World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Illuyanka

Article Id: WHEBN0001639519
Reproduction Date:

Title: Illuyanka  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Sarruma, Hittite mythology, Hattian deities, Hebat, Hattian topics
Collection: Dragons, Hattian Deities, Hittite Mythology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Illuyanka

The Sky God kills the dragon Illuyanka. Behind him his son Sarruma

The twisting body of the snake is depicted in undulating lines with human figures sliding along
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey

In Hittite mythology, Illuyanka was a serpentine dragon slain by Tarhunt (dIM), the Hittite incarnation of the Hurrian god of sky and storm. It is known from Hittite cuneiform tablets found at Çorum-Boğazköy, the former Hittite capital Hattusa. The context is a ritual of the Hattian spring festival of Puruli.

The myth is found in Catalogue des Textes Hittites 321, which gives two consecutive versions.

Contents

  • Name 1
  • Narrative 2
  • Interpretation 3
  • Manuscripts 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Name

See also Etymology of eel. Illuyanka is probably a compound, consisting of two words for "snake", Proto-Indo-European *h₁illu- and *h₂eng(w)eh₂-. The same compound members, inverted, appear in Latin anguilla "eel". The *h₁illu- word is cognate to English eel, the anka- word to Sanskrit ahi. Also this dragon is known as Illujanka and Illuyankas.

Narrative

In the first version, the two gods fight and Illuyanka wins. Teshub then goes to the Hattian goddess Inaras for advice. Having promised her love to a mortal named Hupasiyas in return for his help, she devises a trap for the dragon. She goes to him with large quantities of food and drink, and entices him to drink his fill. Once drunk, the dragon is bound by Hupasiyas with a rope. Then the Sky God Teshub appears with the other gods and kills the dragon.

In the second version, after the two gods fight and Teshub loses, Illuyanka takes Teshub's eyes and heart. To avenge himself upon the dragon, the Sky God Teshub marries the goddess Hebat, daughter of a mortal, named Arm. They have a son, Sarruma, who grows up and marries the daughter of the dragon Illuyanka. The Sky God Teshub tells his son to ask for the return of Teshub's eyes and heart as a wedding gift, and he does so. His eyes and heart restored, Teshub goes to face the dragon Illuyanka once more. At the point of vanquishing the dragon, Sarruma finds out about the battle and realizes that he had been used for this purpose. He demands that his father take his life along with Illuyanka's, and so Teshub kills them both with thundery rain and lightning. This version is illustrated on a relief which was discovered at Malatya (dating from 1050-850 BC) and is on display in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey.

Interpretation

The Hittite texts were introduced in 1930 by W. Porzig, who first made the comparison of Teshub's battle with Illuyankas with the sky-god Zeus' battle with serpent-like Typhon, told in Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke (I.6.3); the Hittite-Greek parallels found few adherents at the time, the Hittite myth of the castration of the god of heaven by Kumarbi, with its clearer parallels to Greek myth, not having yet been deciphered and edited.

Manuscripts

Catalogue des Textes Hittites 321 consists of the following tablets (Beckman 1982, p. 12):

  • A. KBo III 7
  • B. KUB XVII 5
  • C. KUB XVII 6
  • D. KUB XII 66
  • E. KUB XXXVI 54
  • F. KBo XII 83
  • G. KBo XII 84, XIII 84
  • H. KBo XXII 99
  • J. KUB XXXVI 53

None of the individual versions is complete. Text A is the most complete, including 30 out of 36 paragraphs.

See also

References

  • Beckman, Gary. "The Anatolian Myth of Illuyanka," Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 14 (1982), pp. 11–25.[1]
  • J. Katz, "How to be a Dragon in Indo-European: Hittite illuyankas and its Linguistic and Cultural Congeners in Latin, Greek, and Germanic", in: Mír Curad. Studies in Honor of Calvert Watkins, ed. Jasanoff, Melchert, Oliver, Innsbruck 1998, 317–334.
  • Porzig, W. "Illuyankas und Typhon", Kleinasiatische Forschung I.3 (1930) pp379–86.
  • Translation of Illuyanka myth
  • History of the Ancient Hittites: Hittite Gods
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.