World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0003270420
Reproduction Date:

Title: Idem  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rangga Warsita, Idempotence, Isaac Noah Mannheimer, Bibliography, History of Frankfurt am Main
Collection: Abbreviations, Bibliography, Latin Legal Terms, Latin Words and Phrases
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Id. (masculine and neuter) and ead. (feminine) (Latin, short for idem and eadem, "the same") denote the previously cited source (compare ibid.). Id. is particularly used in legal citations. They are also used in academic citations replacing the name of a repeated author. Id. is used extensively in Canadian legislation to apply a short description to a section with the same focus as the previous. Id. is an abbreviation where the last two letters of the word are not present; thus, it always takes a period (or full stop) in both British and American usage.

Legal example

  • United States v. Martinez-Fuerte, 428 U.S. 543, 545 (1976).
  • Id. at 547.

Here, the first citation refers to the case of United States v. Martinez-Fuerte. The volume number cited is 428 and the page on which the case begins is 543, and the page number cited to is 545. The "U.S." between the numerical portions of the citation refers to the United States Reports. 1976 refers to the year that the case was published. The second citation references the first citation and automatically incorporates the same reporter and volume number; however, the page number cited is now 547. Id. refers to the immediately preceding citation, so if the previous citation includes more than one reference, or it is unclear which reference Id. refers to, its usage is inappropriate.

Academic example

  • Macgillivray, J. A. Minotaur: Sir Arthur Evans and the Archaeology of the Minoan Myth. New York: Hill & Wang, 2000.
  • Id. Astral Labyrinth: Archaeology of the Greek Sky. Sutton Pub, 2003.

In this example, Id in the second citation indicates that the author is identical to that of the previous citation. That is, the author of the second citation is also Macgillivray, J. A.

See also

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.