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Jorge Ubico

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Jorge Ubico

His Excellency
Jorge Ubico
Jorge Ubico in the 1930s.
21th President of Guatemala
In office
February 14, 1931 – July 1, 1944
Preceded by José María Reina Andrade
Succeeded by Juan Federico Ponce Vaides
Personal details
Born (1878-11-10)November 10, 1878
Guatemala City, Guatemala
Died June 14, 1946(1946-06-14) (aged 67)
New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Political party Liberal Progressive Party
Spouse(s) Marta Lainfiesta (m. 1905–46); his death
Profession Soldier
Religion Roman Catholic

Jorge Ubico y Castañeda (10 November 1878 – 14 June 1946), nicknamed Number Five (based on the letters of the name Jorge) or also Central America's Napoleon, was the authoritarian ruler of Guatemala from 14 February 1931 to 4 July 1944. A general in the Guatemalan army, he was elected to the presidency in 1931, in an election where he was the only candidate. He continued his predecessors' policies of giving massive concessions to the United Fruit Company and wealthy landowners, as well as supporting their harsh labor practices.[1][2] He was removed by a pro-democracy[3] uprising in 1944, which led to the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution.

Contents

  • Early years 1
    • Coup d'état 1.1
    • Election and government 1.2
    • Isolation and decline 1.3
    • Revolution and overthrow 1.4
  • Gallery 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes and references 4
    • Notes 4.1
    • References 4.2
    • Bibliography 4.3
  • Further reading 5

Early years

Arturo Ubico Urruela, father of general Ubico.

Jorge Ubico was the son of Arturo Ubico Urruela, a lawyer and politician of the Guatemalan Guatemala's most prestigious schools, as well as receiving further education in the United States and Europe.

By 1897 Ubico received his commission into the Guatemalan army as a second lieutenant, a commissions which was largely due to his political connections. He rapidly established himself in the army and rose through the ranks, and, after a military campaign against El Salvador, held the rank of colonel at the age of 28. A year later, he was made the governor (jefe politico) of the province of Mexican border. He returned to Guatemala City in 1921 to participate in a coup that installed General José Orellana into the presidency, after the sitting president Carlos Herrera y Luna refused to ratify the concessions that Estrada Cabrera had made to the United Fruit Company. Under Orellana he was appointed Secretary of War in 1922, but quit a year later. In 1926, after the death of President Orellana, Ubico ran unsuccessfully for president as the candidate of the Political Progressive Party. He temporarily retired to his farm until the next election.

Coup d'état

National Police Headquarters during general Ubico regime. The Police Chief was colonel Roderico Anzueto, personal friend of president Ubico.

On December 1930, President Lazaro Chacón was forced to resign after having a stroke. By that time, Guatemala was in the midst of the Great Depression and bankrupt; Chacón successor, Baudilio Palma, was deposed by a coup de' etat after only four days in office and was replaced by Gral. Manuel María Orellana. The United States did not back the new government and demanded Orellana to resign; he was forced to leave presidency in favor of José María Reina Andrade.[4][5]

Election and government

The Liberal Party allied with the Progressives to nominate Ubico as Andrade's successor, in an election where Ubico was the only candidate on the ballot. In February 1931 he was elected with 305,841 votes.[6] In his inaugural address, he pledged a "march toward civilization". Once in office, he began a campaign of efficiency which included assuming dictatorial powersc.[6]

Adopting a pro-USA stance to promote economic development and recovery from depression, the United Fruit Company under Ubico became the most important company in Guatemala. He considered Guatemala to be the closest ally of the United States in the Caribbean. The company received import duty and real estate tax exemptions from the government and controlled more land than any other individual or group. It also controlled the sole railroad in the country, the sole facilities capable of producing electricity, and the port facilities at Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic coast.[7][8][9][10][11]

On 18 September 1934 Efraín Aguilar Fuentes, Juventino Sánchez, Humberto Molina Santiago were executed inside the Guatemala National Penitenciary,[1] Rafael Estrada Guilles and colonel Luis Ortiz Guzmán.[12] All of them had been accused, tortured and executed after being accused of planning a plot to overthrow president Ubico Castañeda.

In his book Paradox garden -El Jardín de las Paradojas, written in 1935, Guatemalan writer Efraín De los Ríos accused Police Chief general Roderico Anzueto Valencia of making up the plot to get rid of the false conspirators. According to De los Ríos, this is what really happened:

In early September 1934, when Ubico announced a popular to determine whether he should extend his presidential term for another six years, lawyer Efraín Aguilar Fuentes -Guatemala Real Estate Property Records director- sternly declined to be in favor of the president. When Ubico summoned him to the presidential office to chastise him, Fuentes coldly replied that he was aware that then Police Chief Anzueto Valencia, had embezzled up to twenty eight properties and that therefore he was not going to support the president. Aguilar Fuentes did not know, however, that Anzueto Valencia was only the name on those property records and that the real owner was Ubico himself.[13]

In the following weeks, Anzueto Valencia made up a list of people involvef in a false plot to murded Ubico Castañeda, and among the people in the list he included Aguilar Fuentes. All the people on the list wee imprisoned, tortured and forced to confess. Their "confessions" appeared in the semi-official newspaper El Liberal Progresista.

De los Ríos was incarcerated once the government learned about these strong accusations. He remained in the National Penitenciary for most of the rest of Ubico's presidency. .[14]

Ubico considered himself to be "another Napoleon". He admired Napoleon Bonaparte extravagantly and preferred to have his photograph taken in his general's uniform. Although he was much taller and fatter than his hero, Ubico believed that he resembled Bonaparte, and his nickname was "the Little Napoleon of the Tropics".[15] He dressed ostentatiously and surrounded himself with statues and paintings of Napoleon, regularly commenting on the similarities between their appearances. He militarized numerous political and social institutions—including the post office, schools, and symphony orchestras—and placed military officers in charge of many government posts. He frequently travelled around the country performing "inspections" in dress uniform followed by a military escort, a mobile radio station, an official biographer, and cabinet members.[16][17][18][19][20]

As part of a goodwill worldwide tour promoting the Berlin 1936 Summer Olympics, in January of that year the German light cruiser Emden arrived to Guatemala. Its crew travelled by train to Guatemala City where they paraded in front of Ubico Army's staff and general public.

Isolation and decline

Ubico's repressive policies and arrogant demeanor led to a widespread popular insurrection led by middle-class intellectuals, professionals, and junior army officers. On 1 July 1944 Ubico resigned from office amidst a general strike and nationwide protests. Initially, he had planned to hand over power to the former director of police, General Roderico Anzueto, who he felt he could control. But his advisors recognized that Anzueto's pro-Nazi sympathies had made him very unpopular, and that he would not be able to control the military. Instead, Ubico chose to select a triumvariate of Major General Bueneventura Piñeda, Major General Eduardo Villagrán Ariza, and General Federico Ponce Vaides. The three generals promised to convene the national assembly to hold an election for a provisional president, but when the congress met on 3 July, soldiers held everyone at gunpoint and forced them to vote for General Ponce, rather than the popular civilian candidate Ramón Calderón. Ponce, who had previously retired from military service due to alcoholism, took orders from Ubico and kept many of the officials who had worked in the Ubico administration. The repressive policies of the Ubico administration were continued.[16][21][22]

Opposition groups began organizing again, this time joined by many prominent political and military leaders who deemed the Ponce regime unconstitutional. Among the military officers in the opposition were junta and declared that they would hold democratic elections before the end of the year.[24]

Revolution and overthrow

Elementary school teacher María Chinchilla Recinos in 1940. Her violent death during a peaceful demonstration on June 25, 1944 sparked an outcry that led to Ubico resignation on July 1st.

The winner of the 1944 elections was a professor named Juan José Arévalo. Arévalo ran under a coalition of leftist parties known as the Partido Acción Revolucionaria ("Revolutionary Action Party", PAR), and won 85% of the vote in elections that are widely considered to have been fair and open.[25] Arévalo implemented social reforms such as minimum wage laws, increased educational funding, near-universal suffrage (excluding illiterate women), and labor reforms; but many of these changes only benefited the upper-middle classes and did little for the peasant agricultural laborers that made up the majority of the population. Although his reforms were relatively moderate, he was widely disliked by the United States government, Catholic Church, large landowners, employers such as United Fruit Company, and Guatemalan military officers, who viewed his government as inefficient, corrupt, and heavily influenced by Communists. At least 25 coup attempts took place during his presidency, mostly led by wealthy conservative military officers.[26][27] During the 1944 revolution, Arana had demanded that he be appointed as the Chief of Staff in exchange for loyalty to the Arévalo government. However, Arévalo did not trust Arana and installed Árbenz as the minister of defense to act as a check on Arana. Over time, tensions rose between Arana and Arévalo, peaking when Arana was mysteriously killed in a Guatemala City gun battle on 18 July 1949, ultimately leading to a failed revolt that was put down by troops led by Árbenz.[28]

Ubico died in exile in New Orleans on 14 June 1946.

Gallery

Palaces built during Ubico's presidency

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Molina Santiago had tried to form a political party in Quetzaltenango to support general Roderico Anzueto to compete against Ubico in the upcoming presidential elections.[12]

References

  1. ^ Streeter 2000, pp. 15–16.
  2. ^ Immerman 1982, pp. 48–50.
  3. ^ Forster 2001, pp. 89–91.
  4. ^ Time 1930.
  5. ^ Time 1931.
  6. ^ a b Nuestro Diario 1931, p. 1.
  7. ^ Bucheli 2008, pp. 433–454.
  8. ^ Bucheli 2005, pp. 22–24.
  9. ^ Bucheli 2004, pp. 181–212.
  10. ^ Bucheli 2006, pp. 342–383.
  11. ^ Bucheli 1997, pp. 65-84.
  12. ^ a b De los Ríos 1948, p. 375
  13. ^ De los Ríos 1948, p. 384.
  14. ^ De los Ríos 1948.
  15. ^ De los Ríos 1948, p. 98.
  16. ^ a b Streeter 2000, p. 11-12.
  17. ^ Immerman 1983, p. 32.
  18. ^ Grandin 2000, p. 195.
  19. ^ Benz 1996, p. 16-17.
  20. ^ Loveman & Davies 1997, p. 118-120.
  21. ^ Immerman 1983, p. 40-41.
  22. ^ Jonas 1991, p. 22.
  23. ^ Immerman 1983.
  24. ^ Streeter 2000, p. 13.
  25. ^ Streeter 2000, p. 14.
  26. ^ Streeter 2000, p. 15-16.
  27. ^ Immerman 1983, p. 48,50.
  28. ^ Streeter 2000, p. 16-17.

Bibliography

  • Benz, Stephen Connely (1996). Guatemalan Journey. University of Texas Press.  
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (2008). Multinational Corporations, Totalitarian Regimes, and Economic Nationalism: United Fruit Company in Central America, 1899-1975. Business History 50 (4). pp. 433–454.  
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (2005). "Banana War Maneuvers". Harvard Business Review 83 (11): 22–24. 
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (Summer 2004). "Enforcing Business Contracts in South America: the United Fruit Company and the Colombian Banana Planters in the Twentieth-Century". Business History Review (The President and Fellows of Harvard College) 78 (2): 181–212.  
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (2006). "The United Fruit Company in Latin America: Business Strategies in a Changing Environment". In Jones, Geoffrey; Wadhwani, R. Daniel. Entrepreneurship and Global Capitalism 2. Cheltenham, England: Edward Elgar. pp. 342–383. 
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (1997). "United Fruit Company in Colombia: Impact of Labor Relations and Governmental Regulations on its Operations, 1948-1968". Essays in Economic and Business History 15: 65–84. 
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (2006). "United Fruit Company". In Geisst, Charles. Encyclopedia of American Business History. London, England: Facts on File.  
  • Bucheli, Marcelo (2004). "United Fruit Company". In McCusker, John. History of World Trade Since 1450. New York: Macmillan. 
  • De los Ríos, Efraín (1948). Ombres contra Hombres (in Spanish) (3rd ed.). Mexico, D.F.: Fondo de cultura de la Universidad de México. 
  • Díaz Romeu, Guillermo (1996). "Del régimen de Carlos Herrera a la elección de Jorge Ubico". Historia general de Guatemala. 1993-1999 (in Spanish) 5. Guatemala: Asociación de Amigos del País, Fundación para la Cultura y el Desarrollo. pp. 37–42. 
  • Gleijeses, Piero (1992). Shattered hope: the Guatemalan revolution and the United States, 1944-1954. Princeton University Press.  
  • Grandin, Greg (2000). The blood of Guatemala: a history of race and nation. Duke University Press.  
  • Forster, Cindy (2001). The time of freedom: campesino workers in Guatemala's October Revolution. University of Pittsburgh Press.  
  • Fried, Jonathan L. (1983). Guatemala in rebellion: unfinished history. Grove Press. p. 52. 
  • Friedman, Max Paul (2003). Nazis and good neighbors: the United States campaign against the Germans of Latin America in World War II. Cambridge University Press. pp. 82–83.  
  • Immerman, Richard H. (1983). The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention. University of Texas Press.  
  • Jonas, Susanne (1991). The battle for Guatemala: rebels, death squads, and U.S. power (5th ed.). Westview Press.  
  • Krehm, William (1999). Democracies and Tyrannies of the Caribbean in 1940s. COMER Publications.  
  • Loveman, Brian; Davies, Thomas M. (1997). The Politics of antipolitics: the military in Latin America (3rd, revised ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.  
  • Martínez Peláez, Severo (1990). La Patria del Criollo (in Spanish). México: Ediciones En Marcha. p. 858. 
  • McCreery, David (1994). Rural Guatemala, 1760-1940. Stanford University Press.  
  • Nuestro Diario (14 December 1930). "Noticias de primera plana". Nuestro Diario (in Spanish) (Guatemala). 
  • Nuestro Diario (8 February 1931). "Noticias de primera plana". Nuestro Diario (in Spanish) (Guatemala). 
  • Paterson, Thomas G.; et al. (2009). American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 2: Since 1895. Cengage Learning.  
  • Rabe, Stephen G. (1988). Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  
  • Shillington, John (2002). Grappling with atrocity: Guatemalan theater in the 1990s. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 38–39.  
  • Streeter, Stephen M. (2000). Managing the counterrevolution: the United States and Guatemala, 1954-1961. Ohio University Press.  
  • Time (29 December 1930). "Wrong horse No. 2".  
  • Time (12 January 1931). "We are not amused". Time magazine (United States). 
  • Time (20 April 1931). "Died. General Lazaro Chacon, 56, President of Guatemala". United States. 

Further reading

  •  
  • Bucheli, Marcelo; Read, Ian (2006). "Banana Boats and Baby Food: The Banana in U.S. History". In Topik, Steven; Marichal, Carlos; Frank, Zephyr. From Silver to Cocaine: Latin American Commodity Chains and the Building of the World Economy, 1500-2000. Durham: Duke University Press.  
  • Grieb, Kenneth J. (1979). Guatemalan Caudillo: The Regime of Jorge Ubico 1931–1944. Athens:  
  • LaFeber, Walter (1993). Inevitable revolutions: the United States in Central America. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 77–79.  
  •  
Political offices
Preceded by
José María Reina Andrade
(acting)

President of Guatemala

1931–1944
Succeeded by
Juan Federico Ponce Vaides
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