World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Jamaican American

Article Id: WHEBN0009297589
Reproduction Date:

Title: Jamaican American  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: West Indian American, Jamaican diaspora, Jamaican Canadian, Jenna Wolfe, Caribbean American
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Jamaican American

Jamaican American
Total population

Jamaican American
1,091,482[1]

0.3% of the U.S. population (2013)
Jamaica map
Regions with significant populations
New York, Florida, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Washington, D.C., New Jersey, and California
Languages
American English, Jamaican English, Jamaican Patois
Religion
Predominantly Protestantism. Some adherents of Catholicism, Islam, and other faiths.
Related ethnic groups
Jamaican British, Jamaican Canadians, Chinese Jamaicans, Jamaicans of African ancestry, Jamaican Nigerians, Indo-Jamaicans, Jamaican Australian, Afro Americans

Jamaican Americans are Americans of full or partial Jamaican ancestry. The largest proportion of Jamaicans live in New York City, which has various of other Caribbean cultural elements such as food and music. There are also communities of Jamaican Americans residing in Philadelphia, Boston, South Florida, Tampa, Los Angeles, Orlando, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Atlanta, Cleveland, Western New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey.

After 1838, European colonies in the Caribbean with expanding sugar industries imported large numbers of immigrants to meet their acute labor shortage. Large numbers of Jamaicans were recruited to work in Panama and Costa Rica in the 1850s. After slavery was abolished in the United States in 1865, American planters imported temporary workers, called "swallow migrants", to harvest crops on an annual basis. These workers, many of them Jamaicans, returned to their countries after harvest. Between 1881 and the beginning of World War I, the United States recruited over 250,000 workers from the Caribbean, 90,000 of whom were Jamaicans, to work on the Panama Canal. During both world wars, the United States again recruited Jamaican men for service on various American bases in the region. The vast majority of Jamaican American are of black Afro-Caribbean descent.

Significant immigration waves

Apart from Canada and England, the U.S. houses the majority of Jamaican émigrés in the world. Jamaican immigration to the U.S. increased during the 1960s civil rights era. As many other sources of Caribbean immigration, the geographical nearness of Jamaica to the U.S. increased the likelihood of migration. The economic attractiveness, as well as general Jamaican perceptions of the U.S. as a land of opportunity, explains continued migration flows despite economic downturn in America. Traditionally, America has experienced increased migration through means of family preference, in which U.S. citizens sponsor their immediate family. Through this category a substantial amount of Jamaican immigrants were able to enter mainly urban cities within the U.S that provided blue-collar work opportunities. Jamaican immigrants utilized employment opportunities despite the discriminatory policies that affected some Caribbean émigrés.[2]

At present, Jamaicans are the largest group of American immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean. However, it is difficult to verify the exact number of Jamaican Americans in this country because most of them assimilate into the wider African-American communities. The 1990 census placed the total number of documented Jamaican Americans at 435,025.

Settlement

According to the text of Immigrant America (p. 69), there were 554,897 Jamaican-born people living in the U.S. in 2000. This represents 61% of the approximate 911,000 Americans of Jamaican ancestry. Many Jamaicans are second, third and descend from even older generations as there have been Jamaicans in the U.S. as early as the early twentieth Century. The regional composition is as follows: 59 percent live in the Northeast mainly in New York; 4.8 percent in the Midwest; 30.6 percent in the Southern United States, particularly South Florida; and 5.6 percent on the West. The New York metropolitan area and South Florida have the largest number of Jamaican immigrants in the United States and Florida are home to the highest number of illegal Jamaicans whereas most Legal immigrants tend to reside in Brooklyn. Jamaicans refer to Miami metropolitan area and Brooklyn colloquially as "Kingston 21" and "Little Jamaica" respectively. Large communities of Jamaican immigrants have formed in New York City and the New York Metro Area, which includes Long Island and much of New Jersey and Connecticut, along with Florida (centered in and around the Miami, Tampa, and Orlando areas) and Philadelphia, which has the second largest Jamaican community in the U.S. In recent years, many Jamaicans have left New York City for its suburbs, and large Jamaican communities have also formed in Atlanta, Baltimore, Washington D.C., Boston, Cleveland, Buffalo, Rochester, Los Angeles, and Providence.

U.S. states with large Jamaican populations

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 965,355 Jamaican Americans. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_B04003&prodType=table

The 10 U.S. states with the largest Jamaican populations are:

  1. New York – 305,285
  2. Florida – 246,478
  3. New Jersey – 55,351
  4. Georgia – 53,603
  5. Connecticut – 52,185
  6. Pennsylvania – 30,708
  7. California – 29,442
  8. Maryland – 28,995
  9. Massachusetts – 26,526
  10. Texas – 23,284

U.S. metropolitan areas with largest Jamaican populations

The top 10 U.S. metropolitan areas with the largest populations of Jamaicans (Source: Census 2010)[3]

  1. New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA-CT MSA – 323,370
  2. Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL MSA – 162,511
  3. Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA – 47,415
  4. Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT MSA – 27,926
  5. Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA – 25,360
  6. Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA – 24,086
  7. Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA – 22,112
  8. Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH MSA – 15,702
  9. Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA – 15,583
  10. Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA – 12,233

U.S. communities with high percentages of people of Jamaican ancestry

The top 25 U.S. communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Jamaican ancestry are:[4]

  1. Blue Hills, Connecticut (neighborhood) 23.9%
  2. Lauderdale Lakes, Florida 18.8%
  3. Lauderhill, Florida 17.6%
  4. South Floral Park, New York 15.5%
  5. Miramar, Florida 15.40%
  6. Bloomfield, Connecticut and Mount Vernon, New York 12.9%
  7. Lakeview, New York 12.7%
  8. North Lauderdale, Florida 11.1%
  9. Uniondale, New York 11.0%
  10. El Portal, Florida 8.5%
  11. Roosevelt, New York 8.2%
  12. Pembroke Park, Florida 8.0%
  13. North Valley Stream, New York and Hartford, Connecticut 7.90%
  14. Sunrise, Florida 7.60%
  15. Miami Gardens, Florida 6.3%
  16. North Amityville, New York 6.1%
  17. South Miami Heights, Florida 6.0%
  18. Hempstead, New York and Elmont, New York 5.9%
  19. Lake Park, Florida and Carol City, Florida 5.8%
  20. East Orange, New Jersey, Gordon Heights, New York, Ives Estates, Florida, and Golden Glades, Florida 5.7%
  21. North Miami Beach, Florida 5.5%
  22. New Cassel, New York 5.30%
  23. Bronx, New York and Chillum, Maryland 5.2%
  24. Pembroke Pines, Florida and Wheatley Heights, New York 5.1%
  25. Bridgeport, Connecticut 4.5%
  26. Brooklyn, New York 3.8%

U.S. communities with the most residents born in Jamaica

Top 50 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Jamaica are:[5]

  1. Melrose Park, FL 19.6%
  2. Norland, FL 18.5%
  3. Blue Hills, CT 18.3%
  4. Lauderdale Lakes, FL 16.9%
  5. Andover, FL 15.0%
  6. Lauderhill, FL 14.8%
  7. Utopia, FL 13.1%
  8. Palmetto Estates, FL 12.6%
  9. Miramar, FL 12.5%
  10. Scott Lake, FL 12.3%
  11. South Floral Park, NY 12.1%
  12. Mount Vernon, NY 11.2%
  13. Bloomfield, CT 11.1%
  14. North Lauderdale, FL 9.7%
  15. Fort Devens, MA 9.3%
  16. Northwest Dade, FL 8.5%
  17. Uniondale, NY 8.2%
  18. St. George, FL 8.1%
  19. East Garden City, NY 7.7%
  20. El Portal, FL 7.5%
  21. Silver Springs Shores, FL 7.5%
  22. Washington Park, FL 7.2%
  23. North Valley Stream, NY 6.7%
  24. Sunrise, FL 6.6%
  25. Harlem, FL 6.4%
  26. Lakeview, NY 6.2%
  27. Opa-locka North, FL 6.1%
  28. Hartford, CT 6.0%
  29. Roosevelt, NY 5.9%
  30. Westview, FL 5.7%
  31. Tangelo Park, FL 5.5%
  32. Miami Gardens, Broward County, FL 5.5%
  33. Pembroke Park, FL 5.3%
  34. Lake Park, FL 5.2%
  35. Ives Estates, FL 5.1%
  36. North Amityville, NY 5.1%
  37. Canal Point, FL 5.1%
  38. Rock Island, FL 5.1%
  39. Boulevard Gardens, FL 5.0%
  40. North Miami Beach, FL 5.0%
  41. Lake Lucerne, FL 4.9%
  42. Golden Glades, FL 4.9%
  43. Broadview-Pompano Park, FL 4.8%
  44. Carol City, FL 4.7%
  45. East Orange, NJ 4.7%
  46. Pembroke Pines, FL 4.4%
  47. Stacy Street, FL 4.3%
  48. Mangonia Park, FL 4.3%
  49. Three Lakes, FL 4.2%
  50. Elmont, NY 4.2%

Culture

Music

Belafonte in John Murray Anderson's Almanac on Broadway, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1954

Many cultural events in Jamaica are also observed by Jamaican Americans in local public celebrations or in the privacy of their homes.

Many Jamaican Americans have also been very influential and successful in rap music. Famous rappers and DJ's such as DJ Kool Herc, Busta Rhymes, Notorious B.I.G., Pete Rock, Canibus, Heavy D, Slick Rick, and KRS-ONE are all of Jamaican heritage.

Dances and songs

Jamaica's most popular musical forms are reggae and dancehall. There is also others such as "dub poetry" or chanted verses, Ska, and Rocksteady, with its emotionally charged, celebrative beat. Jamaican Americans also listen to a great variety of other music such as: jazz, calypso, soca, ska, rap, classical music, gospel, and "high-church" choirs.

Cuisine

A plate of Jerk chicken.

In Miami and Brooklyn, especially in the neighborhood of Flatbush along Flatbush, Nostrand, Utica, and Church Avenues, one sees groceries filled with a variety of Caribbean cuisines, including sugar cane, jelly coconut, and yams.

Traditional costumes

In New York City, Jamaican Americans participate in the Caribbean Labor day parade in Brooklyn annually and dress in lavish and colorful costumes during the Brooklyn celebration along Eastern Parkway.

Sports

A number of Jamaican Americans have excelled in international competition and carried home many trophies. Donald Quarrie won the 200 and the 4×100 meters relay Olympic Gold Medal. Merlene Ottey won the 200 and the 4×100 meters relay. Panama in 1909, transported to Cuba, grew up in Jamaica. and lived in the United States.

Several Jamaican Americans, including Jeff Cunningham, Robin Fraser and Mark Chung, have played for the United States national soccer team.

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_13_1YR_B04003&prodType=table
  2. ^ Jones, Terry-Ann. Jamaican Immigrants in the United States and Canada: Race, Transnationalism, and Social Capital. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Piblishing LLC, 2008. 2–3; 160–3. Print.
  3. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_B04003&prodType=table
  4. ^
  5. ^


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.