1 July 1960 
 -  Current constitution 28 April 1992 
 -  Total 238,535 km2 (81st)
92,099 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 4.61 (11,000 km2 / 4,247 mi2)
 -  2010 estimate 24.2 million[4]
 -  Density 101.5/km2 (103rd)
258.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total US$90 billion[5]
 -  Per capita US$3,501[5]
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total US$43 billion[5]
 -  Per capita US$1,670[5]
HDI (2013)Increase 0.558[6]
medium · 135th
Currency Ghana cedi (GH₵) (GHS)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Drives on the right
Calling code +233
ISO 3166 code GH
Internet TLD .gh
Map of the Gulf of Guinea showing Ghana and its 2,093 kilometres international borders.


Ghana has a 238,535 km2 land mass with 2,093 kilometres of international land borders, and is located within Negroland and Guinea region with the northern half of Ghana containing savannas and wildlife and the southern half of Ghana containing great industrial mineral and fossil fuel wealth, principally gold, petroleum and natural gas.[8][9] The southern half of Ghana dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources,[10] and is rich in forests, woodlands and fertile lands, and features a string of springs, waterfalls, streams, rivers, caves, lakes, esturaries, mountains, wildlife parks and nature reserves.[11] The coast of Ghana is a labyrinth of castles, forts, ports, harbours, Cape Three Points peninsula, and beaches that line Ghana's 560 kilometres (348 miles) Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean coastline of mainly sandy beaches.[11]

Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the age of discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms, including the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, and the Mankessim Kingdom. There is archaeological evidence showing that humans have lived in present-day Ghana since the Bronze Age.[12] However, until the 11th century, the majority of modern Ghana's territorial area was largely unoccupied and uninhabited by humans.[13] Although the area of present-day Ghana in Negroland and Guinea region has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 10th century.[14] By the early 11th century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo region is named.[14][15]

From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading. These states included Bonoman (Brong-Ahafo region), Ashanti (Ashanti region), Denkyira (Central region), Mankessim Kingdom (Western region), and Akwamu (Eastern region and Greater Accra region).[14] By the 19th century; the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism.[14] The Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi.[14] It is said that at its peak; the King of the Empire of Ashanti, Asantehene could field 500,000 troops, and it had strong degree of military influence over all of its neighbours within Negroland and Guinea region.[16][17] Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, trade between the Akan and various Negroland and Guinea region states flourished due to Akan gold wealth. Trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade then established the Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold.[18] The Portuguese first landed at a south coastal city, and named the place Elmina as the Portuguese Gold Coast's capital city.[18] In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build Elmina Castle, which was completed in three years.[18] By 1598, the Dutch people had joined the Portuguese people in gold trading, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Komeda and Kormantsi.[19] In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, and Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony). Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedish people, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and the Danish people, establishing the Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea). Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast.[20]

More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Danish, Dutch and German merchants; the latter German people establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg).[21] In 1874 England established control over some parts of the country assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast.[22] Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states and the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in a warfare against the United Kingdom that lasted for 100 years, but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s.[23][24][24][25] In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) by The Big Six called for "self-government within the shortest possible time".[20][26] Dr.h.c. Kwame Nkrumah is the first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana and formed the Convention People's Party (CPP) with the motto "self-government now".[20] The coastal Gold Coast region declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 and established the nation of Ghana. This made it the first Sub-Saharan African country to gain independence from colonization.[27][28][29]

Ghana attains rapid economic growth and rising human development.[30] Ghana is a petroleum and natural gas producer, one of the world's largest gold and diamond producers, the second largest cocoa producer in the world,[31] and Ghana is home to Lake Volta, the largest artificial lake in the world by surface area.[32] Ghana is a regional power and has regional hegemony also. It is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and a member of the Group of 24 (G24).[33]

Name and etymology

The word Ghana means "Warrior King" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in Negroland and Guinea region, although this empire was further north than the modern-day country of Ghana in Guinea region.[34]

The name "Ghana" was the source of the name "Guinea" (via French Guinoye) used to refer to the Negroland and south-eastern Guinea region coast off Ghana (as in Gulf of Guinea).[35]

Ghana was adopted as the legal name for the Kingdom of Ashanti combined with Gold Coast and with British Togoland upon the establishment of Ghana with declaration of independence and autonomy on 6 March 1957.[34]


Main article: History of Ghana

Ghana is formed within the location of Negroland and Guinea region from the incorporated territorial entities of the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti, the coastal Gold Coast region, and the British Togoland in 1956, and in 1957, Ghana became the first to declare independence in sub-saharan Africa. Within Negroland and Guinea region until the establishment of Ghana in March 1957, the territory of modern Ghana, excluding the Volta Region (British Togoland), was known as the Gold Coast region.[20] On 6 March 1957 at 12 a.m Kwame Nkrumah declared Ghana's establishment and autonomy as the first Prime Minister of Ghana and on 1 July 1960, Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic as the first President of Ghana.[20] The flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and the black star, became the new flag in 1957. Designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh, the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people and African emancipation.[36]

The first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana Osagyefo Kwame Nkrumah won a majority in the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly in 1952, Nkrumah was appointed leader of the Gold Coast's government business.[20] Kwame Nkrumah, first Prime Minister of Ghana, and then President of Ghana, was the first African head of state to promote Pan-Africanism, an idea he came into contact with during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement". Nkrumah merged the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the naturalized Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana.[20]

Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement and his life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday. Dr. Kwame Nkrumah's government was subsequently overthrown by a military coup while he was abroad with Zhou Enlai in the People's Republic of China in February 1966. Former Central Intelligence Agency employee John Stockwell stated to the Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) that the CIA had an effective hand in forcing the coup.[37]

A series of alternating military and civilian governments from 1966 to 1981 ended with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defense Council (NDC) in 1981.[38] These changes resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981, and the banning of political parties.[39] The economy suffered a severe decline soon after, Kwame Darko negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered from the mid-2000s.[39] A new constitution restoring multi-party politics was promulgated in 1992; Rawlings was elected as president then, and again in 1996.[40] Winning the 2000 elections, John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president in January 2001, and attained the presidency again in 2004, thus also serving two terms as president and thus marking the first time that power had been transferred to one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another, and securing Ghana's status as a stable democracy.[40]


Parliament House of Ghana seat of the Government of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana and Judiciary of Ghana buildings, Osu Castle is the defacto residence of presidency and the Golden Jubilee House is the official residence and presidential palace. First President of the Republic of Ghana Nkrumah and Presidents of the 4th Republic of Ghana Rawlings; Kufuor; Mills and Mahama.

Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional republic with a parliamentary multi-party system and former alternating military occupation. Following alternating military and civilian governments in January 1993, the Ghana military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution divides powers among a president, parliament, cabinet, council of state, and an independent judiciary. The government is elected by universal suffrage.[41] The Electoral Commission of Ghana announced that fomer Vice-President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama won the Ghana presidential election, 2012 on 7 December 2012 and John Dramani Mahama was sworn in as the reigning President of Ghana on 7 January 2013 serving a 4-years term length that expires approximately on Saturday 7 January 2017.[42]

The 2012 Failed States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least failed state in the world and the 5th least failed state in Africa after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index.[43] Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index.[44][45] Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.[46]


Ghana is divided into 10 administrative regions, sub-divided into a total of 216 districts:

Regions of Ghana Area (km²) Regions of Ghana capital
Ashanti Region 24,389
Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) logo.png
Brong-Ahafo Region 39,557
Central Region 9,826
Cape Coast
Eastern Region 19,323
Greater Accra Region 3,245
Northern Region 70,384
Upper East Region 8,842
Upper West Region 18,476
Volta Region 20,570
Western Region 23,941


Main article: Geography of Ghana
Reefs and lagoons on the coast of Ghana, and Lake Volta in Ghana is the largest reservoir and man-made lake in the world.
Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate.[47] Ghana spans an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 kilometres (348 mi) on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean to its south.[47] lies between latitudes and 12°N, and longitudes 4°W and 2°E; and the Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema.[47] Ghana is geographically closer to the "centre" of the world than any other country in the world; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off the south-east coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea.[48] Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean 320 kilometers (200 mi) and eastward for a maximum of about 270 kilometers (170 mi) with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber.[47] Ghana encompasses plains, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana.[49] The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape three points.[47]


Main article: Ghana Armed Forces

In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles.[50] Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa ambitions. Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963.[51]

Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemony.[52] In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers.[50]

Defense budget

Ghana Military–industrial complex and Defense industry budgetary history
Ghana Armed Forces Defense budget percentage growth rate Ghana Armed Forces Defense budget percentage

Law enforcement and Police

Further information: Law enforcement in Ghana

The Ghana Police Service (GPS) is the main law enforcement agency of the Republic of Ghana and responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security.[53] The Ghana Police Service has eleven specialized police units including a Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU).[54][55] The Ghana Police Service operates in twelve divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division.[55] The Ghana Police Service's Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country's offshore oil and gas industry.[55]

The Ghana Prisons Service and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana.[56] Ghana retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide.[57][58] 27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana in 2012 and the Ghana Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as at December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women,[57] with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as at 22 July 2013.[59]


Main article: Economy of Ghana
Real GDP rate of growth of the Ghana economy in percentage. The Ghanaian economy maintains the most rapid and highest GDP growth rates on the Africa continent and was the second highest GDP growth in the world, recording over 14% GDP growth in the year 2011 with fellow petroleum and natural gas producer Qatar as first and Ghana recorded 8.7% GDP growth in 2012. The Takoradi Harbour seaport was established in 1928 and is Ghana's main export outlet. Ghana maintains one of the worlds fastest growing and expanding shipping industry

Ghana is a wealthy natural resource rich country possessing a great abundance of industrial minerals, hydrocarbons and other vast array of natural resources and is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridization and an emerging market with 8.7% GDP growth in 2012 and an economic plan target known as the "Ghana Vision 2020" that will see Ghana become the first country on the Africa continent to become a developed country from the years 2020 to 2029 followed by a newly industrialised country from the years 2030 to 2039 onwards excluding fellow Group of 24 (G24) member and Sub-Saharan African country South Africa which is a newly industrialised country,[60] and the economy of Ghana is tied to the Chinese Yuan Renminbi along with Ghana's vast gold reserves and in 2013 the Bank of Ghana (BoG) began circulating the Renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi for second national trade currency.[61]

Ghana, a wealthy country with vast natural resources has a current Middle Income country rank and is an Emerging Economy.[5][62] Services account for 50% of Ghanaian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (24.1%), extractive industries (5%), and taxes (20.9%).[63]

The Ghana economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid modelled towards that of Taiwan with an increasing primary manufacturing and exportation of digita l technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportations of industrial minerals, agricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas,[64] and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana's state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications which manufactures tablet computers with smart phones and various electronics, electricity generation primarily via Ghana's state-owned hydropower company Volta River Authority and state-owned hydrocarbon corporation Ghana National Petroleum Corporation.[63][65] The Akosombo Dam, which was built on the Volta River in 1965, Bui Dam, Kpong Dam with several other hydroelectric dams and renewable energy sources provides hydro-electricity and sustainable energy for Ghana.[66][67][68] Known for its industrial minerals, Ghana was the world's 7th largest producer of gold in 2012; producing 102 metric tons of gold and the 10th largest producer of gold in the world in 2012; producing 89 metric tons of gold and Ghana is the designated 2nd largest producer of gold on the Africa continent behind the designated first South Africa.[69] Ghana has the 9th largest reserves of diamonds in the world and Ghana is the 9th largest producer of diamonds in the world with Brazil having the 10th largest reserves of diamonds in the world and being the 10th largest producer of diamonds in the world.[70] The Parliament of Ghana has drawn plans to nationalize Ghana's entire mining industry for greater revenues for Ghana.[71][72][73] Ghana is the designated 2nd largest producer of cocoa in the world,[31][74] and other hydrocarbon exports such as crude oil and natural gas.[75] The 100% state-owned filling station company of Ghana, Ghana Oil Company (GOIL) is the number 1 petroleum and gas filling station of Ghana and the 100% state-owned state oil company Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) administrates hydrocarbon exploration and production of Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves and Ghana aims to further increase output of oil to 2.2 million barrels per day and gas to 1.2 billion cubic feet per day.[76] Ghana's Jubilee Oilfield which contains up to 3 billion barrels (480,000,000 m3) of sweet crude oil was discovered in 2007, among the many other offshore and inland oilfields in Ghana.[77] Ghana is believed to have up to 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3) to 7 billion barrels (1.1×109 m3) of petroleum in reserves,[78] which is the sixth largest in Africa and the 25th largest proven reserves in the world and Ghana has up to 6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in reserves.[79] Oil and gas exploration off Ghana's eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil and natural gas continues to increase. The Parliament of Ghana has drawn plans to nationalize Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves for greater revenues for Ghana.[80]

In July 2013, International Enterprise Singapore (IE) Singapore opened its 38th global office in Accra, Ghana to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gas, aviation, transportation and consumer sectors.[81] Singapore and Ghana also signed four bilateral agreements to promote public sector and private sector collaboration, as Ghana aims to predominantly shift its economic trade partnership to East Asia and Southeast Asia.[81] The economic centre is IE Singapore's second office in Africa, coming six months after opening in Johannesburg, South Africa in January 2013.[81] Ghana's labour force in 2008 totalled 11.5 million Ghanaian citizens.[82][83] Tema harbour is Africa's largest manmade harbour and Takoradi harbour along with Tema harbour in Ghana handles goods and exports for Ghana, they are also a traffic junctions, where goods are transhipped, the Tema harbour handles the majority of the nation's export cargo and most of the country's chief exports is shipped from Takoradi harbour.[84] The Takoradi harbour and Tema harbour are operated by the state-owned Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority.[84]


Further information: Ghanaian people
Akan girl in traditional Kente attire from Bonwire.
A Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) sergeant female soldier engaged in military exercise.
Nobel laureate and UN Secretary general, Kofi Annan.
Ghanaian journalist and politician Samia Nkrumah.

Ghana is a multiethnic country and Ghana's territorial area within Negroland and Guinea region was unoccupied and uninhabited by humans until the 10th century A.D.[13] In the 10th century A.D. Akans became first settlers and established Bonoman (Brong Ahafo region) in the 11th century prior to establishing the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti then Akans were joined and followed by Negroid settlers and inhabitants in the 16th century A.D and the Akan created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Negroland and Guinea region.[14] There are 15 million inhabitants with Ghanaian passports (Ghanaian people with Ghanaian citizenship) while there are 375,000 registered legal skilled workers (permanent residents) or foreign workers/students (i.e. Ghana card holders) inhabitants with an annually 1.5 million transited tourists/airport layovers and Ghana's first post-independence population census, in 1960, counted about 6.7 million inhabitants.[85] The median age of Ghanaian citizens is 30 years old and the average household size is 3.6 persons. 60% (15 million) of the Ghana legal resident population are Ghanaian nationals and whom the majority are Akans.[3] The Akans are the majority inhabitants and 11.5 million (76.6%) of the 15 million Ghanaian citizenry (Ghanaian people) inhabiting population are Akans with a small number (2.5 million) of Negroid minorities from over the centuries (16.7%).[3][86] The official language is English and is spoken by 90% of the inhabiting population; however, 75% of the inhabiting population also speak the Akan language, and 100% of the inhabiting population speak the Niger–Congo languages. Christianity is the predominant religion and is practised by 71.2% of the inhabiting population.[87]

Ghana had a 2010 reported inhabiting population of about 24 million inhabitants in which 15 million inhabitants were Ghanaian nationals with Ghanaian citizenship and there was a Government of Ghana and Ghana Immigration Service 2010 inhabiting population of 3 million aliens and 6 million Illegal immigrants inhabiting Ghana and in 1969 under the "Ghana Aliens Compliance Order" (GACO) enacted by the Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia;[88] Government of Ghana deported over 3 million aliens and illegal immigrants in 3 months as they made up 20% of the inhabiting population at the time.[88][89]


Main article: Culture of Ghana

Ghana has a multicultural society that is predominantly influenced by the ancient kingdoms of the Akan and Ghanaian culture is diverse and a mixture of the cultures of the Ghanaian people.[90] The Ghanaian national literature radio program and accompanying publication Voices of Ghana was one of the earliest on the African continent. The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; J. E. Casely Hayford, Ayi Kwei Armah and Nii Ayikwei Parkes, who gained international acclaim with the books, Ethiopia Unbound (1911), The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) and Tail of the Blue Bird (2009), respectively.[91] In addition to novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and poetry have also had a very good development and support at the national level with prominent Ghanaian playwrights and poets Joe de Graft and Efua Sutherland.[91]

Banku & Grilled Tilapia and Roasted delicacy (Ghanaian cuisines)

Ghanaian cuisine and gastronomy is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied seafoods and most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish.[92] Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, roasted and fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes.[92] Banku is a common Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize),[92] and cornmeal based staples, dokonu (kenkey) and banku are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce).[92] Banku and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants.[92] Fufu is the most common exported Ghanaian dish in that it is a delicacy aross the African diaspora.[92]

See also


    /, officially the Republic of Ghana


Further reading

  • Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa Research & Publications, 1995)
  • Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982)
  • Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998)
  • Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books Ltd, 2007)
  • Briggs, Philip, Ghana (Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010)
  • Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010)
  • Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007)
  • Falola, Toyin and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002)
  • Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana (Syracuse University Press, 2008)
  • Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana (Africa Research & Publications, 2003)
  • Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977)
  • Kuada, John and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999)
  • Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006)
  • Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana : The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971)
  • Utley, Ian, Ghana – Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009)
  • Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007)
  • Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011)

External links

  • Ghana official website
  • The Parliament of Ghana official site
  • National Commission on Culture official site
  • Chief of State and Cabinet Members
General information
  • BBC News
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Ghana from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • DMOZ
  • Atlas of Ghana
  • The Patrick Duncan and Alfred Hutchinson of South Africa at the conference.
  • International Futures

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