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India–Russia relations

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India–Russia relations

India-Russia relations
Map indicating locations of India and Russia

India

Russia
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2014.

Indo-Russian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation. During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Union (USSR) enjoyed a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic relationship. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia inherited the close relationship with India, even as India improved its relations with the West after the end of the Cold War.

Traditionally, the Indo-Russian strategic partnership has been built on five major components: politics, defence, civil nuclear energy, anti-terrorism co-operation and space.[1] These five major components were highlighted in a speech given by former Indian Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai in Russia.[1] However, in recent years a sixth component, economic, has grown in importance with both countries setting a target for US$30 billion in bilateral trade by 2025.[2][3][4] In order to facilitate this target both countries are looking to develop a free trade agreement.[5][6][7] Bilateral trade between both countries in 2012 grew by over 24%.[7]

The powerful IRIGC is the main body that conducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries.[8] Both countries are members of many international bodies where they jointly collaborate closely on matters of shared national interest. Important examples include the SCO where India has observer status and has been asked by Russia to become a full member.[9] Russia has stated publicly that it supports India receiving a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[10] In addition, Russia has expressed interest in joining SAARC with observer status in which India is a founding member.[11][12]

India is the second largest market for the Russian defence industry. In 2004, more than 70% of the Indian Military's hardware came from Russia, making Russia the chief supplier of defence equipment.[13] India has an embassy in Moscow and two consulates-general (in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok). Russia has an embassy in New Delhi and four consulates-general (in Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai).

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 45% of Russians view India positively, with only 9% expressing a negative view.[14]

Soviet Union and India

A cordial relationship with India that began in the 1950s represented the most successful of the Soviet attempts to foster closer relations with Third World countries. The relationship began with a visit by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to the Soviet Union in June 1955 and Khrushchev's return trip to India in the fall of 1955. While in India, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union supported Indian sovereignty over the disputed territory of the Kashmir region and over Portuguese coastal enclaves, e.g. Goa.

Soviet Stamp celebrating Indo-Soviet friendship & Cooperation

The Soviet Union's strong relations with India had a negative impact upon both Soviet relations with the People's Republic of China, including Indian relations with the PRC, during the Khrushchev period. The Soviet Union declared its neutrality during the 1959 border dispute and the Sino-Indian war of October 1962, although the Chinese strongly objected. The Soviet Union gave India substantial economic and military assistance during the Khrushchev period, and by 1960 India had received more Soviet assistance than China had.[15] This disparity became another point of contention in Sino-Soviet relations. In 1962 the Soviet Union agreed to transfer technology to co-produce the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 jet fighter in India, which the Soviet Union had earlier denied to China.[15][16]

In 1965 the Soviet Union served successfully as peace broker between India and Pakistan after an Indian-Pakistani border war. The Soviet Chairman of the Council of Ministers, literally Premier of the Soviet Union, Alexei Kosygin, met with representatives of India and Pakistan and helped them negotiate an end to the military conflict over Kashmir.

In 1971 the former East Pakistan region initiated an effort to secede from its political union with West Pakistan. India supported the secession and, as a guarantee against possible Chinese entrance into the conflict on the side of West Pakistan, it signed with the Soviet Union, the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in August 1971. In December, India entered the conflict and ensured the victory of the secessionists and the establishment of the new state of Bangladesh.

Relations between the Soviet Union and India did not suffer much during the rightist Janata Party's coalition government in the late 1970s, although India did move to establish better economic and military relations with Western countries. To counter these efforts by India to diversify its relations, the Soviet Union proffered additional weaponry and economic assistance.

During the 1980s, despite the 1984 assassination by separatists of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the mainstay of cordial Indian-Soviet relations, India maintained a close relationship with the Soviet Union. Indicating the high priority of relations with the Soviet Union in Indian foreign policy, the new Indian prime minister, Rajiv Gandhi, visited the Soviet Union on his first state visit abroad in May 1985 and signed two long-term economic agreements with the Soviet Union. In turn, Gorbachev's first visit to a Third World state was his meeting with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in New Delhi in late 1986. Mikhail Gorbachev unsuccessfully urged Gandhi to help the Soviet Union set up an Asian collective security system. Gorbachev's advocacy of this proposal, which had also been made by Leonid Brezhnev, was an indication of continuing Soviet interest in using close relations with India as a means of containing China. With the improvement of Sino-Soviet relations in the late 1980s, containing China had less of a priority, but close relations with India remained important as an example of Gorbachev's new Third World policy.

Russia and India

Political relations

Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Russia's president Vladimir Putin in October 2000.
Both countries are members of the BRICS.

The first major political initiative, since the collapse of the Soviet Union, between India and Russia began with the Strategic Partnership signed between the two countries in 2000. President SCO where India has observer status and has been asked by Russia to become a full member.[9] Russia also strongly supports India receiving a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council.[10] In addition, Russia has vocally backed India joining the NSG[22] and APEC.[23] Moreover, it has also expressed interest in joining SAARC with observer status in which India is a founding member.[12][24]

Russia currently is one of only two countries in the world (the other being Japan) that has a mechanism for annual ministerial-level defence reviews with India.[1] The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC) is one of the largest and most comprehensive governmental mechanisms that India has had with any country internationally. Almost every department from the Government of India attends it.[1]

IRIGC

Meeting of IRIGC in New Delhi, India December 2012

The Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission (IRIGC) is the main body that conducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries.[8] Some have described it as the steering committee of Indo-Russia relations.[8] It is divided into two parts, the first covering Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Co-operation. This is normally co-chaired by the Russian Deputy Prime Minister and the Indian External Affairs Minister. The second part of the commission covers Military Technical Co-operation this is co-chaired by the two countries respective Defence Ministers. Both parts of IRIGC meet annually.[8]

In addition, to the IRIGC there are other bodies that conduct economic relations between the two countries. These include, the Indo-Russian Forum on Trade and Investment, the India-Russia Business Council, the India-Russia Trade, Investment and Technology Promotion Council and the India-Russia Chamber of Commerce.[25]

Military relationship

Vladimir Putin in India during the signing of the Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia in October 2000

Defence relations between India and the Russian Federation have a historical perspective. The Soviet Union was an important supplier of defence equipment for several decades, and that relationship was inherited by Russia after the break-up of the Soviet Union. In 1997, Russian and India signed a ten-year agreement for further military-technical cooperation. That agreement encompassed a wide range of activities, including the purchase of completed weaponry, joint development and production, and joint marketing of armaments and military technologies.[26]

Today, the co-operation is not limited to a buyer-seller relationship but includes joint research and development, training, service to service contacts, including joint exercises. The last joint naval exercises took place in April 2007 in the Sea of Japan and joint airborne exercises were held in September 2007 in Russia.

An Inter-Governmental commission on military-technical co-operation is co-chaired by the defence ministers of the two countries. The seventh session of this Inter-Governmental Commission was held in October 2007 in Moscow. During the visit, an agreement on joint development and production of prospective multi-role fighters was signed between the two countries.

An India–Russia co-operation agreement was signed in December 1988. It has resulted in the sale of a multitude of defence equipment to India and also the emergence of the countries as development partners as opposed to purely a buyer-seller relationship. Two programmes that evidence this approach are the projects to form Indian-Russian joint ventures to develop and produce the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) and the Multirole Transport Aircraft (MTA). The agreement is pending a 10-year extension.[27]

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI was jointly built by Russia and India
The jointly built FGFA will be based on the Sukhoi PAK FA

India and Russia have several major joint military programmes including:

Additionally, India has purchased/leased various military hardware from Russia:

Both countries signed a defence deal worth $2.9 billion during President Putin's visit to India in December 2012. The 42 new Sukhois, to be produced under licence by defence PSU Hindustan Aeronautics, will add to the 230 Sukhois earlier contracted from Russia. Overall, the price tag for the 272 Sukhois - three of the over 170 inducted till now have crashed - stands at over $12 billion. The medium-lift Mi-17 V5 helicopters (59 for IAF and 12 for home ministry/BSF) will add to the 80 such choppers already being inducted under a $1.34 billion deal inked in 2008. The value of India's defence projects with Russia will further zoom north after the imminent inking of the final design contract for the joint development of a futuristic stealth fifth-generation fighter. This R&D contract is itself pegged at US$11 billion, to be shared equally by the two countries. So if India inducts over 200 of these 5th Gen fighters, as it hopes to do from 2022 onwards, the overall cost of this gigantic project for India will come to around US$35 billion since each of the jets will come for upwards of US$100 million at least.[20]

Joint Military Exercises

INDRA
The Indian and Russian navies exercising during Indra 2007
Mi-35 helicopters were some of the aircraft that took part in Avia-Indra

INDRA is a joint, bi-annual military exercise conducted by India and Russia starting in 2003. The exercise is tasked with boosting coperation and interoperability between the Russian and Indian navies. The word INDRA is a portmanteau of the participants' respective countries.[28]

The exercise involves live firing drills, as well as air defence and anti submarine operations. Additionally, counterpiracy, terrorism and drug smuggling operations are carried out.[29]

Avia-Indra

Avia-Indra is annual military exercise conducted by the Air forces of India and Russia that is held in two parts. In 2014 the first part of the exercise was held in the Astrakhan region, close to the Caspian Sea in Russia and the second part was held in Halwara, Punjab in India.[30][31] The objective of the exercise is to improve operational interoperability between the respective Air forces and training.[32][33] Aircraft involved in the exercise included Su-30MKIs, Su-30SMs, MiG-21s, Mi-17 & Mi-35 helicopters.[34][35]

Economic relations

Indian and Russian diplomats holding talks at Hyderabad House in New Delhi
The Moscow, Russia
Prime Minister Modi and President Putin at the World Diamond Conference in New Delhi in 2014
Russian exports to India in 2012
Indian exports to Russia in 2012
Russian exports to India from 1995 to 2012
Indian exports to Russia from 1995 to 2012

Bilateral trade between both countries is concentrated in key value chain sectors. These sectors include highly diversified segments such as machinery, electronics, aerospace, automobile, commercial shipping, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fertilisers, apparels, precious stones, industrial metals, petroleum products, coal, high-end tea and coffee products.[36] Bilateral trade in 2002 stood at $1.5 billion[37] and increased by over 7 times to $11 billion in 2012[38] and with both governments setting a bilateral trade target of $30 billion by 2025.[3][4][36] Bilaterial bodies that conduct economic relations between the two countries include IRIGC, the Indo-Russian Forum on Trade and Investment, the India-Russia Business Council, the India-Russia Trade, Investment and Technology Promotion Council, the India-Russia CEOs' Council and the India-Russia Chamber of Commerce.[36][39]

Both Governments have jointly developed an economic strategy that involves using a number of economic components to increase future bilateral trade. These include development of an FTA between India & the EEU, a bilateral treaty on the promotion and protection of investments, a new economic planning mechanism built into IRIGC, simplication of customs procedures, new long term agreements in the expansion of energy trade including nuclear, oil and gas.[40][41] Finally, long term supplier contracts in key sectors such as oil, gas and rough diamonds. Companies such as Rosneft, Gazprom, Essar & Alrosa will act as long term suppliers respectively.[42]

Russia has stated it will co-operate with India on its "Make in India" initiative by engagement in the development of "Smart Cites", the DMIC, the aerospace sector, the commercial nuclear sector and enhancement in manufacturing of Russian military products through co-development and co-production.[3][43][44][45] Russia agreed to participate in the vast, over $100 billion, DMIC infrastructure project which will eventually connect Delhi and Mumbai with railways, highways, ports, interconnecting smart cities and industrial parks.[3] Russian President Vladimir Putin stated in an interview that one of his government’s priorities was of building a smart city in India, "a smart city on the basis of Russian technologies."[46] AFK Sistema will likely be the primary Russian company involved in the project due to its previous experience in smart city projects in Ufa, Kazan and Rostov.[47]

Both countries have also agreed to work together in the aerospace sector to co-development and co-produce aircraft, examples include the Sukhoi Superjet 100, MS-21, FGFA, MTA and Kamov Ka-226.[44] Some of the co-developed aircraft will be jointly commercially exported to third countries and foreign markets e.g. FGFA and Kamov Ka-226. President of Russia's UAC Mikhail Pogosyan stated in an interview, "We are planning to sell in India about 100 passenger aircraft by 2030, which will account for 10 percent of the Indian market of airliners in the segment" and further stated, "The unprecedented scope of Russian-Indian cooperation in military aviation has created a scientific and engineering basis for undertaking joint projects in civil aviation."[44]

India is currently the world's largest cutting & polishing centre for diamonds. Both countries have agreed to streamline their bilateral trade in diamonds through reductions in regulations and tariffs. Indian Prime Minister Modi stated in an interview, "I made three proposals to president Putin. First, I would like Alrosa to have direct long-term contracts with more Indian companies. I am pleased to know that they are moving in this direction. Second, I want Alrosa and others to trade directly on our diamond bourse. We have decided to create a Special Notified Zone where mining companies can trade diamonds on consignment basis and re-export unsold ones. Third, I asked to reform regulation so that Russia can send rough diamonds to India and reimport polished diamonds without extra duties".[48][49] Analysts predict through streamlined procedures and initiatives bilateral trade in this area will significantly increase.[45]

Russia has agreed to build more than 20 nuclear reactors over the next 20 year.[43][50] Russian president stated in an interview, "It contains plans to build over 20 nuclear power units in India, as well as cooperation in building Russia-designed nuclear power stations in third countries, in the joint extraction of natural uranium, production of nuclear fuel and waste elimination."[43] In 2012 Gazprom Group and India's GAIL agreed to LNG shipments to India of 2.5 million tons a year for the period of 20 years. LNG shipments for this contract are expected to begin anytime between 2017-21.[51] Indian oil companies have invested in the Russia's oil sector a notable example is ONGC-Videsh which has invested over $8 billion with major stakes in oil fields such Sakhalin-1.[52] In joint statement released by both governments they stated, "It is expected that Indian companies will strongly participate in projects related to new oil and gas fields in the territory of the Russian Federation. The sides will study the possibilities of building a hydrocarbon pipeline system, connecting the Russian Federation with India."[3]

Officials from both countries have discussed how to increase co-operation between their countries respective IT industries. Russian Minister of Communication Nikolai Nikiforov stated in an interview, "The development of IT products and software has traditionally been a strong point of India. We welcome possible joint projects in the field and closer contacts between Russian and Indian companies."[53]

Due to India simplifying recent visa rule changes for Russians travelling to India, the number of tourists increased by over 22%.[54] In 2011 the Indian consulates in Moscow, Vladivostok and St. Petersburg issued 160,000 visas, an increase of over 50% compared to 2010.[54]

Free trade agreement (FTA)

Both Indian and Russian governments have long viewed bilateral trade well below its optimal potential and the only long term way of rectifying this is by being through a Free trade agreement (FTA).[55][56] Both governments have set up a joint working group (JWG) to negotiate the specifications of an agreement, a final agreement would be signed between India and Eurasian Customs Union of which Russia is a part of (also including Kazakhstan & Belarus).[57] Thereby, the Indo-Russian FTA would result in a much bigger free trade agreement including India, Russia, Kazakhstan & Belarus.[55] It is predicted once an FTA is in place bilateral trade will increase manifold, thereby significantly increasing the importance of economics in bilateral ties.[55][58][59]

The table below shows the recent Indo-Russian bilateral trade performance:

Indo-Russian trade (2009–12)
Year Trade Volume (Billion $) Annual Change
2009 $7.46[7]
2010 $8.53[7] +14.34%
2011 $8.87[7] +3.98%
2012 $11.04[7] +24.50%

Co-operation in the Energy sector

Energy sector is an important area in Indo-Russian bilateral relations. In 2001, ONGC-Videsh acquired 20% stake in the Sakhalin-I oil and gas project in the Russian Federation, and has invested about US $1.7 billion in the project. The Russian company Gazprom and Gas Authority of India. have collaborated in joint development of a block in the Bay of Bengal. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project with two units of 1000 MW each is a good example of Indo-Russian nuclear energy co-operation. Both sides have expressed interest in expanding co-operation in the energy sector.

In December 2008, Russia and India signed an agreement to build civilian nuclear reactors in India during a visit by the Russian president to New Delhi.[60]

Space Co-operation

India and Russia have both signed agreements for the cooperation and use of GLONASS
India's first Satellite Aryabhata was launched into space with the cooperation of the Soviet Union

Historically, there has been a long history of cooperation between the Soviet Union and India in Space. Examples include Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA) and has a projected cost of 4.25 billion (US$90 million). The mission, proposed to be launched in 2017 by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) launch vehicle, includes a lunar orbiter and a rover made in India as well as one lander built by Russia.

Science and Technology

The ongoing collaboration in the field of science & technology, under the Integrated Long-Term Programme of Co-operation (ILTP) is the largest co-operation programme in this sphere for both India and Russia. ILTP is coordinated by the Department of Science and Technology from the Indian side and by the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Ministry of Industry & Science and Technology from the Russian side. Development of SARAS Duet aircraft, semiconductor products, super computers, poly-vaccines, laser science and technology, seismology, high-purity materials, software & IT and Ayurveda have been some of the priority areas of co-operation under the ILTP. Under this programme, eight joint Indo-Russian centres have been established to focus on joint research and development work. Two other Joint Centres on Non-ferrous Metals and Accelerators and Lasers are being set up in India. A Joint Technology Centre based in Moscow to bring cutting edge technologies to the market is also under processing. An ILTP Joint Council met in Moscow on 11–12 October 2007 to review co-operation and give it further direction. In August 2007, an MoU was signed between Department of Science and Technology and Russian Foundation of Basic Research, Moscow to pursue scientific co-operation.

North-South Transport Corridor

North South Transport Corridor route via India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia

The North–South Transport Corridor is the ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road.[63] The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali and etc.[64] Dry runs of two routes were conducted in 2014, the first was Mumbai to Baku via Bandar Abbas and the second was Mumbai to Astrakhan via Bandar Abbas, Tehran and Bandar Anzali. The objective of the study was to identify and address key bottlenecks.[65][66] The results showed transport costs were reduced by "$2,500 per 15 tons of cargo".[67] Other routes under consideration include via Armenia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.

Cooperation in the cultural sphere

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visiting the film set of Yash Raj Studios meeting Bollywood stars Shah Rukh Khan, Yash Chopra and Kareena Kapoor
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev making his speech at the closing ceremony of The "Year of Russia in India" in 2008.

Indo–Russian relations in the field of culture are historical. The first Russian translation of the Bhagavad Gita was published in 1788 by decree on the orders of Catherine the Great.[68] Russian pioneers who travelled to India and studied Indian culture include Gerasim Lebedev who studied ancient Indian languages in the 1780s[69][70] and later Nicholas Roerich who studied Indian philosophy.[71] Roerich was influenced by the philosophy of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore, and the Bhagavad Gita. The 130th birth anniversary of Nicholas Roerich and 100th birth anniversary of Svetoslav Roerich were celebrated in India in October 2004.

Leading Russian Indiologist such as Ivan Minayev, Sergey Oldenburg, Fyodor Shcherbatskoy, Yuri Knorozov, Alexandr Kondratov, Nikita Gurov and Eugene Chelyshev focused their research in understanding the Indus Script, Sanskrit and Indian literature.[69][72]

Traditionally, there has been strong collaboration in the field of cinema between India and the USSR. Several generations of Russians grew up watching subtitled Indian films (mainly Bollywood) and vice versa for Indians watching Russian films.[73] Popular Indian films in the USSR included Awara, Bobby, Barood, Mamta,[74][75] recent contemporary films entirely shot in Russia include Lucky: No Time for Love. However, after the collapse of the USSR Bollywood's market share decreased in Russia.[76] Recently, however, there has been increase due to viewers having access through cable and satellite channels.[75][77] The Russian Deputy Minister of Culture, Elena Milovzorova, stated in an interview that an Indian-Russian joint working group (JWG) would discuss procedures to allow for both countries film industries to collaborate in film production together.[73] The Krasnodar Region has been discussed among officials as a possible area for shooting future Bollywood films.[78] Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev know to be admirer of Bollywood films[79][80] visited the film set of Yash Raj Studios and met Bollywood stars such as Shah Rukh Khan, Yash Chopra and Kareena Kapoor. He stated in an interview, "Our country is one of the places where Indian culture is most admired" in addition stated, "Russia and India are the only countries where satellite channels broadcast Indian movies 24/7."[79]

Yoga in Russia has been growing and becoming increasingly popular since the 1980s, particularly in majors cities and urban centres, mainly due to its reputation for health benefits.[68][81][82] However, it has its roots much earlier in Russia during the time of noted Russian actor and trainer Constantin Stanislavski who was significantly influenced by Yoga and Indian philosophy.[68][83][84]

Russia's Rossotrudnichestvo Representative Office (RRO) established in 1965 has five Russian Centres of Science and Culture (RCSC) in India they include New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Trivandrum.[85] The head of RRO and director of RCSC, Fyodor Rozovsky, expects cultural ties to grow between both countries.[85] He and other officials also expects the number of Indian students studying in Russia to increase once both countries sign an agreement on joint recognition of higher education diplomas.[86][87][88] There is a Hindi Department, in the University of Moscow along with five Chairs relating to Indology in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan and Vladivostok.

Days of Russian Culture were held in India in November 2003, in Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai. "Days of Indian Culture" in Russia were organised from September to October 2005 in Russia. Chief Minister of National Capital Territory of Delhi led a delegation for participating in the event "Days of Delhi in Moscow" from 28 May 1 June 2006. The "Year of Russia in India" was held in 2008. It was followed by the "Year of India in Russia" in 2009.

Terrorism

On international terrorism, India and Russia agree that there is no justification for terrorism, and this must be fought against, without compromise and wherever it exists. Russia has supported the Indian draft at the UN on Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism [CCIT]. The two sides signed a MoU on co-operation in combating terrorism in December 2002. A Joint Working Group on Combating International Terrorism meets from time to time and its fourth meeting was held in Delhi on 24 October 2006. Both Russia and India have faced the problem of terrorism, India has seen it in the context of its military presence in Kashmir and Russia has seen it in Chechnya and both the countries are supportive of each other on the issue of terrorism.

Nuclear Deals

Construction of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in 2009

On 7 November 2009, India signed a new nuclear deal with Russia apart from the deals that were agreed upon by the two countries earlier.[89] India and Russia are in discussion for construction of two more nuclear power units at Kudankulam. Two units of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant are already operational. During Russian president Vladimir Putin's visit to India for the 13th annual summit, a co-operative civilian nuclear energy road map was agreed to. Running until 2030, sixteen to eighteen new reactors will be constructed, with installed capacity of 1,000 MW each. A 1,000 MW reactor costs around $2.5 billion so the deal may touch $45 billion in worth.[90]

See also

Further reading

  • A New Era: India-Russia ties in 21st century. ISBN NO:9780988841932 Publisher:Russia Beyond The Headlines
  • How India’s cryogenic programme was wrecked by USA
  • Challenges and Opportunities: Russia and the Rise of China and India by Dmitri Trenin, Strategic Asia 2011-12: Asia Responds to Its Rising Powers - China and India (September 2011)
  • 1971 Indo-Pakistan War: Role of Russia by Sanskar Shrivastava, "The World Reporter" (October 2011)

External links

  • Brief on India-Russia Relations by Ministry of External Affairs, India
  • Indian embassy in Moscow
  • Russian embassy in New Delhi
  • India Russia Report
  • Sputnik News India

References

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  9. ^ a b India has right to join SCO, not Pakistan: Russian envoy – News
  10. ^ a b Russia backs India as possible UN Security Council permanent member, though privately it joins efforts to block any forward movement on reform. Ria Novosti
  11. ^ SAARC The Changing Dimensions: UNU-CRIS Working Papers United Nations University - Comparative Regional Integration Studies
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  23. ^ India and APEC: Centre of Mutual Gravitation: International Affairs
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