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Hillsborough disaster

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Title: Hillsborough disaster  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 1988–89 in English football, Liverpool F.C., History of Liverpool F.C. (1985–present), Heysel Stadium disaster, Hillsborough Stadium
Collection: 1988–89 Fa Cup, 1988–89 in English Football, 1989 Disasters, 1989 Disasters in the United Kingdom, 1989 in Association Football, 1989 in England, 20Th Century in South Yorkshire, Corruption in England, Cover-Ups, Disasters in Yorkshire, Fa Cup Matches, Filmed Deaths, Hillsborough Disaster, Hillsborough, South Yorkshire, History of Football in England, History of Liverpool, History of Sheffield, Human Stampedes in the United Kingdom, Liverpool F.C., Nottingham Forest F.C., Police Misconduct in England, Sheffield Wednesday F.C., Stadium Disasters
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Hillsborough disaster

Hillsborough disaster
The Leppings Lane end of Hillsborough Stadium during the disaster
Date 15 April 1989 (1989-04-15)
Location Hillsborough Stadium
Sheffield, England
Deaths 96 (94 on 15 April)
Injuries 766
Inquiries Taylor Report (1990)
Hillsborough Independent Panel (2012)
Coroner Dr. Stefan Popper

The Hillsborough disaster occurred on 15 April 1989 at the Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England. During the FA Cup semi-final match between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest football clubs, a human crush resulted in the deaths of 96 people and injuries to 766 others. The incident has since been blamed primarily on the police for letting too many people enter the stadium. It remains the worst stadium-related disaster in British history, and one of the world's worst football disasters.[1]

At the time, semi-finals of the FA Cup were contested at a neutral venue. For the 1989 tournament, the Football Association (FA) selected Hillsborough (home ground of Sheffield Wednesday football club) for the contest between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest. As is standard in domestic English football matches, opposing supporters were segregated in the stadium. Liverpool fans were allocated the Leppings Lane stand.[2] Entry to the Leppings Lane stand was possible only via one of seven decrepit turnstiles,[2] a restriction that led to dangerous overcrowding outside the ground before kick-off. In an attempt to ease pressure outside the ground, Chief Superintendent David Duckenfield, the senior police officer responsible for the match, ordered an exit gate to be opened. The opened exit gate led to a tunnel marked "Standing", which led directly to the two already overcrowded enclosures. In previous years, the tunnel had been closed off by police when the two central pens were full; however, on this occasion the tunnel was unmanned.

The ensuing influx of supporters caused crushing, and some fans climbed over side fences or were lifted by fellow supporters onto the stand above to escape the crush. Moments after kick-off, a crush barrier broke, and fans began to fall on top of each other. The game was stopped after six minutes. To carry away the injured, supporters tore down advertising hoardings to use as stretchers, and emergency services were called to provide assistance. Of the 96 people who died, only 14 had been admitted to a hospital. When the FA Chairman visited the Control Box to find out what had happened, Duckenfield falsely claimed that the supporters had "rushed" the gate.[3]

The 1990 official inquiry into the disaster, the Taylor Report, concluded that "the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control."[4] The findings of the report resulted in the elimination of standing terraces at all major football stadiums in England, Wales and Scotland.

On the 20th anniversary of the disaster, government minister

  • Hillsborough Family Support Group (HFSG)
  • Hillsborough Justice Campaign (HJC)
  • Liverpool Football Club Hillsborough Memorial
  • Hillsborough Independent Panel
  • HFD – A brief but fact filled reposte of the myths of the hillsborough disaster.
  • newspaper coverage of the Hillsborough disaster.The SunDetailed transcript of
  • List of archive and library material relating to the disaster held at Sheffield City Council's Libraries and Archives.
  • Bibliography of over 150 books, journal articles, TV programmes and websites relating to the Disaster and its aftermath produced by Sheffield City Council's Archives Service.
  • A 20 minute video of the disaster in Windows Media Player format.
  • September 2012 Hillsborough disaster report (7.25 megabytes) (Archive)
  • Extracts from what bereaved parent Eileen Delaney said on a memorable edition of the live After Dark discussion programme can be read here [1]. The programme can be accessed online here [2].

External links

  • Joint Working Party on Ground Safety and Public Order. Ground safety and public order: Hillsborough Stadium Disaster, report of Joint Working Party on Ground Safety and Public Order (Report/Joint Executive on Football Safety);.  
  • Scraton, Phil. Hillsborough: The Truth.  
  • —; Jemphrey, Ann; Coleman, Sheila. No Last Rights: The Denial of Justice and the Promotion of Myth in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster.  
  • —. "Death on the Terraces: The Contexts and Injustices of the 1989 Hillsborough Disaster". In Darby, Paul; Johnes, Martin; Mellor, Gavin. Soccer and Disaster: International Perspectives. Sport in the Global Society.  
  • Scrutiny of Evidence Relating to the Hillsborough Football Stadium Disaster (Command Paper); Home Office; ISBN 0-10-138782-2
  • Sports Stadia After Hillsborough: Seminar Papers; RIBA, Sports Council, Owen Luder (Ed.); ISBN 0-947877-72-X
  • Taylor, Rogan; Ward, Andrew;  
  • The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster, 15 April 1989: Inquiry by Lord Justice Taylor (Cm.: 765); Peter Taylor; ISBN 0-10-107652-5
  • The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster: Inquiry Final Report (Command Paper); Home Office; ISBN 0-10-109622-4
  • Words of tribute: An anthology of 95 poems written after the Hillsborough tragedy, 15 April 1989.  
  • The Hillsborough Football Disaster: Context & Consequences.  
  • Bartram, Mike. The Nightmare of Hillsborough.  
  • Bartram, Mike. Justice Call: my Hillsborough poems.  
  • The Report of the Hillsborough Independent Panel, House of Commons HC581, London, The Stationery Office, 12 September 2012. ISBN 9780102980356

Further reading

  1. ^ Eason, Kevin (13 April 2009). "Hillsborough: the disaster that changed football". The Times (UK). Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "How the Hillsborough disaster happened". BBC News. 14 April 2009. 
  3. ^ Scrutiny of Evidence relating to the Hillsborough football stadium disaster, Lord Justice Stuart-Smith, February 1998, Page 83
  4. ^ a b  
  5. ^ Conn, David (17 April 2009). "Football: David Conn on Hillsborough". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  6. ^ a b c The Report of the Hillsborough Independent Panel September 2012.
  7. ^ Owen Gibson, David Conn and Haroon Siddique (12 September 2012). "Hillsborough disaster: David Cameron apologises for 'double injustice'". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  8. ^ "Hillsborough files released: As it happened". BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  9. ^ "'"Hillsborough papers: Cameron apology over 'double injustice. BBC News. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  10. ^ "Attorney General to consider overturning Hillsborough inquest verdicts". Liverpool Echo. 12 September 2012. 
  11. ^ David Lacey (15 April 1999). "Before Hillsborough fans were seen as terrace fodder. Now they are customers to be wooed and cosseted". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  12. ^ "Deaths and Injuries at Major Accidents at British Football Stadiums". Football Licensing Authority. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2007. 
  13. ^ Taylor, Daniel (15 September 2012). "How Bradford fire neglect left Hillsborough doomed to disaster". The Guardian Sports Blog. Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  14. ^ Cmd 9710: Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety at Sports Grounds Final Report. The Stationery Office, London. 1986. p. 62. 
  15. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 21.
  16. ^ Statement of Witness. Assistant Chief Constable Robert Goslin 14 August 1990.
  17. ^ Conn, David. Safety failings that contributed to death of 96 Liverpool fans were foreseeable The Guardian. 19 September 2012.
  18. ^ Carpente, Steve. Sky Blues fans recall Hillsborough choas Coventry Observer. 19 September 2012.
  19. ^ Bates, Matthew. Hillsborough warning signs were there in 1987 Coventry Observer. 12 September 2012.
  20. ^ Ross, Sam (13 September 2012). "David Bernstein makes unreserved apology for Hillsborough disaster". Metro. 
  21. ^ "Sheffield licensing officer from time of Hillsborough disaster still works for council". Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  22. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 5.
  23. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 9.
  24. ^ a b Taylor (1989), p. 34.
  25. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 11.
  26. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 12.
  27. ^ Report of the Hillsborough Independent Panel, Page 360, Section 2.12.161
  28. ^ "'"Ambulanceman: 'There were a lot of demands. BBC News. 15 April 2009. 
  29. ^ a b c McCallum, Andrew (17 April 1989). "Grieving fans pay tribute at the Kop". Glasgow Herald (Glasgow). p. 20 
  30. ^ a b c "Police to face inquiry as questions go unanaswered". Glasgow Herald (Glasgow). 19 April 1989. p. 1"." 
  31. ^ a b "Liverpool resists pressure to make decision on FA Cup". Glasgow Herald (Glasgow). 19 April 1989. p. 2 
  32. ^ "Thousands unite in grief at cathedral". Glasgow Herald (Glasgow). 17 April 1989. p. 1 
  33. ^ "'"MPs urge Hurd to introduce safety gates into 'killer cages. Glasgow Herald (Glasgow). 17 April 1989. p. 9 
  34. ^ a b "Head of UEFA must quit says club". Glasgow Herald (Glasgow). 17 April 1989. p. 7 
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  49. ^ Traynor, Luke (15 April 2009). "Peter Thompson, 30 – Hillsborough 96 – Hillsborough Remembered – News". Liverpool Daily Post. Retrieved 26 November 2011. 
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  51. ^ a b "Hillsborough inquests: The 96 who died". BBC News. 28 March 2014. 
  52. ^ a b c Taylor (1989), p. 49.
  53. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 52.
  54. ^ a b Taylor (1989), p. 36.
  55. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 47.
  56. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 40.
  57. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 30.
  58. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 23.
  59. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 32.
  60. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 24.
  61. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 44.
  62. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 46.
  63. ^
  64. ^ "Page 4 | Home Office". 15 April 1989. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  65. ^ Taylor (1989), p. 50.
  66. ^ "A hard lesson to learn". BBC News (London). 15 April 1999. Retrieved 4 August 2007. 
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  68. ^ The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster. Inquiry by Rt Hon Lord Justice Taylor Final Report – 66
  69. ^ The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster. Inquiry by Rt Hon Lord Justice Taylor Final Report – Part V
  70. ^ The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster. Inquiry by Rt Hon Lord Justice Taylor Final Report – Part V, 1
  71. ^ Stand Up Sit Down – A Choice to Watch Football. Peter Caton 2012. Troubador. ISBN 978-1-78088-177-5. Chapter 16
  72. ^ Football Spectators Act 1989. Section 11
  73. ^ Football Spectators Act 1989. Section 8
  74. ^ SPL rules
  75. ^ Premier League rules
  76. ^ Football League rules
  77. ^ Stand Up Sit Down – A Choice to Watch Football. Peter Caton 2012. Troubador. ISBN 978-1-78088-177-5 Chapters 23 – 25
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  87. ^ Tozer James 41 could have survived stadium crush The Advertiser 14 September 2012 p. 36
  88. ^ Siddique, Haroon (12 September 2012). "Hillsborough disaster report published - Wednesday 12 September". 
  89. ^ Hillsborough files: Calls to strip Sir Irvine Patnick of knighthood The Scotsman
  90. ^ Hillsborough: The Report of the Hillsborough Independent Panel, pages 350-352.
  91. ^ """Hillsborough papers: Cameron apology over "double injustice. BBC News (BBC). 12 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  92. ^ "Hillsborough statement: Cameron and Miliband apologise". BBC Democracy Live (BBC). 12 September 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
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  94. ^ Press Association (17 September 2012). "Hillsborough families demand new inquests be held". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  95. ^ Gibson, Owen; David Conn (13 September 2012). "New Hillsborough inquest likely after damning report". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
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  97. ^ Conn, David (19 September 2012). "Hillsborough report: FA could face charges, lawyers tell Liverpool fans' families". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  98. ^ Conn, David (19 September 2012). "Hillsborough families call for Sheffield Wednesday manslaughter inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  99. ^ Gibson, Owen (13 September 2012). "Hillsborough: Sheffield Wednesday and police urged to admit blame". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  100. ^ Conn, David (19 September 2012). "Premier League chairman must resign, says Hillsborough support group". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  101. ^ Press Association (17 September 2012). "Hillsborough: home secretary says law-breakers must face investigation". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  102. ^ Laville, Sandra (14 September 2012). "South Yorkshire police to ask IPCC to investigate Hillsborough officers' conduct". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  103. ^ Press Association (19 September 2012). "West Yorkshire Chief Constable referred to IPCC".  
  104. ^ Conn, David (5 October 2012). "Hillsborough disaster: Bettison's role revealed". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  105. ^ Laville, Sarah (4 October 2012). "Hillsborough tragedy: Norman Bettison to retire after controversy over role". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
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  110. ^ "Hillsborough: 1,444 police names passed to IPCC". BBC News Website. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
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  191. ^


Two British stage plays also dealt with the disaster with different view points - Jonathan Harvey 'Guiding Star' showed a father coming to terms with what had happened some years later and Lance Nielsen wrote 'Waiting For Hillsborough' about two Liverpool families waiting for news of their missing loved ones on the day which leads to discussion of football safety and the culture of blame. [191] His play won him an award at the 1999 Liverpool Arts and Entertainment awards and was highly praised by the Liverpool press.

The American sports network ESPN, as part of its 30 for 30 series of sports films (under a new "Soccer Stories" subdivision), aired the documentary Hillsborough as a co-production with the BBC. Directed by Daniel Gordon, the 2-hour film chronicles the disaster, the investigations, and their lingering effects; it also included interviews with survivors, victims' relatives, police officers and investigators. Hillsborough aired the first time on 15 April 2014, the 25th anniversary of the disaster.[188][189] The documentary is currently unable to be shown in Great Britain due to the 2012 High Court inquest still being in progress and the UK's jury tampering laws; the documentary contains previously unreleased security camera footage from the stadium the day of the disaster.[190]

A television drama film, based on the disaster and subsequent events, titled simply Hillsborough, was produced by Granada Television. It was highly praised and won the BAFTA Award for Best Single Drama in 1997. Christopher Eccleston, Ricky Tomlinson and Mark Womack were among the leading actors appearing in the film. It was aired for the first time in 1996, and has been aired three times since then, in 1998, 2009 and again in September 2012 on the weekend following the release of the findings of the Hillsborough Independent Panel.

Dramatisations and documentaries

In June 2014, an unnamed 24-year-old civil servant was sacked for posting offensive comments about the disaster on WorldHeritage.[187]

Civil servant

A formal complaint has been made against David Crompton, South Yorkshire's chief constable over internal emails relating to the Hillsborough disaster. In 2013, David Crompton sent an email in which he said the families' "version of certain events has become 'the truth' even though it isn't". In September, David Crompton had emailed the force's assistant chief constable Andy Holt and head of media Mark Thompson on 8 September, just four days before the Hillsborough Independent Panel Report was published. The email came to light as the result of a Freedom of Information request. South Yorkshire's police and crime commissioner Shaun Wright has appointed chief constable Simon Parr of Cambridgeshire Constabulary to head the investigation. Wright said: "The request has been submitted by a firm of solicitors in Liverpool acting on behalf of a number of individuals affected by the event."[186]

David Crompton

Sir Oliver has not commented on the matter since the findings of the Hillsborough Independent Panel.

Popplewell was widely criticised for the comments, including a rebuke from a survivor of the Bradford fire. Labour MP Steve Rotheram, for example, commented: "How insensitive does somebody have to be to write that load of drivel?"[185]

In October 2011, Sir [184]

Oliver Popplewell

Fans of rival football clubs such as Manchester United[180] and Millwall,[181] have been known to mention the Hillsborough disaster at fixtures to upset Liverpool fans. Following the findings of the Independent Panel in September 2012, Alex Ferguson and two Manchester United fan groups called for an end to the "sick chants".[182] Leeds United chairman Ken Bates endorsed this call in the club programme and stated, "Leeds have suffered at times with reference to Galatasaray; some of our so-called fans have also been guilty as well, particularly in relation to Munich."[183]

Fans' chants

On 22 October 2012, Jeremy Hunt who is currently the British Parliament's Secretary of State for Health concluded the Hillsborough Debate in parliament by again apologising for his previous comments in connection to Hillsborough and reiterated that the Liverpool fans were innocent. He also apologised on behalf of the NHS (National Health Service) for the errors made on the day itself and for the involvement of South Yorkshire Ambulance Service and their part in the subsequent cover up including the changing of statements which is now subject to criminal investigation in the UK.

On 28 June 2010, following England's departure from the World Cup competition in South Africa, the UK's Culture and Sport Secretary Jeremy Hunt praised the England fans for their behaviour during the competition, saying "I mean, not a single arrest for a football-related offence, and the terrible problems that we had in Heysel and Hillsborough in the 1980s seem now to be behind us." He later apologised and said "I know that fan unrest played no part in the terrible events of April 1989 and I apologise to Liverpool fans and the families of those killed and injured in the Hillsborough disaster if my comments caused any offence." Margaret Aspinall, chairperson of the Hillsborough Family Support Group, asked for a face to face meeting with Mr Hunt before deciding if she would accept the apology.[179]

Jeremy Hunt

Liverpool reserve goalkeeper Charles Itandje was accused of having shown disrespect towards the Hillsborough victims during the 2009 remembrance ceremony, as he was spotted on camera "smiling and nudging" team-mate Damien Plessis. He was suspended from the club for a fortnight and many fans felt he should not play for the club again. He was omitted from the first team squad and never played for the club in any capacity again.[178]

Charles Itandje

In November 2007, the BBC soap opera EastEnders caused controversy when the character Minty Peterson (played by Cliff Parisi) made a reference to the disaster. During the episode car mechanic Minty said: "Five years out of Europe because of Heysel, because they penned you lot in to stop you fighting on the pitch and then what did we end up with? Hillsborough." This prompted 380 complaints and the BBC apologised, saying that the character was simply reminding another character, former football hooligan Jase Dyer, that the actions of hooligans led to the fencing-in of football fans. Ofcom also received 177 complaints.[177]


The vice-chairman of the Hillsborough Family Support Group, Philip Hammond, said he wanted all football fans to boycott the magazine, saying, "I am going to write to every fanzine in the country – including Liverpool F.C.'s – telling them to ban FHM. People are very upset by it. I think there will be a real boycott." He added it would be like making jokes about the 2002 Bali bombings, in which eight fewer Australians were killed.[176]

The November 2002 edition of FHM in Australia was withdrawn from sale and a public apology made in the Australian and British editions, because it contained jokes mocking the disaster.[175] As a result, Emap Australia pledged to make a donation to the families of the victims. Its Australian editor, Geoff Campbell, released a statement: "We deeply regret the photograph captions published in the November issue of the Australian edition of FHM, accompanying an article about the Hillsborough disaster of 1989. The right course of action is to withdraw this edition from sale – which we will be doing. We have been in contact with the Hillsborough Family Support Group and the Hillsborough Justice Campaign to express our deep regret and sincere apologies."[175] The British edition disassociated itself from the controversy, stating: "FHM Australia has its own editorial team and these captions were written and published without consultation with the UK edition, or any other edition of FHM."[176]


Professor Phil Scraton described Pearce's comments as amongst the "most bigoted and factually inaccurate" published in the wake of the disaster[173] A number of complaints were made to the Press Council concerning the article, but the Council ruled that it was unable to adjudicate on comment pieces, though the Council noted that tragedy or disaster is not an occasion for writers to exercise gratuitous provocation.[174] Pearce has never apologised for the article.

"For the second time in half a decade a large body of Liverpool supporters has killed people ...the shrine in the Anfield goalmouth, the cursing of the police, all the theatricals, come sweetly to a city which is already the world capital of self-pity. There are soapy politicians to make a pet of Liverpool, and Liverpool itself is always standing by to make a pet of itself. 'Why us? Why are we treated like animals?' To which the plain answer is that a good and sufficient minority of you behave like animals."[172]

Pearce went on reflect that if South Yorkshire Police bore any responsibility, it was "for not realising what brutes they had to handle."[172]

Edward Pearce was criticised for writing a controversial article in the aftermath of the disaster, at a time when a number of victims' funerals were taking place. His article in The Sunday Times on 23 April 1989, included the text:

Edward Pearce

The sales of The Sun remain poor in Merseyside and a boycott is still practised.[169] Its articles are not published on Liverpool's official website. In 2004, its average daily circulation in Liverpool was 12,000 copies a day.[170][171]

Anger about The Sun's reporting remains. Trevor Hicks, chairman of the Hillsborough Family Support Group, rejected MacKenzie's apology as "too little, too late", calling him "lowlife, clever lowlife, but lowlife".[168]

Today I offer my profuse apologies to the people of Liverpool for that headline. I too was totally misled. Twenty three years ago I was handed a piece of copy from a reputable news agency in Sheffield [White's] in which a senior police officer and a senior local MP (Sheffield Hallam MP Irvine Patnick) were making serious allegations against fans in the stadium. I had absolutely no reason to believe that these authority figures would lie and deceive over such a disaster. As the Prime Minister has made clear these allegations were wholly untrue and were part of a concerted plot by police officers to discredit the supporters thereby shifting the blame for the disaster from themselves. It has taken more than two decades, 400,000 documents and a two-year inquiry to discover to my horror that it would have been far more accurate had I written the headline 'The Lies' rather than 'The Truth'. I published in good faith and I am sorry that it was so wrong.

On 12 September 2012, after the publication of the report exonerating the Liverpool fans, MacKenzie issued the following statement:

James Murdoch made a full apology for The Sun's coverage whilst appearing at a hearing of the House of Commons Select Committee dealing with the News International phone hacking scandal in 2012.[167]

Others in the media pinned the blame partly on Liverpool fans, including the Daily Star, which ran the front page headline "Dead Fans Robbed By Drunk Thugs" on 18 April 1989. The Sheffield Star published similar allegations to The Sun, running the headline "Fans In Drunken Attacks On Police", and the Liverpool Daily Post published an article entitled "I Blame the Yobs".[166]

Subsequent articles in The Sun have said hooliganism was not a cause of the disaster; on the 20th anniversary an article by journalist Mike Ellis condemned the 1991 inquest verdict of death by misadventure as "tosh" and claimed that "death by negligence would have been a more accurate description".[165]

The controversy was referred to at the 2009 Labour Party conference. On 30 September 2009, after the decision by The Sun to switch support to the Conservative Party in advance of the 2010 general election, Union Leader Tony Woodley ripped up a copy saying "In Liverpool we learnt a long time ago what to do."[164]

On 6 January 2007, during Liverpool's FA Cup match at Anfield, fans in the Kop held up coloured cards spelling out "The Truth" and chanted "Justice for the 96" for six minutes at the start of the game. The protest was directed at Kelvin MacKenzie, The Sun, and the BBC for employing MacKenzie.

Poster urging the Liverpool public not to purchase The Sun newspaper

The Sun apologised for its treatment of the Hillsborough disaster "without reservation" in a full page Liverpool Daily Post & Echo, owned by Trinity Mirror—arch-rivals of The Sun. The apology angered some Liverpudlians further. The Liverpool Echo did not accept the apology, calling it "shabby" and "an attempt, once again, to exploit the Hillsborough dead".

MacKenzie repudiated the apology in November 2006, saying he apologised because the newspaper's owner, Rupert Murdoch, had ordered him to do so, stating: "I was not sorry then and I'm not sorry now".[162] MacKenzie refused to apologise when appearing on the BBC's topical Question Time on 11 January 2007.[163]

MacKenzie explained his actions in 1993. Talking to a House of Commons National Heritage Select Committee, he said: "I regret Hillsborough. It was a fundamental mistake. The mistake was I believed what an MP said. It was a Tory MP. If he had not said it and the Chief Superintendent (David Duckenfield) had not agreed with it, we would not have gone with it."

After The Sun's report, the newspaper was boycotted by most newsagents in Liverpool and many readers cancelled orders and refused to buy it from newsagents. The Hillsborough Justice Campaign organised a less successful national boycott that had some impact on the paper's sales, which some commentators considered a reason for continued price cuts, the introduction of free magazines, and video and free DVD offers.[160] The issue was addressed on the documentary Alexei Sayle's Liverpool on BBC Two[161] when it covered the subject of Hillsborough. The segment saw comedian Alexei Sayle with a newsagent attempting to give away copies of The Sun, but every customer declined. Eventually, Sayle and the newsagent took the copies outside and set them alight.

As MacKenzie's layout was seen by more and more people, a collective shudder ran through the office (but) MacKenzie's dominance was so total there was nobody left in the organisation who could rein him in except Murdoch. (Everyone in the office) seemed paralysed—"looking like rabbits in the headlights"—as one hack described them. The error staring them in the face was too glaring. It obviously wasn't a silly mistake; nor was it a simple oversight. Nobody really had any comment on it—they just took one look and went away shaking their heads in wonder at the enormity of it. It was a 'classic smear'.
, Peter Chippendale and Chris Horrie wrote: The SunIn their history of

The story accompanying the Sun headlines claimed "drunken Liverpool fans viciously attacked rescue workers as they tried to revive victims" and "police officers, firemen and ambulance crew were punched, kicked and urinated upon". A quotation, attributed to an unnamed policeman, claimed a dead girl had been "abused", and that Liverpool fans were "openly urinating on us and the bodies of the dead".[158] These allegations contradicted the behaviour of many Liverpool fans, who helped security personnel stretcher away a large number of victims and gave first aid to many of the injured.[159]

The newspaper cited the words of unnamed police officers and Conservative MP for Sheffield Hallam Irvine Patnick for information relating to the alleged incidents.[155][156] The Daily Express also carried Patnick's version, under the headline "Police Accuse Drunken Fans" and giving Patnick's views, saying he had told Margaret Thatcher, while escorting her on a tour of the ground after the disaster, of the "mayhem caused by drunks" and that policemen told him they were "hampered, harassed, punched and kicked".[157]

On 19 April, four days after the disaster, Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, a British red-top tabloid newspaper with national distribution owned by Rupert Murdoch, used "THE TRUTH" as the front page headline, followed by three sub-headlines: "Some fans picked pockets of victims", "Some fans urinated on the brave cops" and "Some fans beat up PC giving kiss of life".

The Sun front page on 19 April 1989

The Sun


A third legal case which resulted from the Hillsborough disaster was Airedale N.H.S. Trust v Bland [1993] A.C. 789, a landmark House of Lords decision in English criminal law, that allowed the life-support machine of Tony Bland, a Hillsborough victim in a persistent vegetative state, to be switched off.

Another psychiatric injury claim was brought to the House of Lords, White v Chief Constable of the South Yorkshire Police [1999] 2 A.C. 455. It was brought by police officers on duty against the Chief Constable who was said to have been vicariously liable for the disaster. Their claims were dismissed and the Alcock decision was upheld. It affirmed the position of the courts once again towards claims of psychiatric injuries of secondary victims.

Various negligence cases were brought against the police by spectators who had been at the ground but had not been in the pens, and by people who watched the incident unfolding on television (or heard about it on the radio). A case, Alcock v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire Police [1992] 1 A.C. 310, was eventually appealed to the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords and was an important milestone in the law of claims of secondary victims for negligently inflicted psychiatric injury. It was held that claimants who watched the disaster on television/listened on radio were not 'proximal' and their claims were rejected.

Psychiatric injury and other litigation

In the wake of the decision the Home Secretary, Theresa May has announced that a new police enquiry,[154] would be initiated to examine the possibility of charging agencies other than the police over the deaths of the 96 Liverpool fans who lost their lives at Hillsborough. The enquiry was headed by Former Durham Chief Constable Jon Stoddart.

On 19 December 2012, Attorney General Dominic Grieve made an application to the high court following the findings laid out in the report by the Hillsborough Panel. The decision set out by Lord Chief Justice, Lord Judge quashed the original inquest verdicts.[153] The ruling came after revelations from the Hillsborough panel's findings showed police and emergency services had made "strenuous attempts" to deflect the blame for the disaster on to the fans which included alteration of more than 160 police statements where 116 of them were so altered with the intent to remove or change negative comments about the policing of the match

Police disciplinary charges were abandoned when Duckenfield retired on health grounds and because he was unavailable, it was decided it would be unfair to proceed with disciplinary charges against Bernard Murray. Duckenfield took medical retirement on a full police pension.[150][151][152]

A private prosecution was brought against Chief Superintendent David Duckenfield and another officer, Bernard Murray. Prosecutor Alun Jones QC[149] told the court that Duckenfield gave the order to open the gates so that hundreds of fans could be herded on to the already crowded terraces at the stadium. Mr Jones stated that minutes after the disaster, [Duckenfield] "deceitfully and dishonestly" told senior FA officials that the supporters had forced the gate open. Duckenfield admitted he had lied in certain statements regarding the causes of the disaster. Other officers, including Norman Bettison, were accused of manipulating evidence. Bettison was later appointed Chief Constable of Merseyside in controversial circumstances. The prosecution ended on 24 July 2000, when Murray was acquitted and the jury was unable to reach a verdict in the case of Duckenfield. On 26 July 2000, the judge refused the prosecution's application for a re-trial of Duckenfield.


During a debate in the House of Commons, the Labour MP for Liverpool Walton, Steve Rotheram, read out a list of the victims and, as a result, the names were entered into Hansard – the official publication of printed scripts of all House of Commons debates.[147][148]

A governmental e-petition attracted over 139,000 signatories on 17 October 2011,[145] and parliament agreed to debate the full release of cabinet documents relating to the disaster to the public.[146]

On 8 March 2011 the Hillsborough Independent Panel announced it would examine previously hidden documents to determine what took place after the 3:15 pm cutoff imposed during the inquest in 1991. A HIP spokesman said: "We have a wide remit to analyse all documents relating to the context, circumstances and consequences of the tragedy and its aftermath."[144]

On 19 April 2009, the Home Secretary Jacqui Smith announced she had requested secret files concerning the disaster should be made public.[143]

Relatives later failed to have the inquest reopened to allow more scrutiny of police actions and closer examination of the circumstances of individual cases. Anne Williams, who lost her 15-year-old son, Kevin, appealed to the European Court of Human Rights, on the strength of witness statements that her son showed signs of life at 4:00 pm. Her case was rejected in March 2009.[142]

Inquests into the deaths, commencing later in 1989, proved controversial. South Yorkshire coroner Stefan Popper limited the main inquest to events up to 3:15 pm on the day of the disaster – nine minutes after the match was halted and the crowd spilled onto the pitch. Popper said this was because the victims were either dead, or brain dead, by 3:15 pm. The decision angered the families, many of whom felt the inquest was unable to consider the response of the police and other emergency services after that time.[140] The inquest returned a verdict of accidental death on 26 March 1991, much to the dismay of the bereaved families, who had been hoping for a verdict of unlawful killing or an open verdict, and for manslaughter charges to be brought against the officers who had been present at the disaster. Popper's decision was subsequently endorsed by the Divisional Court who considered it to have been justified in the light of the medical evidence available to him.[141]


Charges against officials

Glasgow Rangers F.C. produced a banner to mark both the Hillsborough victims and the victims of the Ibrox disaster .

In 2014, supporters of the Greek club Olympiacos produced a "Justice for the 96" banner in a Champions League game against Manchester United.[139]

As a result of the disaster, Liverpool's scheduled fixture against Arsenal was delayed from 23 April until the end of the season and eventually decided the league title. At this fixture, Arsenal players brought flowers onto the pitch and presented them to the Liverpool fans around the stadium before the game commenced. In 2006, Celtic fans produced a banner bearing the words 'Justice For The 96, You'll Never Walk Alone' and presented it to the Kopites during the Champions League quarter-final match at Anfield.[138]

On 19 April 1989, the Wednesday after the disaster, the European Cup semi-final tie between A.C. Milan and Real Madrid was played. The referee blew his whistle two minutes into the game to stop play and hold a minute's silence for those who lost their lives at Hillsborough.[134] Halfway through the minute's silence, the A.C. Milan fans sang Liverpool's "You'll Never Walk Alone" as a sign of respect.[135][136] In April 1989, Bradford City and Lincoln City held a friendly match to benefit the victims of Hillsborough. The occasion was the first in which the two teams had met since the 1985 Bradford City stadium fire that had claimed 56 lives at Valley Parade.[137]

The Hillsborough disaster touched not only Liverpool, but clubs in England and around the world.[133] Supporters of Everton, Liverpool's traditional local rivals, were affected, many of them having lost friends and family. Supporters laid down flowers and blue and white scarves to show respect for the dead and unity with fellow Merseysiders.

Tributes from other clubs

On 11 April 2009 Liverpool fans sang "You'll Never Walk Alone" as a tribute to the upcoming anniversary of the disaster before the home game against Blackburn Rovers (which ended in Liverpool winning 4–0) and was followed by former Liverpool player, Stephen Warnock presenting a memorial wreath to the Kop showing the figure 96 in red flowers.

With the imminent release of police documents relating to events on 15 April 1989, the Hillsborough Family Support Group launched Project 96, a fundraising initiative on 1 August 2009. At least 96 current and former Liverpool footballers are being lined up to raise £96,000 by auctioning a limited edition (of 96) signed photographs.

On 14 May, more than 20,000 people packed Anfield for a match held in memory of the victims. The Liverpool Legends, comprising ex-Liverpool footballers beat the All Stars, captained by actor Ricky Tomlinson, 3–1. The event also raised cash for the Marina Dalglish Appeal which contribute towards a radiotherapy centre at University Hospital in Aintree.[131][132]

Liverpool, Chelsea, Arsenal and Manchester United players showed respect by wearing black armbands during their Champions League matches on 14 and 15 April.

A song was released to mark the 20th anniversary, entitled "Fields of Anfield Road" which peaked at #14 in the UK charts.[130]

Other services took place at the same time, including at Liverpool's Anglican and Catholic Cathedrals. After the two minutes' silence, bells on civic buildings rang out throughout Merseyside.[129]

The event was remembered with a ceremony at Anfield attended by over 28,000 people.[123][124] The Kop, Centenary and Main Stands were opened to the public before part of the Anfield Road End was opened to supporters. The memorial service, led by the Bishop of Liverpool began at 14:45 BST and a two minutes silence (observed across Liverpool and in Sheffield and Nottingham, including public transport coming to a stand-still)[125][126] was held at the time of the disaster twenty years earlier, 15:06 BST. Sports Minister Andy Burnham addressed the crowd but was heckled by supporters chanting "Justice for the 96".[127] The ceremony was attended by survivors of the disaster, families of victims and the Liverpool team, with goalkeeper Pepe Reina leading the team and management staff onto the pitch. Team captain Steven Gerrard and vice-captain Jamie Carragher handed the freedom of the city to the families of all the victims. Candles were lit for each of the 96 people who died. Kenny Dalglish, Liverpool's manager at the time of the disaster, read a passage from the Bible, "Lamentations of Jeremiah". The Liverpool manager, Rafael Benítez, set 96 balloons free. The ceremony ended with 96 rings of church bells across the city and a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone".[128]

In 2009, on the 20th anniversary of the disaster, Liverpool's request that their Champions League quarter-finals return leg, scheduled for 15 April, be played the day before was granted.[122]

Liverpool fans unfurl a banner displaying the names of the deceased on the twentieth anniversary of the disaster

Twentieth anniversary

In 1999 Anfield was packed with a crowd of around 10,000 people ten years after the disaster.[120] A candle was lit for each of the 96 victims. The clock at the Kop End stood still at 3:06 pm, the time that the referee had blown his whistle in 1989 and a minute's silence was held, the start signalled by match referee from that day, Ray Lewis. A service led by the Right Reverend James Jones, the Bishop of Liverpool, was attended by past and present Liverpool players, including Robbie Fowler, Steve McManaman and Alan Hansen. According to the BBC report: "The names of the victims were read from the memorial book and floral tributes were laid at a plaque bearing their names."[121] A gospel choir performed and the ceremony ended with a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone". The anniversary was also marked by a minute's silence at the weekend's league games and FA Cup semi-finals.

Tenth anniversary

The FA decided all FA Cup, Premier League, Football League and Football Conference matches 11–14 April 2014 would kick-off seven minutes later than originally scheduled with a six-minute delay and a one-minute silence tribute.[119]

Since 2007 there has been a Hillsborough Memorial service held at Spion Kop, KZN South Africa. The significance of this ceremony is that it is held on the Spion Kop Battlefield which gave its name to the Kop Stand at Anfield. There is a permanent memorial to the 96 fans who died, in the form of a bench in view of the battlefield at a nearby lodge. Dean Davis and David Walters, members of the Official South African Liverpool Supporters Club (Gauteng Branch), are responsible for the service and the bench was commissioned by Guy Prowse in 2008.

The disaster has been acknowledged on 15 April each year by the community in Liverpool and football in general. An annual memorial ceremony is held at Anfield and at a church in Liverpool. The 10th and 20th anniversaries were marked by special services to remember the victims.

Memorial ceremonies

  • Flames were added either side of the Liverpool F.C. crest in memory of the 96 who lost their lives.
  • Alongside the Shankly Gates at Anfield, Liverpool's home stadium.
  • A memorial at Hillsborough stadium, unveiled on the tenth anniversary of the disaster on 15 April 1999, reads: In memory of the 96 men, women, and children who tragically died and the countless people whose lives were changed forever. FA Cup semi-final Liverpool v Nottingham Forest. 15 April 1989. "You’ll never walk alone."
  • A memorial stone in the pavement on the south side of Liverpool's Anglican cathedral.
  • A memorial garden in Hillsborough Park with a 'You'll never walk alone' gateway.
  • A headstone at the junction of Middlewood Road, Leppings Lane and Wadsley Lane, near the ground and by the Sheffield Supertram route.
  • A Hillsborough Memorial Rose Garden in Port Sunlight, Wirral.
  • A memorial rose garden on Sudley Estate in South Liverpool (also known as the APH). Each of the six rose beds has a centre piece of a white standard rosebush, surrounded by red rose bushes, named 'Liverpool Remember'. There are brass memorial plaques on both sets of gates to the garden, and a sundial inscribed with the words: 'Time Marches On But We Will Always Remember'.
  • In the grounds of Crosby Library, to the memory of the 18 football fans from Sefton who lost their lives in the Hillsborough disaster. The memorial, sited in a raised rose bed containing the Liverpool Remembers red rose, is made of black granite. It is inscribed 'In loving memory of the 96 football supporters who died at Hillsborough, Sheffield on 15 April 1989. Of those who lost their lives the following young men were from Sefton families'. The memorial was unveiled on 4 October 1991 (two years before the death of Tony Bland) by the Mayor of Sefton, Councillor Syd Whitby. The project was carried out by the Council after consultation with the Sefton Survivors Group.
  • A 7 foot high circular bronze memorial was unveiled in the Old Haymarket district of Liverpool in April 2013. This memorial is inscribed with the words: "Hillsborough Disaster - we will remember them", and displays the names of the 96 victims who died.
  • An 8 foot high clock, dating from the 1780s, was installed at Liverpool Town Hall in April 2013, with the hands indicating 3:06 (the time at which the match was postponed).
The Memorial at Old Haymarket, Liverpool
The Memorial at Hillsborough Stadium
The Hillsborough memorial at Anfield

Several memorials have been erected in memory of the victims of the Hillsborough disaster; all are listed below:

Permanent memorials


On 12 July 2013 it was reported that the IPCC had found that in addition to the now 164 police statements known to have been altered, a further 55 police officers had changed their statements. Deborah Glass, deputy chair of the IPCC said, "We know the people who have contacted us are the tip of the iceberg." That was after the IPCC's Hillsborough Contact team had received 230 pieces of correspondence since October 2012. The IPCC also expected to launch a public appeal for more witnesses to come forward in the autumn of 2013. The IPCC investigation into how the West Midlands Police investigated South Yorkshire Police's conduct is also ongoing.[118]

On 23 October 2012, Norman Bettison resigned with immediate effect as Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police, after Maria Eagle MP on the floor of the House and protected by Parliamentary privilege, accused him of boasting about concocting a story that all the Liverpool fans were drunk and police were afraid they were going to break down the gates and decided to open them.[112][113][114] Bettison denied the claim, and other allegations about his conduct, saying "there is nothing I'm ashamed of".[115] Merseyside Police Authority confirmed that Bettison would receive an £83,000 pension, unless convicted of a criminal offence. Hillsborough families called for the payments to be frozen during the IPCC investigation.[116] In the same 22 October House of Commons debate, Stephen Mosley MP alleged West Midlands police pressured witnesses—both police and civilians—to change their statements.[117] Maria Eagle confirmed her understanding that WMP actions in this respect would be the subject of IPCC scrutiny.[112]

The IPCC investigation amounts to the biggest independent review of the police ever conducted; by 22 October 2012, the names of at least 1,444 serving and former police officers have been referred. In its announcement, the IPCC praised the tenacity of the Hillsborough families' campaign for truth and justice.[106][107][108][109][110] On 16 October 2012, the Attorney General announced in Parliament he has applied to have the original inquest verdict quashed, arguing it proceeded on a false basis and evidence now to hand requires this exceptional step.[111]

The IPCC announced on 12 October 2012 it would investigate the failure of the police to declare a major incident, failure to close the tunnel to the stands which led to overcrowded pens despite evidence it had been closed in such circumstances in the past; changes made to the statements of police officers; actions which misled Parliament and the media; shortcomings of previous investigations; and the role played by Norman Bettison. Separately the Director of Public Prosecutions announced a review of evidence, including from the HIP Report, to determine if criminal charges, including charges of corporate manslaughter arising out of gross negligence, should be brought by the Crown Prosecution Service against South Yorkshire police, Sheffield Wednesday Football Club, Sheffield City Council, the Football Association, or individuals.

South Yorkshire police announced it would refer the actions of its officers to the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC).[102] West Yorkshire Police announced it would refer its Chief Constable, Sir Norman Bettison, to the IPCC in mid September; in early October, Bettison announced his retirement, becoming the first senior figure to step down since publication of the report.[103][104][105]

Calls were made for the resignation of police officers involved in the cover-up, and for Sheffield Wednesday, the police and the Football Association to admit their blame.[96][97][98][99] Calls were also made for Sir Dave Richards to resign as chairman of the Premier League and give up his knighthood as a result of his conduct at Sheffield Wednesday at the time of the disaster.[100] The Home Secretary called for investigations into law-breaking and promised resources to investigate individual or systematic issues.[101]

After publication, the Hillsborough Families Support Group called for new inquests for the victims.[94] They also called for prosecutions for unlawful killing, corporate manslaughter and perversion of the course of justice in respect of the actions of the police both in causing the disaster and covering up their actions; and in respect of Sheffield Wednesday FC, Sheffield Council and the Football Association for their various responsibilities for providing, certifying and selecting the stadium for the fatal event.[95]

Subsequent apologies were released by Prime Minister David Cameron on behalf of the government,[91] Ed Miliband on behalf of the Opposition,[92] Sheffield Wednesday Football Club, South Yorkshire Police, and former editor of The Sun, Kelvin McKenzie, who apologised for writing the headline "The Truth".[93] McKenzie said he should have written a headline that read "The Lies", although this apology was widely discredited by the Hillsborough Family Support Group and Liverpool fans, as it was seen to be "shifting the blame once again."[93]


The findings concluded that 164 witness statements had been altered. Of those statements, 116 were amended to remove or change negative comments about South Yorkshire Police. South Yorkshire Police had performed blood alcohol tests on the victims, some of them children, and ran computer checks on the national police database in an attempt to "impugn their reputation".[88] The report concluded that the then Conservative MP for Sheffield Hallam, Irvine Patnick, passed inaccurate and untrue information from the police to the press.[89][90]

On 12 September 2012, the Hillsborough Independent Panel[84] concluded that no Liverpool fans were responsible in any way for the disaster,[85] and that its main cause was a "lack of police control". Crowd safety was "compromised at every level" and overcrowding issues had been recorded two years earlier. The panel concluded that "up to 41" of the 96 who perished might have survived had the emergency services' reactions and co-ordination been improved.[86] The number is based on post-mortem examinations which found some victims may have had heart, lung or blood circulation function for some time after being removed from the crush. The report stated that placing fans who were "merely unconscious" on their backs would have resulted in their deaths.[87]


The panel was chaired by James Jones, the Bishop of Liverpool. Other members were:- [83]

In December 2009, Home Secretary Alan Johnson announced the formation of the Hillsborough Independent Panel with a remit to oversee "full public disclosure of relevant government and local information within the limited constraints set out in the disclosure protocol" and "consult with the Hillsborough families to ensure that the views of those most affected by the disaster are taken into account".[82] An archive of all relevant documentation would be created and a report produced within two years explaining the work of the panel and its conclusions.

In the years after the disaster there was a feeling that the full facts were not in the public domain and a suspicion that some facts were deliberately covered up. The Hillsborough Family Support Group, led by Trevor Hicks, campaigned for the release of all relevant documents. After the disaster's 20th anniversary in April 2009, supported by the Culture secretary, Andy Burnham, and Minister of State for Justice, Maria Eagle, the government asked the Home Office and Department of Culture, Media and Sport to investigate the best way for this information to be made public.[82]

History of the panel

The Hillsborough Independent Panel was instituted by the British government to investigate the Hillsborough disaster with the remit to oversee the disclosure of thousands of documents about the disaster and its aftermath and to produce a report illustrating how the information disclosed added to public understanding of the disaster and its aftermath. On 12 September 2012 it published its report[6] and simultaneously launched a website containing 450,000 pages of material collated from more than 80 organisations over two years.[81]

Hillsborough Independent Panel

Importantly Stuart-Smith's report supported the coroner's assertion that evidence after 3.15pm was inadmissible as "that by 3.15 pm the principal cause of death, that is, the crushing, was over."[80] This was controversial as the subsequent response of the police and emergency services would not be scrutinised. Announcing the report to the House of Commons, Home Secretary Jack Straw backed Stuart-Smith's findings and said that "I do not believe that a further inquiry could or would uncover significant new evidence or provide any relief for the distress of those who have been bereaved."[80]

I have come to the clear conclusion that there is no basis upon which there should be a further Judicial Inquiry or a reopening of Lord Taylor's Inquiry. There is no basis for a renewed application to the Divisional Court or for the Attorney General to exercise his powers under the Coroners Act 1988. I do not consider that there is any material which should be put before the Director of Public Prosecutions or the Police Complaints Authority which might cause them to reconsider the decisions they have already taken. Nor do I consider that there is any justification for setting up any further inquiry into the performance of the emergency and hospital services. I have considered the circumstances in which alterations were made to some of the self-written statements of South Yorkshire Police officers, but I do not consider that there is any occasion for any further investigation.[79]

In May 1997, when the Labour Party came into office, Home Secretary Jack Straw ordered an investigation. It was performed by Lord Justice Stuart-Smith.[78] The appointment of Stuart-Smith was not without controversy. At a meeting in Liverpool with relatives of those involved in Hillsborough in October 1997, he flippantly remarked "Have you got a few of your people or are they like the Liverpool fans, turn up at the last minute?"[78] He "apologised" for his remark, saying it was not intended to offend.[78] The terms of reference of his inquiry were limited to "new evidence", that is "...evidence which was not available or was not presented to the previous inquires, courts or authorities."[78] Therefore evidence such as witness statements which had been altered were classed as inadmissible. When he presented his report in February 1998, he concluded that there was insufficient evidence for a new inquiry into the disaster. In paragraph 5 of his summary he said:

Stuart-Smith scrutiny

In July 1992, the Government announced a relaxation of the regulation for the lower two English leagues (known now as League One and League Two). The Football Spectators Act does not cover Scotland, but the Scottish Premier League chose to make all-seater stadia a requirement of league membership.[74] In England and Wales all-seating is a requirement of the Premier League[75] and of the Football League for clubs who have been present in the Championship for more than three seasons.[76] Several campaigns have been active in attempting to get the government to relax the regulation and allow standing areas to return to Premiership and Championship grounds.[77]

Lord Taylor noted that the evidence he received was overwhelmingly in favour of more seating accommodation and that most was in favour of reversing the two-thirds to one-third standing-seating ratio.[68] His final report made 76 recommendations,[69] including a reduction in standing in line with this evidence but that, after a given timescale, all stadia designated under the Safety of Sports Ground Act 1975 should admit spectators to seated accommodation only.[70] A number of his recommendations were not implemented, including all-seating for sports other than football.[71] The Football Spectators Act (1989) contained a regulation requiring football grounds to become all-seated as directed by the Secretary of State.[72] This was to be overseen by the Football Licensing Authority[73] (now the Sport Grounds Safety Authority).

The Taylor Report had a deep impact on safety standards for stadia in the UK. Perimeter and lateral fencing was removed and many top stadia were converted to all-seated.[66] Purpose-built stadiums for Premier League and most Football League teams since the report are all-seater.[67] Chester City F.C.'s Deva Stadium was the first English football stadium to fulfil the safety recommendations of the Taylor Report, with Millwall F.C.'s The Den being the first new stadium to be built that fulfilled the recommendations.

Effect on stadia in Britain

It is a matter of regret that at the hearing, and in their submissions, the South Yorkshire Police were not prepared to concede they were in any respect at fault in what occurred. ... [T]he police case was to blame the fans for being late and drunk, and to blame the Club for failing to monitor the pens. ... Such an unrealistic approach gives cause for anxiety as to whether lessons have been learnt. It would have been more seemly and encouraging for the future if responsibility had been faced.[65]
In all some 65 police officers gave oral evidence at the Inquiry. Sadly I must report that for the most part the quality of their evidence was in inverse proportion to their rank.[52]

Taylor concluded his criticism of South Yorkshire Police by describing senior officers in command as "defensive and evasive witnesses" who refused to accept any responsibility for error.

Police evasion

The possibility of fans attempting to gain entry without tickets or with forged tickets was suggested as a contributing factor. South Yorkshire Police suggested the late arrival of fans amounted to a conspiracy to gain entry without tickets. However, analysis of the electronic monitoring system, Health and Safety Executive analysis, and eyewitness accounts showed that the total number of people who entered the Leppings Lane end was below the official capacity of the stand. Eye witness reports suggested that tickets were available on the day and tickets for the Leppings Lane end were on sale from Anfield until the day before. The report dismissed the conspiracy theory.[54]

The Hillsborough Independent Panel later noted that, despite being dismissed by the Taylor Report, the idea that alcohol contributed to the disaster proved remarkably durable. Documents later disclosed confirm that repeated attempts were made to find supporting evidence for alcohol being a factor, and that available evidence was significantly misinterpreted. It noted "The weight placed on alcohol in the face of objective evidence of a pattern of consumption modest for a leisure event was inappropriate. It has since fuelled persistent and unsustainable assertions about drunken fan behaviour."[64]

Accusations that the behaviour of Liverpool fans contributed to the disaster centred around consumption of alcohol before the game and attempts to enter the ground without a ticket. Although Lord Taylor acknowledged that these aggravated the situation, they were secondary factors. Witness estimates of the number of fans who were drunk varied from a minority to a large proportion of the crowd. Although it was clear many fans had been drinking, Lord Taylor unequivocally stated that most of them were: "not drunk, nor even the worse for drink". He concluded that they formed an exacerbating factor[24] and that police, seeking to rationalise their loss of control, overestimated the element of drunkenness in the crowd.[63]

Aggravating factors

Lord Taylor regarded spectator allocation irrelevant to the disaster. "I do not consider choice of ends was causative of the disaster. Had it been reversed, the disaster could well have occurred in a similar manner but to Nottingham supporters."[52]

The anxiety to protect the sanctity of the pitch has caused insufficient attention to be paid to the risk of a crush due to overcrowding. Certain it was, that once the crush occurred on 15 April gates 3 and 4 were wholly inadequate for rescue purposes.[62]
When spectators first appeared on the track, the immediate assumption in the control room was that a pitch invasion was threatened. This was unlikely at the beginning of a match. It became still less likely when those on the track made no move towards the pitch. ... [T]here was no effective leadership either from control or on the pitch to harness and organise rescue efforts. No orders were given for officers to enter the tunnel and relieve pressure.[61]

The official combined capacity of the central pens was 2,200, but the Health and Safety Executive found this should have been reduced to 1,693 as crush barriers and perimeter gates did not conform to the Green Guide.[60] It is estimated that more than 3,000 people were in the pens shortly after kick off at 3:00 pm. Overcrowding caused the fatal crush.

Whilst in theory the police would intervene if a pen became "full", in practice they permitted the test of fullness to be what the fans would tolerate. By 2.52 pm when gate C was opened, pens 3 and 4 were over-full even by this test. Many were uncomfortable. To allow any more into those pens was likely to cause injuries; to allow in a large stream was courting disaster.[59]

Standard procedure for league fixtures was to estimate the size of the visiting fan base, determine how many enclosures need to be opened, then fill each standing area one at a time.[57] For all-ticket games that had sold out, such as semi-final matches, a different approach was adopted whereby supporters were allowed to enter any enclosure they wished upon arrival. There was no mechanical or electronic means for calculating when individual enclosures had reached capacity. A police officer made a visual assessment before guiding fans to other pens.[58]

Since pens 3 and 4 were full by 2.50 pm, the tunnel should have been closed off whether gate C was to be opened or not. ... [I]t should have been clear in the control room where there was a view of the pens and of the crowd at the turnstiles that the tunnel had to be closed. If orders had been given to that effect when gate C was opened, the fans could have been directed to the empty areas of the wings and this disaster could still have been avoided. Failure to give that order was a blunder of the first magnitude.[56]

As a result of the inadequate number of turnstiles, it has been estimated that it would have taken until 3:40 pm to get all ticket holders into the Leppings Lane end had an exit gate not been opened. Gate C was opened to let fans in, but the number of fans entering the terrace was not thought to have been more than the capacity of the entire standing area. Once inside the stadium, most fans entering the terraces headed for the central pens 3 and 4, as directed by a large sign above the access tunnel.

The need to open gate C was due to dangerous congestion at the turnstiles. That occurred because, as both Club and police should have realised, the turnstile area could not easily cope with the large numbers demanded of it unless they arrived steadily over a lengthy period. The Operational Order and police tactics on the day failed to provide for controlling a concentrated arrival of large numbers should that occur in a short period. That it might so occur was foreseeable and it did.[55]
The senior police officers said it had never happened before so there was no reason to foresee it. In fact, the only two previous occasions when the Leppings Lane terraces had been used to fill the whole of the north and west sides of the ground were at the two semi-finals, in 1987 and 1988. In 1987, the match was on a Sunday scheduled for 12 noon, and kick-off was postponed for a quarter of an hour because of late arrivals.[54]

Taylor found there was "no provision" for controlling the entry of spectators into the turnstile area. Questioned why more action had not been taken to screen individuals and improve the flow of supporters approaching the stadium from the west "where the turnstile area was so small and awkwardly laid out", senior police officers responded that policy and practice had been no different from in the past, and they had no reason to anticipate problems as earlier events had proceeded without major incident. Taylor noted two occasions when the entry at Leppings Lane had been the sole access to the north and west sides of the ground, at the 1987 and 1988 semi-finals, with evidence of congestion at both, but owing to good fortune and circumstance police policy "was not put to the same test and strain as a year later".

Police control

Sheffield Wednesday was criticised for the inadequate number of turnstiles at the Leppings Lane end and the poor quality of the crush barriers on the terraces, "respects in which failure by the Club contributed to this disaster."[53]

Lord Justice Taylor concluded that "policing on 15 April broke down" and "although there were other causes, the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control."[52] Attention was focused on the decision to open the secondary gates; moreover, the kick-off should have been delayed, as had been done at other venues and matches.

After the disaster, Lord Justice Taylor was appointed to conduct an inquiry into the events. The Taylor Inquiry sat for a total of 31 days and published two reports: an interim report which laid out the events of the day and immediate conclusions,[4] and the final report which outlined general recommendations on football ground safety. This became known as the Taylor Report.

The Taylor Inquiry

Home Number of victims
Liverpool 37
Rest of Greater Merseyside 20
Runcorn, Cheshire 4
Warrington, Cheshire 4
Leicester, Leicestershire 3
Sheffield, Yorkshire 3
Chester, Cheshire 2
Pinner, Middlesex 2
Preston, Lancashire 2
Skelmersdale, Lancashire 2
Wigan, Lancashire 2
Basildon, Essex 1
Bristol, Avon 1
Bromsgrove, Worcestershire 1
Bury, Lancashire 1
Cannock, Staffordshire 1
Clwyd, North Wales 1
Gloucester, Gloucestershire 1
Keighley, Yorkshire 1
Leigh, Greater Manchester 1
London 1
St Albans, Hertfordshire 1
Stockport, Cheshire 1
Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire 1
Swanwick, Derbyshire 1
Wrexham, North Wales 1

Of the 96 fatalities, a total of 57 were from the city of Liverpool and the surrounding Greater Merseyside area. The remainder were Liverpool F.C. supporters from other areas of England and Wales.[51] The full distribution is as shown below.

Home locations

Age Range Total Males Females
10-19 38 36 2
20-29 40 36 4
30-39 12 11 1
40-49 3 3 -
50-59 1 1 -
60-69 2 2 -
Totals 96 89 7

Of those who died, 78 were aged 30 or younger. The majority of these (72) were young males.[51]


Two sisters, three pairs of brothers, and a father and son were among those who died,[43] as were two men about to become fathers for the first time; 25-year-old Steven Brown of Wrexham[48] and 30-year-old Peter Thompson of Widnes.[49] Jon-Paul Gilhooley, aged ten, cousin of future Liverpool F.C. captain Steven Gerrard, was the youngest person to die. Gerrard has said the disaster inspired him to lead the team he supported as a boy and become a top professional football player.[50] The oldest person to die at Hillsborough was 67-year-old Gerard Baron, brother of the late Liverpool player Kevin Baron.

Andrew Devine, aged 22 at the time of the disaster, suffered similar injuries to Tony Bland and was also diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state. In March 1997—a month before the eighth anniversary of the disaster—it was reported he had emerged from the condition and was able to communicate using a touch-sensitive pad, and he had been showing signs of awareness of his surroundings for up to three years previously.[47]

A total of 96 people died as a result of the disaster. On the day 94 people, aged from 10 to 67 years old, died as a result of their injuries, either at the stadium, in the ambulances, or shortly after arrival at hospital,[43] with 766 fans sustaining injuries—around 300 of whom required hospital treatment.[44] On 19 April, the death toll reached 95 when 14-year-old Lee Nicol—attached to a life support machine—succumbed to his injuries.[45][46] The death toll reached 96 in March 1993, when artificial feeding and hydration was withdrawn from 22-year-old Tony Bland after nearly four years, during which time he had remained in a persistent vegetative state and shown no sign of improvement.


By the disaster's 10th anniversary in 1999, at least three people who survived were known to have committed suicide caused by emotional problems brought on by the disaster. Another survivor had spent eight years in psychiatric care. Numerous cases of alcoholism and drug abuse were also attributed to lingering effects from the disaster, and it contributed to the collapse of a number of marriages involving people who had witnessed the events.[42]

Effect on survivors

In May 1989, a charity version of the song "Ferry Cross the Mersey" was released in aid of those affected. The song featured famed Liverpudlians Paul McCartney, Gerry Marsden, Holly Johnson and Liverpool band the Christians and was produced by Stock Aitken Waterman. "Ferry Cross the Mersey" entered the UK Singles Chart at number 1 on 20 May, and remained in this position for a total of three weeks.[41]

A disaster appeal fund was set up with donations of £500,000 from the Government, £100,000 from Liverpool F.C. and £25,000 each from the cities of Liverpool, Sheffield and Nottingham.[30] Liverpool donated their share of the money they would have received for the game.[29] Within days donations had passed £1 million,[31] swelled by donations from individuals, schools and businesses.[38] Other fund raising activities included a Factory Records benefit concert and several fundraising football matches. Bradford City and Lincoln City, the teams involved in the Bradford City stadium fire, met for the first time since the 1985 disaster in a game which raised £25,000. When the appeal closed the following year, it had raised over £12 million.[39] Much of the money went to victims and relatives of those involved in the disaster and provided funds for a college course to improve the hospital phase of emergency care.[40]

Disaster appeal fund

During the final match of the 1988–89 English Football League season, contested on 26 May 1989 between Liverpool and second-place Arsenal F.C., the Arsenal players presented flowers to fans in different parts of Anfield in memory of those who had died in the Hillsborough disaster.[36][37]

At the 1989 FA Cup final between Liverpool and local rivals Everton, held just five weeks after the Hillsborough disaster, the players from both participating teams wore black armbands as a gesture of respect to the victims,[35] with a minute's silence also observed.

[34] wrongly suggesting that hooliganism was the cause of the disaster, which had occurred less than four years after the Heysel Stadium disaster. His remarks led to Liverpool F.C. calling for his resignation, but he apologised on discovering hooliganism was not the cause.[34]

The FA chief executive Graham Kelly, who had attended the match, said the FA would conduct an inquiry into what had happened. Speaking after the disaster, Kelly backed all-seater stadiums, saying "We must move fans away from the ritual of standing on terraces".[30] Standing on terraces and the use of perimeter fencing around the pitch, the use of CCTV, the timing of football matches and policing of sporting events were factors for a subsequent inquiry to consider.[33]

At Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral, a requiem mass attended by 3,000 people was held by the Catholic Archbishop of Liverpool Derek Worlock. The first lesson was read by Liverpool goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar. Liverpool players Ronnie Whelan, Steve Nicol and former manager Joe Fagan carried the communion bread and wine.[32] David Sheppard, the Anglican Bishop of Liverpool, on holiday on the Scottish island of Barra on the day of the disaster, was airlifted by RAF helicopter to attend.

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Home Secretary Douglas Hurd visited Hillsborough the day after the disaster and met survivors.[30] Anfield Stadium was opened on the Sunday to allow fans to pay tribute to the dead. Thousands of fans visited and the stadium filled with flowers, scarves and other tributes.[29] In the following days more than 200,000 people visited the "shrine" inside the stadium.[31]

Condolences flooded in from across the world, led by Juventus (fans of Liverpool and Juventus were involved in the Heysel Stadium disaster) amongst many others.[29]


BBC Television's cameras were at the ground to record the match for Match of the Day. As the disaster unfolded, the events were relayed live to the Saturday sports show, Grandstand.

Only 14 of the 96 fatally injured people arrived at hospital.[2]

As events unfolded, some police officers were still deployed making a cordon three-quarters of the way down the pitch to prevent Liverpool supporters reaching the opposing supporters. Some fans tried to break through the cordon to ferry injured fans to waiting ambulances but were forcibly turned back. 44 ambulances arrived, but police prevented all but one from entering the stadium.[28]

Those trapped were packed so tightly in the pens that many victims died of compressive asphyxia while standing. The crowd in the Leppings Lane Stand overspilled onto the pitch, where many injured and traumatised fans congregated who had climbed to safety. Police, stewards and members of the St John Ambulance service were overwhelmed. Many uninjured fans assisted the injured; several attempted CPR and others tore down advertising hoardings to use as stretchers.[2] Chief Superintendent John Nesbit of South Yorkshire Police later briefed Michael Shersby MP that leaving the rescue to the fans was a deliberate strategy, and is quoted as saying "We let the fans help so that they would not take out their frustration on the police" at a Police Federation conference.[27]

Liverpool fans desperately try to climb the fence onto the safety of the pitch while being stopped by the police.

For some time, problems at the front of the pen went unnoticed, except by those affected, as attention was absorbed by the match. At 3:06 pm the referee, Ray Lewis, on the advice of the police, stopped the match after fans climbed the fence in an effort to escape the crush and went onto the track. By this time, a small gate in the fence had been forced open and some fans escaped via this route, as others continued to climb over the fencing. The police attempted to stop fans from spilling onto the pitch. Other fans were pulled to safety by fans in the West Stand above the Leppings Lane terrace. The intensity of the crush broke the crush barriers on the terraces. Holes in the perimeter fencing were made by fans desperately attempting to rescue others.[2]

When the gates were opened, thousands of fans entered a narrow tunnel leading to the rear of the terrace into two overcrowded central pens (pens 3 and 4), creating pressure at the front. Hundreds of people were pressed against one another and the fencing by the weight of the crowd behind them. People entering were unaware of the problems at the fence; police or stewards usually stood at the entrance to the tunnel and, when the central pens reached capacity, directed fans to the side pens, but on this occasion, for reasons not fully explained, did not.[2] A BBC TV news report conjectured that if police had positioned two police horses correctly, they would have acted as breakwaters directing many fans into side pens, but on this occasion, it was not done.

The crush

The scene outside the ground as the disaster began

With an estimated 5,000 fans trying to enter through the turnstiles and increasing safety concerns, the police, to avoid fatalities outside the ground, opened a large exit gate (Gate C) that ordinarily permitted the free flow of supporters departing the stadium. Two further gates (A and B) were subsequently opened to relieve pressure. After an initial rush, thousands of supporters entered the stadium "steadily at a fast walk".[26]

A bottleneck developed with more fans arriving than could be safely filtered through the turnstiles before 3:00 pm. People presenting tickets at the wrong turnstiles and those who had been refused entry could not leave because of the crowd behind them but remained as an obstruction. Fans outside could hear cheering as the teams came on the pitch ten minutes before the match started, and as the match kicked off, but could not get in. A police constable radioed control asking the game to be delayed, as it had been two years before, to ensure the safe passage of supporters into the ground. The request was received but declined.[25]

Three chartered trains transported Liverpool supporters to Sheffield for a match fixture in 1988, but only one such train ran in 1989.[23] Many supporters wished to enjoy the day and were in no hurry to enter the stadium too early. Some supporters were delayed by roadworks while crossing the Pennines on the M62 motorway which resulted in minor traffic congestion. Between 2:30 pm and 2:40 pm, there was a build-up of supporters outside the turnstiles facing Leppings Lane, eager to enter the stadium before the game began.[24]

As is common at domestic matches in England, opposing supporters were segregated. Nottingham Forest supporters were allocated the South and East ends (Spion Kop) with a combined capacity of 29,800, reached by 60 turnstiles spaced along two sides of the ground. Liverpool supporters were allocated the North and West ends (Leppings Lane), holding 24,256 fans, reached by 23 turnstiles from a narrow concourse. 10 turnstiles (numbered 1 to 10) provided access to 9,700 seats in the North Stand; a further 6 turnstiles (numbered 11 to 16) provided access to 4,456 seats in the upper tier of the West Stand. Finally, 7 turnstiles (numbered A to G) provided access to 10,100 standing places in the lower tier of the West Stand. Although Liverpool had more supporters, Nottingham Forest was allocated the larger area, to avoid the approach routes of rival fans crossing. As a result of the stadium layout and segregation policy, turnstiles that would normally have been used to enter the North Stand from the east were off-limits and all Liverpool supporters had to converge on a single entrance at Leppings Lane. On match day, radio and television advised fans without tickets not to attend.[22]


The disaster

Liverpool and Nottingham Forest met in the semi-final at Hillsborough in 1988, and fans reported crushing at the Leppings Lane end. Liverpool lodged a complaint before the match in 1989. One supporter wrote to the Football Association and Minister for Sport complaining, "The whole area was packed solid to the point where it was impossible to move and where I, and others around me, felt considerable concern for personal safety".[20] After changes to the ground's layout in 1981, its safety certificate became invalid and was not renewed. At the time of the disaster, the ground had no safety certificate.[21]

Serious overcrowding was observed at the 1987 quarter-final between Sheffield Wednesday and Coventry City[18] and again during the semi-final between Coventry City and Leeds United at Hillsborough.[19] A Leeds fan described disorganisation at the turnstiles and no steward or police direction inside the stadium, resulting in the crowd in one enclosure becoming so compressed he was at times unable to raise and clap his hands. Other accounts told of fans having to be pulled to safety from above.

Hillsborough was a regular venue for FA Cup semi-finals in the 1980s, hosting five matches. A crush occurred at the Leppings Lane end of the ground during the 1981 semi-final between Tottenham Hotspur and Wolverhampton Wanderers after hundreds more spectators were permitted to enter the terrace than could safely be accommodated, resulting in 38 injuries, including broken arms, legs and ribs.[15] Police believed there had been a real chance of fatalities had swift action not been taken, and recommended the club reduce its capacity. In a post-match briefing to discuss the incident, Sheffield Wednesday chairman Bert McGee remarked: "Bollocks—no one would have been killed".[16][17] This incident prompted Sheffield Wednesday to alter the layout at the Leppings Lane end, dividing the terrace into three separate pens to restrict sideways movement. The terrace was divided into five pens when the club was promoted to the First Division in 1984, and a crush barrier near the access tunnel was removed in 1986 to improve the flow of fans entering and exiting the central enclosure. Its capacity remained unaltered and the safety certificate was not updated. After the crush in 1981, Hillsborough was not chosen to host an FA Cup semi-final for six years until 1987.

Previous incidents

Risks associated with confining fans in pens were highlighted by the Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety at Sports Grounds (the Popplewell inquiry) after the Bradford City stadium fire in May 1985. It made recommendations on the safety of crowds penned within fences,[13] including that "all exit gates should be manned at all times ... and capable of being opened immediately from the inside by anyone in an emergency".[14]

A report by Eastwood & Partners for a safety certificate for the stadium in 1978 concluded that although it failed to meet the recommendations of the Green Guide, a guide to safety at sports grounds, the consequences were minor. It emphasised the general situation at Hillsborough was satisfactory compared with most grounds.[6]:67

At the time of the disaster, most British football stadiums had high steel fencing between the spectators and the playing field in response to both friendly and hostile pitch invasions. Hooliganism had affected the sport for some years, and was particularly virulent in England.[11] From 1974, when these security standards were put in place, crushes occurred in several English stadiums.[12]

Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, the home of Sheffield Wednesday, was selected by the Football Association (FA) as a neutral venue to host the 1988–89 FA Cup semi-final between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest football clubs. Kick-off was scheduled for 3:00 pm on 15 April, and fans were advised to take up positions fifteen minutes beforehand.

The venue

The Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield

Before the disaster


  • Before the disaster 1
    • The venue 1.1
    • Previous incidents 1.2
  • The disaster 2
    • Build-up 2.1
    • The crush 2.2
    • Reactions 2.3
    • Disaster appeal fund 2.4
    • Effect on survivors 2.5
  • Victims 3
    • Ages 3.1
    • Home locations 3.2
  • The Taylor Inquiry 4
    • Police control 4.1
    • Aggravating factors 4.2
    • Police evasion 4.3
    • Effect on stadia in Britain 4.4
  • Stuart-Smith scrutiny 5
  • Hillsborough Independent Panel 6
    • History of the panel 6.1
    • Findings 6.2
    • Effects 6.3
  • Memorials 7
    • Permanent memorials 7.1
    • Memorial ceremonies 7.2
    • Tenth anniversary 7.3
    • Twentieth anniversary 7.4
    • Tributes from other clubs 7.5
  • Charges against officials 8
    • Inquests 8.1
    • Prosecution 8.2
    • Psychiatric injury and other litigation 8.3
  • Controversies 9
    • The Sun 9.1
    • Edward Pearce 9.2
    • FHM 9.3
    • EastEnders 9.4
    • Charles Itandje 9.5
    • Jeremy Hunt 9.6
    • Fans' chants 9.7
    • Oliver Popplewell 9.8
    • David Crompton 9.9
    • Civil servant 9.10
  • Dramatisations and documentaries 10
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13

In September 2012, the Hillsborough Independent Panel concluded that up to 41 of the 96 fatalities might have been avoided had they received prompt medical treatment.[9] The report revealed "multiple failures" by other emergency services and public bodies that contributed to the death toll. In response to the panel's report, the Attorney General for England and Wales, Dominic Grieve MP, confirmed he would consider all the new evidence to evaluate whether the original inquest verdicts of accidental death could be overturned.[10] On 19 December 2012, a new inquest was granted in the High Court.


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