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History of organic farming

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History of organic farming

Traditional farming (of many particular kinds in different eras and places) was the original type of fertilizers and pesticides. The history of this modern revival of organic farming dates back to the first half of the 20th century at a time when there was a growing reliance on these new synthetic, inorganic methods.

Contents

  • Pre-World War II 1
  • Post-World War II 2
  • Twenty-first century 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Pre-World War II

The first 40 years of the 20th century saw simultaneous advances in biochemistry and engineering that rapidly and profoundly changed farming. The introduction of the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine ushered in the era of the tractor and made possible hundreds of mechanized farm implements. Research in plant breeding led to the commercialization of hybrid seed. And a new manufacturing process made nitrogen fertilizer — first synthesized in the mid-19th century[2] — affordably abundant. These factors changed the labor equation: there were almost no tractors in the US around 1910, but over 3,000,000 by 1950; in 1900, it took one farmer to feed 2.5 people, but currently the ratio is 1 to well over 100. Fields grew bigger and cropping more specialized to make more efficient use of machinery. The reduced need for manual labour and animal labour that machinery, herbicides, and fertilizers made possible created an era in which the mechanization of agriculture evolved rapidly.

Consciously organic agriculture (as opposed to traditional agricultural methods from before the inorganic options existed, which always employed only organic means) began more or less simultaneously in Central Europe and India. The British botanist Gabrielle, herself a plant physiologist, worked as agricultural advisers in Pusa, Bengal, where they documented traditional Indian farming practices and came to regard them as superior to their conventional agriculture science. Their research and further development of these methods is recorded in his writings, notably, his 1940 book, An Agricultural Testament, which influenced many scientists and farmers of the day.

In Germany, Kobierzyce now in Poland) in 1924.[3] Steiner emphasized the farmer's role in guiding and balancing the interaction of the animals, plants and soil. Healthy animals depended upon healthy plants (for their food), healthy plants upon healthy soil, healthy soil upon healthy animals (for the manure).[4][5][6][7] His system was based on his philosophy of anthroposophy rather than a good understanding of science.[4]:17-19 To develop his system of farming, Steiner established an international research group called the Agricultural Experimental Circle of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners of the General Anthroposophical Society.[8]

In 1909, American agronomist

  1. ^ Douglas John McConnell (2003). The Forest Farms of Kandy: And Other Gardens of Complete Design. p. 1.  
  2. ^ Trevor Illtyd Williams; Thomas Kingston Derry (1982). A short history of twentieth-century technology c. 1900-c. 1950. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–135.  
  3. ^ Paull John (2011). "Attending the First Organic Agriculture Course: Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course at Koberwitz, 1924" (PDF). European Journal of Social Sciences 21 (1): 64–70. 
  4. ^ a b Holger Kirchmann; Gudni Thorvaldsson; Lars Bergström; Martin Gerzabek; Olof Andrén; Lars-Olov Eriksson; Mikael Winninge (2008). Holger Kirchmann and Lars Bergström, ed. Organic Crop Production – Ambitions and Limitations. Berlin: Springer. pp. 13–37. Organic agriculture can be traced back to the early 20th century, initiated by the Austrian spiritual philosopher Rudolf Steiner. 
  5. ^ Lotter, D.W. (2003) Organic agriculture. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 21(4)
  6. ^ Biodynamics is listed as a "modern organic agriculture" system in: Minou Yussefi and Helga Willer (Eds.), The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Future Prospects, 2003, p. 57
  7. ^ Biodynamic agriculture is "a type of organic system". Charles Francis and J. van Wart (2009), "History of Organic Farming and Certification", in Organic farming: the ecological system. American Society of Agronomy. pp. 3-18
  8. ^ Paull, John (2013) A history of the organic agriculture movement in Australia. In: Bruno Mascitelli, and Antonio Lobo (Eds.) Organics in the Global Food Chain. Connor Court Publishing, Ballarat, ch.3, pp.37-61.
  9. ^ J. Paull (2006). "Permanent Agriculture: Precursor to Organic Farming". Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania. pp. J. Paull (83) 19–21. 
  10. ^ Paull, John (2011). "The making of an agricultural classic: Farmers of Forty Centuries or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan, 1911-2011". Agricultural Sciences. pp. 2(3): 175–180. 
  11. ^ Paull, John (2014) Lord Northbourne, the man who invented organic farming, a biography Journal of Organic Systems, 9 (1), pp. 31-53.
  12. ^ Paull, John (2006). The Farm as Organism: The Foundational Idea of Organic Agriculture. Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania (80), pp. 14-18.
  13. ^ Gordon, Ian (2004). Reproductive Technologies in Farm Animals. CABI. pp. 10–.  
  14. ^ Paull, John (2007). "Rachel Carson, A Voice for Organics - the First Hundred Years". Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania. pp. (86) 37–41. 
  15. ^ Musick, Mark. "WA Tilth Association History". Washington Tilth. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  16. ^ 65 FR 80548 (December 21, 2000)

References

See also


Agribusiness is also changing the rules of the organic market. The rise of organic farming was driven by small, independent producers and by consumers. In recent years, explosive organic market growth has encouraged the participation of agribusiness interests. As the volume and variety of "organic" products increases, the viability of the small-scale organic farm is at risk, and the meaning of organic farming as an agricultural method is ever more easily confused with the related but separate areas of organic food and organic certification.

Throughout this history, the focus of agricultural research and the majority of publicized scientific findings has been on chemical, not organic, farming. This emphasis has continued to biotechnologies like genetic engineering. One recent survey of the UK's leading government funding agency for bioscience research and training indicated 26 GM crop projects, and only one related to organic agriculture. This imbalance is largely driven by agribusiness in general, which, through research funding and government lobbying, continues to have a predominating effect on agriculture-related science and policy.

Twenty-first century

Since the early 1990s, the retail market for organic farming in developed economies has been growing by about 20% annually due to increasing consumer demand. Concern for the quality and safety of food, and the potential for environmental damage from conventional agriculture, are apparently responsible for this trend.

In organopónicos.

In the 1980s, around the world, farming and consumer groups began seriously pressuring for government regulation of organic production. This led to legislation and certification standards being enacted through the 1990s and to date. In the United States, the Federal Register in 2000[16]

In the U.S. during the 1970s and 1980s, [15]

In 1975, Fukuoka released his book, The One-Straw Revolution, with a strong impact in certain areas of the agricultural world. His approach to small-scale grain production emphasized a meticulous balance of the local farming ecosystem, and a minimum of human interference and labor.

In 1972, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) was founded in Versailles, France and dedicated to the diffusion and exchange of information on the principles and practices of organic agriculture of all schools and across national and linguistic boundaries.

In the 1970s, global movements concerned with pollution and the environment increased their focus on organic farming. As the distinction between organic and conventional food became clearer, one goal of the locally grown food, which was promoted through slogans like "Know Your Farmer, Know Your Food".

In 1962, Rachel Carson, a prominent scientist and naturalist, published Silent Spring, chronicling the effects of DDT and other pesticides on the environment.[14] A bestseller in many countries, including the US, and widely read around the world, Silent Spring is widely considered as being a key factor in the US government's 1972 banning of DDT. The book and its author are often credited with launching the worldwide environmental movement.

During the 1950s, sustainable agriculture was a topic of scientific interest, but research tended to concentrate on developing the new chemical approaches. One of the reasons for this, which informed and guided the ongoing Green Revolution, was the widespread belief that high organic gardening.

In 1944, an international campaign called the Green Revolution was launched in Mexico with private funding from the US. It encouraged the development of hybrid plants, chemical controls, large-scale irrigation, and heavy mechanization in agriculture around the world.

At the same time, increasingly powerful and sophisticated farm machinery allowed a single farmer to work larger areas of land and fields grew bigger.

Technological advances during World War II accelerated post-war innovation in all aspects of agriculture, resulting in large advances in mechanization (including large-scale irrigation), fertilization, and pesticides. In particular, two chemicals that had been produced in quantity for warfare, were repurposed for peace-time agricultural uses. Ammonium nitrate, used in munitions, became an abundantly cheap source of nitrogen. And a range of new pesticides appeared: DDT, which had been used to control disease-carrying insects around troops, became a general insecticide, launching the era of widespread pesticide use.

Post-World War II

In Japan, natural farming (自然農法 shizen nōhō), nature farming, 'do–nothing' farming or Fukuoka farming.

In 1939 Soil Association.

The term organic farming was coined by [12]

[10]

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