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Krasnodarskiy Kray, Russia

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Krasnodarskiy Kray, Russia

Krasnodar Krai
Краснодарский край (Russian)
—  Krai  —
Flag
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Krasnodar Krai
Coordinates: 45°22′N 39°26′E / 45.367°N 39.433°E / 45.367; 39.433Coordinates: 45°22′N 39°26′E / 45.367°N 39.433°E / 45.367; 39.433
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Southern[1]
Economic region North Caucasus[2]
Established September 13, 1937[3]
Administrative center Krasnodar
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Head of Administration (Governor)[4] Alexander Tkachyov[5]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[6]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7]
 - Total 76,000 km2 (29,343.8 sq mi)
Area rank 42nd
Population (2010 Census)[8]
 - Total 5,226,647
 - Rank 3rd
 - Density[9] 68.77 /km2 (178.1 /sq mi)
 - Urban 52.9%
 - Rural 47.1%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[10]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KDA
License plates 23
Official languages Russian[11]
Official website

Krasnodar Krai (Russian: Краснода́рский край, tr. Krasnodarsky kray, IPA: [krəsnɐˈdarskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Krasnodar. Population: 5,226,647 (2010 Census).[8]

Geography

Krasnodar Krai encompasses the western part of the Forecaucasus and a part of the northern slopes of Caucasus Major. Krasnodar Krai borders, clockwise from the west, Ukraine—from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch and the Sea of Azov—Russia's Rostov Oblast, Stavropol Krai, and the Karachay–Cherkess Republic, and Georgia's breakaway republic of Abkhazia. The krai's territory entirely encircles the Republic of Adygea. Krasnodar Krai's southern border is formed by what is left of Russia's Black Sea coast, with the most important port (Novorossiysk) and resort (Sochi) in this part of the country. Geographically, the area is split by the Kuban River into two distinct parts. The southern, seaward third (Circassia) is the western extremity of the Caucasus range, lying within the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion; the climate is Mediterranean or, in the south-east, subtropical. The northern two-thirds lies on the Pontic Steppe and shares continental climate patterns. The largest lake is Abrau in the wine-making region of Abrau-Dyurso.

The Apsheronsk narrow-gauge railway, the longest mountain narrow-gauge railway Russia, runs through Krasnodar Krai.

History

In 631, Kubrat founded on the Kuban State and the Great Bulgar Bulgar Khans dynasty begins to muzzle. Royal city becomes Phanagoria. The territory of Krasnodar Region from the 8th to the 10th centuries was part of the Khazars. After the defeat of the Khazar Khanate in 965 Kievan prince Svyatoslav conquered and area and it came under the rule of Kievan Rus' and it was formed Tmutarakan principality. Later, due to the increasing claims of Byzantium at the end of the 11th century, Tmutarakan principality came under the authority of the Byzantine emperors (until 1204).

In that period of history, and later, in the annals of Russian Circassians first appeared under the name (ethnonym) Kasogs, as for example Rededi Prince Kasozhsky was mentioned in The Tale of Igor's Campaign.

In 1243-1438 the current territory of the Kuban was part of the Golden Horde. After the collapse of the latter, in part Kuban moved to the Crimean Khanate, Circassia , and the Ottoman Empire, which dominated the region. Tsardom of Russia began to challenge the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire in the area during the Russian-Turkish wars.

In April of 1783 by decree of Catherine II right-bank Kuban and Taman Peninsula were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the years 1792-93 cossacks moved here from Zaporozhye nowadays Ukraine, and formed the Black Sea Area troops, with the creation of a solid cordon line for the Kuban River and the marginalization of the neighboring Circassians.

During the campaign for control of the North Caucasus (Caucasus war 1763-1864) to Russia in 1829 pushed the Ottoman Empire and the 1830s. Border was marked on the Black Sea coast.

In 1783 present northern territory of Kuban region, became part of Russia after the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate. To protect the river Kuban, a border garrison was here in the years 1793-94. The remains were relocated to the Cossacks, initiating development of the region. Administrative region received the status of "Land of Black Sea Cossack Army".

Before the October Revolution of 1917, most of the territory of modern Kuban-Krasnodar territory occupied area , formed in 1860 from the Black Sea Cossack Army, the western part of the Caucasus Line Cossack troops . Kuban region was a territory of the Kuban Cossack Army .

In 1900 the region's population numbered around two million people. In 1913 the gross grain harvest Kuban region entered the 2nd place in Russia, for the production of marketable grain - in the 1st place.

Politics

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the Krai was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Krasnodar CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the Krai Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Krai Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Krai administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Krasnodar Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Krai Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Krai administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Administrative divisions

Krasnodar Krai is administratively divided into thirty-eight districts (raions ) and twenty-six cities/towns. The districts are further subdivided into towns, urban-type settlements, and rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs.

Demographics

Population: Template:Ru-census2010 5,125,221 (2002 Census);[12] 5,113,148 (1989 Census).[13]


The population of Krasnodar Krai is concentrated in the Kuban River drainage basin, which used to be traditional Cossack land (see History of Cossacks). The Kuban Cossacks are now generally considered to be ethnic Russians, even though they are still an important minority in their own right in this area. Other notable ethnic groups are the Adyghe who have lived in the Kuban area before the Cossacks and for thousands of years; other residents include the Armenians (mostly Christian Hamsheni and Cherkesogai) who have lived in the region since at least the 18th century.

Ethnic groups: the 2010 Census identified ethnic groups, as shown in the following table:[8]

Population Ethnicity Percentage of total population
4,522,962 Russians 88.3%
281,680 Armenians 5.5%
83,746 Ukrainians 1.6%
24,840 Tatars 0.5%
22,595 Greeks 0.4%
17,826 Georgians 0.3%
16,890 Belarusians 0.3%
13,834 Adyghe 0.3%
12,920 Roma 0.3%
12,171 Germans 0.2%
10,165 Azeris 0.2%
8,527 Turks 0.2%
5,170 Moldovans 0.1%
3,764 Assyrians 0.1%
79,768 Others 1.5%
  • 101,657 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[14]

Vital Statistics for 2007: Source

  • Birth Rate: 11.19 per 1000
  • Death Rate: 14.39 per 1000
  • Net Immigration: +7.1 per 1000
  • NGR: -0.32% per Year
  • PGR: +0.39% per Year

Vital Statistics for 2008:[15]

  • Population (Jan 2009): 5,100,000
  • Births (2008): 62,200
  • Deaths (2008): 72,900
Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 69 031 (13.1 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 69 427 (13.1 per 1000) [16]
  • Total fertility rate:

2009 - 1.59 | 2010 - 1.57 | 2011 - 1.58 |[17] 2012 - 1.72(e)

Religion

Template:Pie chart According to a 2012 official survey[18] 52.2% of the population of Krasnodar Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, and 1% are Muslims. In addition, 22% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 7.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[18]

2012 floods

Main article: 2012 Russian floods

On 7 July 2012, at least 171 people died in Krasnodar Krai, after torrential rains overnight caused the worst flooding and landslides in over 70 years.[19][20][21] The average rainfall for 4–5 months, over 280 millimetres (11 in), was reported to have fallen within 48 hours.[19][21][22] A local police spokesman stated that most of the dead were in Krymsky District, where at least 159 died when a wave of water 5 metres (16 ft) high swept through the town of Krymsk in the middle of the night.[20][21][22] Ten more deaths occurred in Gelendzhik, including five electrocuted when a transformer fell into the floodwater, and two in Novorossiysk.[19][21][22] Authorities stated that 17 people had been officially reported missing, and there were fears the death toll would rise further, while medics had hospitalised 210 people, including 16 children.[21]

The regional government claimed that over 24,000 people were affected by the floods, with more than 3,000 evacuated, and that more than 10,000 rescuers and 140 helicopters were searching for victims and evacuating survivors.[19][21][22] In Krymsk, 14 temporary shelters were set up to house around 2,000 evacuees.[21] The transport system in the region was said to have collapsed, while oil shipments from Novorossiysk were halted when the port, located in the lower part of the city, was threatened by landslides.[19][22][23] Russia's President, Vladimir Putin, flew to the area to hold emergency talks with officials in Krymsk, while authorities in Perm dispatched a rescue team to evacuate dozens of children from the region, who had been staying at summer camps on the Black Sea coast.[19][21][23]

Residents of Krymsk claimed the wave of water that hit the town resulted from the sluice gates of a nearby reservoir being opened, although this was denied by the prosecutor general's investigative committee. Local prosecutors had earlier confirmed that the gates were opened, but stated that it was too early to determine whether this was the cause of the flooding.[20]

See also

References

Notes

Sources

  • 10 ноября 1993 г. «Устав Краснодарского края», в ред. Закона №1523-КЗ от 21 июля 2008 г. (November 10, 1993 Charter of Krasnodar Krai, as amended by the Law #1523-KZ of July 21, 2008. ).

Further reading

  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2013. The Nazis in the Krasnodar Region: The Nazis Went on the Attack in Krasnodar, and the FSB (the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) Checks Non-Profit Organizations.

The paper was read on the scientific session of the Sergei Rjabchikov Foundation – Research Centre for Studies of Ancient Civilisations and Cultures, April 18, 2013, Krasnodar, Russia.

  • http://www.academia.edu/3327321/The_Nazis_in_the_Krasnodar_Region_The_Nazis_Went_on_the_Attack_in_Krasnodar_and_the_FSB_the_Federal_Security_Service_of_the_Russian_Federation_Checks_Non-Profit_Organizations
  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2013. The Nazis Continue Attacking in the Krasnodar Region, but the FSB (the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) Keeps Professor Mikhail Savva under Arrest. The paper was read on the scientific session of the Sergei Rjabchikov Foundation – Research Centre for Studies of Ancient Civilisations and Cultures, July 23, 2013, Krasnodar, Russia.
  • http://www.academia.edu/4105341/The_Nazis_Continue_Attacking_in_the_Krasnodar_Region_but_the_FSB_the_Federal_Security_Service_of_the_Russian_Federation_Keeps_Professor_Mikhail_Savva_under_Arrest
  • Rjabchikov, S.V., 2013. The Nazis Became a Political Force in the Krasnodar Region, but the FSB (the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) Keeps Professor Mikhail Savva under Arrest. The paper was read on the scientific session of the Sergei Rjabchikov Foundation – Research Centre for Studies of Ancient Civilisations and Cultures, August 8, 2013, Krasnodar, Russia.
  • http://www.academia.edu/4199686/The_Nazis_Became_a_Political_Force_in_the_Krasnodar_Region_but_the_FSB_the_Federal_Security_Service_of_the_Russian_Federation_Keeps_Professor_Mikhail_Savva_under_Arrest

External links

  • Official website of Krasnodar Krai (Russian)
  • News and events of Krasnodar Krai
  • Krasnodar Krai news (Russian)
  • Krasnodar Photographs
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