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Kawésqar language

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Title: Kawésqar language  
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Kawésqar language

Kawésqar
Alacaluf
Native to Chile
Region Channel Region, western Patagonia, Wellington Island off south Chilean coast, 49° south, with centre in Puerto Edén.
Ethnicity Alacaluf people
Native speakers
12  (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 alc
Glottolog kawe1237[2]

Kawésqar (Qawasqar), also known as Alacaluf,[3] is an language isolate spoken in southern Chile by the Kawésqar people. Originally there were three regional dialects: northern, central, and southern. (Kakauhua, a.k.a. Chono, is sometimes listed as a related language, but it is completely unattested.) Only about 20 speakers of Kawesqar remain, half of them on Wellington Island, off the southwestern coast of Chile.

Phonology

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open æ a

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n   ŋ    
Plosive p t t͡ʃ k q ʔ
Ejective t͡ʃʼ    
Fricative f s       h
Rhotic   r - ɾ        
Approximant w l j      

Writing system

The alphabet in use is as follows [1]: a, æ, c, c', e, f, h, i, j, k, k', l, m, n, o, p, p', q, r, rr, s, t, t', u, w, x. However, there are reported to be differences between dialects, and some sounds that are not represented here.

Morphology and syntax

Kawésqar has a complex system of grammatical tense, which includes a basic morphological contrast between future, present, immediate past, recent past, distant past, and mythological past events.

Bibliography

  • Aguilera Faúndez, Óscar (2001): Gramática de la lengua kawésqar. Temuco: Corporación de Desarrollo Indígena.
  • Clairis, Christos (1987): El qawasqar. Lingüística fueguina. Teoría y descripción. Valdivia: Universidad Austral de Chile [Anejo de Estudios Filológicos 12].
  • Pieter C. Muysken. 2004. The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

References

  1. ^ Kawésqar at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kawésqar". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Spelling variants include Kaweskar, Kawaskar, Qawashqar, Kaueskar and Alakaluf, Halakwulup, Halakwalip; other names include Aksanás, Aksana and Hekaine.

External links

  • Qawasqar dictionary online (select simple or advanced browsing)
  • Kawésqar
  • SerIndigena - Territorio Kawesqar
  • Kawésqar at the World Atlas of Language Structures Online


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