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List of Prime Ministers of Portugal

Prime Minister of the
Portuguese Republic
Primeiro Ministro da
República Portuguesa
Incumbent
Pedro Passos Coelho

since 21 June 2011
Appointer President of Portugal
Term length Four years
Inaugural holder Duke of Palmela
Formation 24 September 1834
Website portugal.gov.pt
Coat of arms of Portugal
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Portugal
Constitution
Foreign relations

The Prime Minister of the Portuguese Republic (primeiro-ministro, Portuguese pronunciation:  or [miˈniʃtɾu]) is the head of the country's Government. He/she coordinates the actions of all ministers, represents the Government as a whole, reports his actions and is controlled by the Assembly of the Republic, and keeps the President of the Republic informed.

There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister. He/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party which receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister.

The official residence of the Prime Minister is a mansion next to São Bento Palace, which, in confusion, is also often called "São Bento Palace", although many Prime Ministers didn't live in the palace during their full mandate.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Prime Ministers 2
    • Constitutional Monarchy – Second Liberalism (1834–1910) 2.1
    • First Republic (1910–1926) 2.2
    • Second Republic (1926–1974) 2.3
    • Third Republic (1974–present) 2.4
  • Timeline 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

The origins of present office of Prime Minister of Portugal fall back to the beginning of the Portuguese Monarchy in the 12th century. Typically, a senior official of the King of Portugal prevailed over the others, ensuring the coordination of the administration of the Kingdom as a kind of prime minister. Throughout history, the prominent position fell successively on the Mayor of the Palace (Portuguese Mordomo-Mor), on the Chancellor (Chancellor-Mor), on the King's Private Secretary (Escrivão da Puridade) and on the Secretary of State (Secretário de Estado).

In 1736, three offices of secretary of state were created, with the Secretary of State of the Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (Secretário de Estado dos Negócios Interiores do Reino) occupying a prominent position over the others.

Since the 1820 Liberal Revolution of Porto, liberalism and parliamentarism were installed in the country. In the first liberal period, there were three to six secretaries of state with equal position in the hierarchy, but with the Secretary the Internal Affairs of the Kingdom (usually known by Minister of the Kingdom) continuing to occupy a prominent position. Occasionally there was a Minister Assistant to the Dispatch (Ministro Assistante ao Despacho), a coordinator of all secretaries of state, and with a post similar to that of a prime minister. After a brief absolutistic restoration, the second liberalism started. With the beginning of the Constitutional Monarchy, the office of President of the Council of Ministers (President do Conselho de Ministros) was created. The Presidents of the Council were clearly the heads of government of the Kingdom, holding the executive power that absolutistic monarchs had, but were restricted by the controlling power of a National Congress.

With the advent of the Republic in the 5 October 1910 revolution, the head of government was renamed President of the Ministry (President do Ministério). During this period the heads of government were under the strong power of the parliament and often fell due to parliamentary turmoils and social instability.

With the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, and eventually, after the formation of the Estado Novo quasi-fascist dictatorial regime of António de Oliveira Salazar, the Prime Minister was again named President of the Council of Ministers, and was nominally the most important figure in the country. First Salazar and then Marcello Caetano occupied this post for almost 42 years.

With the Carnation Revolution came the Prime Minister, which replaced the President of the Council.

Prime Ministers

The numbering of the Prime Ministers starts with the first President of the Council of Ministers of the constitutional monarchy. A second column is added after the establishment of the Republic, numbering the Prime Ministers from there to the present day. Another column is added for the numbering inside the three regimes: First Republic, the Second Republic and Third Republic, with a fourth column in the Second Republic to mark the numbering of Prime Ministers since the 1926 revolution that established the National Dictatorship and since the replacement of the National Dictatorship with the Salazarist Estado Novo. In the Third Republic, a fourth column is also used to distinguish the prime ministers of the provisional governments that existed during the period immediately following the Carnation Revolution of 1974 from the prime ministers that assumed office after the entry into force of Portugal's current democratic Constitution adopted 1976.

At the right hand side, a column indicates the official numbering of the Constitutional Governments. The numbering of the Constitutional Governments is not the same as the numbering of Prime Ministers since the Constitution because, whenever elections for a new Parliament take place, a new Constitutional Government is installed, even if the Prime Minister remains the same; however, there is also a change of Constitutional Government when the Prime Minister is replaced, even if in mid-Parliament. So, because some Prime Ministers managed to remain in office after fresh elections (thus serving as Prime Ministers under more than one Parliament), there are more Constitutional Governments than there are Prime Ministers.

The colors indicate the political affiliation of each Prime Minister.

      No party
      Chartist/Chamorro
      Chamorro
      Septemberist
      Regenerator
      Historic
      Reformist
      Regenerator/Historic
      Progressist
      Liberal Regenerator
      Republican
      Democratic
      National Republican/Sidonist
      Republican Liberal
      Reconstitution Party
      Nationalist Republican
      Democratic Leftwing Republican
      National Union/People's National Action
      Democratic Renewal Party
      Socialist
      Social Democratic/Democratic Alliance
      Democratic and Social Centre/Democratic Alliance

Constitutional Monarchy – Second Liberalism (1834–1910)

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Electoral mandates
Political party Government Monarch
(Reign)
1 Pedro de Sousa Holstein,
Marquess of Palmela

(1781–1850)
24 September
1834
4 May
1835
Chartist/"Chamorro" 1st Dev. Maria II

and Fernando II
(1834–1853)
1834
Portugal's first official Prime Minister.
2 Vitório Maria de Sousa Coutinho,
Count of Linhares

(1790–1857)
4 May
1835
27 May
1835
"Chamorro"
——
3 João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun,
Marquess of Saldanha

(1790–1876)
27 May
1835
18 November
1835
Independent 2nd Dev.
——
4 José Jorge Loureiro
(1791–1860)
18 November
1835
20 April
1836
Independent 3rd Dev.
——
5 António José Severim de Noronha,
Duke of Terceira and Marquess of Vila Flor

(1792–1860)
20 April
1836
10 September
1836
"Chamorro" 4th Dev.
Jul.1836
September 1836 Revolution.
6 José da Gama Carneiro e Sousa,
Count of Lumiares

(1788–1849)
10 September
1836
4 November
1836
Septemberist 1st Set.
——
- José Bernardino de Portugal e Castro,
Marquess of Valença and Count of Vimioso

(1780–1840)
(did not take office)
4 November
1836
5 November
1836
Independent ——
——
7 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo,
Viscount of Sá da Bandeira

(1795–1876)
5 November
1836
1 June
1837
Septemberist 2nd Set.
Nov.1836
8 António Dias de Oliveira
(1804–1863)
1 June
1837
2 August
1837
Septemberist 3rd Set.
——
Revolt of the Marshals.
9 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo,
Viscount of Sá da Bandeira
(2nd time)
(1795–1876)
2 August
1837
18 April
1839
Septemberist 4th Set.
1838
10 Rodrigo Pinto Pizarro de Almeida Carvalhais,
Baron of Ribeira de Sabrosa

(1788–1841)
18 April
1839
26 November
1839
Septemberist 5th Set.
——
11 José Lúcio Travassos Valdez,
Count of Bonfim

(1787–1862)
26 November
1839
9 June
1841
Septemberist 6th Set.
1840
12 Joaquim António de Aguiar
(1792–1884)
9 June
1841
7 February
1842
Septemberist 7th Set.
——
13 Pedro de Sousa Holstein,
Marquess of Palmela
(2nd time)
(1781–1850)
7 February
1842
9 February
1842
Septemberist G.E.
——
14 António Bernardo da Costa Cabral,
Count of Tomar

(1803–1889)
9 February
1842
20 May
1846
Chartist 1st R. Cart.
1842, 1845
Revolution of Maria da Fonte.
15 Pedro de Sousa Holstein,
Marquess of Palmela
(3rd time)
(1781–1850)
20 May
1846
6 October
1846
Chartist 2nd R. Cart.
——
Emboscada palace coup.
16 João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun,
Duke of Saldanha
(2nd time)
(1790–1876)
6 October
1846
18 June
1849
Chartist 3rd R. Cart.
1847
Patuleia or Little Civil War that resulted in a Chartist victory; Convention of Gramido.
17 António Bernardo da Costa Cabral,
Count of Tomar
(2nd time)
(1803–1889)
18 June
1849
26 April
1851
Chartist 4th R. Cart.
——
18 António José Severim de Noronha,
Duke of Terceira and Marquess of Vila Flor
(2nd time)
(1792–1860)
26 April
1851
1 May
1851
Regenerator 5th R. Cart.
——
19 João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun,
Duke of Saldanha
(3rd time)
(1790–1876)
1 May
1851
6 June
1856
Regenerator 1st Reg.
1851, 1852 Pedro V

(1853–1861)
Death of queen Maria II; Pedro V ascends the throne.
20 Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto,
Duke of Loulé

(1804–1875)
6 June
1856
16 March
1859
Historic 2nd Reg.
1856, 1858
Opening of the first railway line in Portugal on 28 October 1856.
21 António José Severim de Noronha,
Duke of Terceira and Marquess of Vila Flor
(3rd time)
(1792–1860)
16 March
1859
1 May
1860 (died)
Regenerator 3rd Reg.
1860
22 Joaquim António de Aguiar (2nd time)
(1792–1884)
1 May
1860
4 July
1860
Regenerator
——
23 Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto,
Duke of Loulé
(2nd time)
(1804–1875)
4 July
1860
17 April
1865
Historic 4th Reg.
1861, 1864 Luis I

(1861–1889)
Death of king Pedro V; Luís I ascends the throne.
24 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo,
Marquess of Sá da Bandeira
(3rd time)
(1795–1876)
17 April
1865
4 September
1865
Reformist 5th Reg.
——
25 Joaquim António de Aguiar (3rd time)
(1792–1884)
4 September
1865
4 January
1868
Regenerator (with the Historic Party) 6th Reg.
1865, 1867
Janeirinha uprising.
26 António José de Ávila,
Duke of Ávila and Bolama

(1807–1881)
4 January
1868
22 July
1868
Independent
(with Reformists)
7th Reg.
——
27 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo,
Marquess of Sá da Bandeira
(4th time)
(1795–1876)
22 July
1868
11 August
1869
Reformist 8th Reg.
1868, 1869
28 Nuno José Severo de Mendonça Rolim de Moura Barreto,
Duke of Loulé
(3rd time)
(1804–1875)
11 August
1869
19 May
1870
Historic
(with Reformists)
9th Reg.
Mar.1870
29 João Carlos Saldanha de Oliveira Daun,
1st Duke of Saldanha
(4th time)
(1790–1876)
19 May
1870
29 August
1870
Regenerator 10th Reg.
——
30 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo,
Marquess of Sá da Bandeira
(5th time)
(1795–1876)
29 August
1870
29 October
1871
Reformist 11th Reg.
Sep.1870
31 António José de Ávila,
Marquess of Ávila
(2nd time)
(1807–1881)
29 October
1870
13 September
1871
Reformist 12th Reg.
1871
32 António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo
(1819–1887)
13 September
1871
6 March
1877
Regenerator 13th Reg.
1874
Conducted dynamic industrial and public infrastructure policy; educational reform; start of industrialization process.
33 António José de Ávila,
Marquess of Ávila
(3rd time)
(1807–1881)
6 March
1877
26 January
1878
Reformist 14th Reg.
——
34 António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo (2nd time)
(1819–1887)
26 January
1878
29 May
1879
Regenerator 15th Reg.
1878
35 Anselmo José Braamcamp de Almeida Castelo Branco
(1819–1885)
29 May
1879
23 March
1881
Progressist 16th Reg.
1879
36 António Rodrigues Sampaio
(1806–1882)
23 March
1881
14 November
1881
Regenerator 17th Reg.
——
37 António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo (3rd time)
(1819–1887)
14 November
1881
16 February
1886
Regenerator
1881, 1884
38 José Luciano de Castro Pereira Côrte-Real
(1834–1914)
16 February
1886
14 January
1890
Progressist 18th Reg.
1887, 1889 Carlos I

(1889–1908)
Pink Map crisis; Death of king Luís I; Carlos I ascends the throne; 1890 British Ultimatum.
39 António de Serpa Pimentel
(1825–1900)
14 January
1890
11 October
1890
Regenerator 19th Reg.
1890
40 João Crisóstomo de Abreu e Sousa
(1811–1895)
11 October
1890
18 January
1892
Independent 20th Reg.
——
January 31, 1891 rebellion in Porto.
41 José Dias Ferreira
(1837–1909)
18 January
1892
22 February
1893
Independent 21st Reg.
1892
42 Ernesto Rudolfo Hintze Ribeiro
(1849–1907)
22 February
1893
5 February
1897
Regenerator 22nd Reg.
1894, 1895
43 José Luciano de Castro Pereira Côrte-Real (2nd time)
(1834–1914)
5 February
1897
26 July
1900
Progressist 23rd Reg.
1897, 1899
44 Ernesto Rudolfo Hintze Ribeiro (2nd time)
(1849–1907)
26 July
1900
20 October
1904
Regenerator 24th Reg.
1900, 1901, 1904
45 José Luciano de Castro Pereira Côrte-Real (3rd time)
(1834–1914)
20 October
1904
19 March
1906
Progressist 25th Reg.
1905
46 Ernesto Rudolfo Hintze Ribeiro (3rd time)
(1849–1907)
19 March
1906
19 May
1906
Regenerator 26th Reg.
Apr.1906
47 João Ferreira Franco Pinto Castelo-Branco
(1855–1929)
19 May
1906
4 February
1908
Liberal Regenerator 27th Reg.
Aug.1906
Establishment of an authoritarian government; Lisbon Regicide and death of King Carlos I and other royal family members; Manuel II ascends the throne.
48 Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral
(1844–1923)
4 February
1908
26 December
1908
Independent 28th Reg. Manuel II

(1908–1910)
1908
49 Artur Alberto de Campos Henriques
(1853–1922)
26 December
1908
11 April
1909
Independent
(Regenerator and Progressist)
29th Reg.
——
50 Sebastião Custódio de Sousa Teles
(1847–1921)
11 April
1909
14 May
1909
Independent 30th Reg.
——
51 Venceslau de Sousa Pereira de Lima
(1858–1919)
14 May
1909
22 December
1909
Independent 31st Reg.
——
52 Francisco António da Veiga Beirão
(1841–1916)
22 December
1909
26 June
1910
Regenerator 32nd Reg.
——
53 António Teixeira de Sousa
(1857–1917)
26 June
1910
5 October
1910
Regenerator 33rd Reg.
1910
5 October 1910 revolution; End of Monarchy; royal family is exiled in the United Kingdom.

First Republic (1910–1926)

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Electoral mandates
Political party Government President
(Mandate)
54 Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga
(1843–1924)
5 October
1910
4 September
1911
Republican 1st Teófilo Braga

(1910–1911)
1911
5 October 1910 revolution.
55 João Pinheiro Chagas
(1863–1925)
4 September
1911
13 November
1911
Republican 2nd Manuel de Arriaga

(1911–1915)
——
56 Augusto César de Almeida de Vasconcelos Correia
(1867–1951)
13 November
1911
16 June
1912
Republican 3rd
——
57 Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva
(1864–1950)
16 June
1912
23 September
1912
Republican 4th
——
Royalist attack on Chaves.
- Augusto César de Almeida de Vasconcelos Correia (interim)
(1867–1951)
23 September
1912
30 September
1912
Republican
——
Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva
(1864–1950)
30 September
1912
9 January
1913
Republican
——
58 Afonso Augusto da Costa
(1871–1937)
9 January
1913
9 February
1914
Democratic 5th
——
59 Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães
(1851–1944)
9 February
1914
12 December
1914
Democratic 6th, 7th
——
Portugal in the World War I.
60 "Vítor Hugo" de Azevedo Coutinho
(1871–1955)
12 December
1914
28 January
1915
Democratic 8th
——
61 Joaquim Pereira Pimenta de Castro
(1846–1918)
28 January
1915
14 May
1915
Independent 9th
——
-   Constitutional Junta composed of:
José Norton de Matos
António Maria da Silva
José de Freitas Ribeiro
Alfredo de Sá Cardoso
Álvaro de Castro
14 May
1915
15 May
1915
None
——
- João Pinheiro Chagas (did not take office)
(1863–1925)
15 May
1915
17 May
1915
Independent 10th, 11th
——
62 José Augusto Soares Ribeiro de Castro
(1868–1929)
17 May
1915
29 November
1915
Democratic Teófilo Braga

(1915)
1915
63 Afonso Augusto da Costa (2nd time)
(1871–1937)
29 November
1915
16 March
1916
Democratic 12th Bernardino Machado

(1915–1917)
——
64 António José de Almeida
(1866–1929)
16 March
1916
25 April
1917
Sacred Union
(Evolutionist Party with the
Democrats)
13th
——
65 Afonso Augusto da Costa
(1871–1937)
25 April
1917
7 October
1917
Democratic 14th
——
- José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos (interim)
(1867–1955)
7 October
1917
25 October
1917
Democratic
——
Afonso Augusto da Costa
(1871–1937)
25 October
1917
17 November
1917
Democratic
——
José Maria Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos (interim)
(1867–1955)
17 November
1917
8 December
1917
Democratic
——
66 Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais
(1872–1918)
8 December
1917
14 December
1918 (died)
National Republican 15th, 16th Sidónio Pais

(1918)
1918
Known as the President-King; establishment of an authoritarian regime; assassinated.
67 João do Canto e Castro da Silva Antunes Júnior
(1862–1934)
14 December
1918
23 December
1918
National Republican João do Canto e Castro

(1918–1919)
——
68 João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa
(1883–1948)
23 December
1918
27 January
1919
National Republican 17th, 18th
——
Monarchy of the North.
69 José Maria Mascarenhas Relvas
(1858–1929)
27 January
1919
30 March
1919
Independent 19th
——
70 Domingos Leite Pereira
(1882–1956)
30 March
1919
30 June
1919
Independent 20th
——
71 Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso (reconducted)
(1864–1950)
30 June
1919
15 January
1920
Democratic 21st
1919
- Francisco José Fernandes Costa (did not take office)
(1857–1925)
15 January
1920
Republican Liberal 22nd António José de Almeida

(1919–1923)
——
- Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso (reconducted)
(1864–1950)
15 January
1920
21 January
1920
Democratic 21st
——
72 Domingos Leite Pereira (2nd time)
(1882–1956)
21 January
1920
8 March
1920
Independent 23rd
——
73 António Maria Baptista
(1866–1920)
8 March
1920
6 June
1920 (died)
Democratic 24th
——
74 José Ramos Preto
(1871–1949)
6 June
1920
26 June
1920
Democratic
——
75 António Maria da Silva
(1872–1950)
26 June
1920
19 July
1920
Democratic
(with the Socialists and Populars)
25th
——
76 António Joaquim Granjo
(1881–1921)
19 July
1920
20 November
1920
Republican Liberal
(with the Reconstitution Party)
26th
——
77 Álvaro Xavier de Castro
(1878–1928)
20 November
1920
30 November
1920
Democratic
(with Reconstitution Party and Populars)
27th
——
78 Liberato Damião Ribeiro Pinto
(1880–1949)
30 November
1920
2 March
1921
Democratic
(with Reconstitution Party and Populars)
28th
——
79 Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães (2nd time)
(1851–1944)
2 March
1921
23 May
1921
Democratic
(with Reconstitution Party and Populars)
29th
——
80 Tomé José de Barros Queirós
(1872–1925)
23 May
1921
30 August
1921
Republican Liberal 30th
——
81 António Joaquim Granjo (2nd time)
(1881–1921)
30 August
1921
19 October
1921
Republican Liberal 31st
1921
82 António Manuel Maria Coelho
(1857–1943)
19 October
1921
5 November
1921
Independent 32nd
——
83 Carlos Henrique da Silva Maia Pinto
(1866–1932)
5 November
1921
16 December
1921
Independent 33rd
——
84 Francisco Pinto da Cunha Leal
(1888–1970)
16 December
1921
7 February
1922
Democratic 34th
——
85 António Maria da Silva (2nd time)
(1872–1950)
7 February
1922
15 November
1923
Democratic 35th, 36th, 37th
1922
86 António Ginestal Machado
(1874–1940)
15 November
1923
18 December
1923
Nationalist Republican 38th Manuel Teixeira Gomes

(1923–1925)
——
87 Álvaro Xavier de Castro (2nd time)
(1878–1928)
18 December
1923
7 July
1924
Nationalist Republican
(with the Democratics)
39th
——
88 Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar
(1865–1938)
7 July
1924
22 November
1924
Democratic 40th
——
89 José Domingues dos Santos
(1885–1958)
22 November
1924
15 February
1925
Democratic Leftwing Republican 41st
——
90 Vitorino Máximo de Carvalho Guimarães
(1876–1957)
15 February
1925
1 July
1925
Democratic 42nd
——
91 António Maria da Silva (3rd time)
(1872–1950)
1 July
1925
1 August
1925
Democratic 43rd
——
92 Domingos Leite Pereira (3rd time)
(1882–1956)
1 August
1925
18 December
1925
Democratic 44th
——
93 António Maria da Silva (4th time)
(1872–1950)
18 December
1925
30 May
1926
Democratic 45th Bernardino Machado

(1925–1926)
1925
28 May 1926 coup d'état.

Second Republic (1926–1974)

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Electoral mandates
Political party Government President
(Mandate)
Ditadura Nacional – Military Dictatorship (1926–1932)
94 José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior
(1883–1965)
30 May
1926
19 June
1926
None 1st Dict. José Mendes Cabeçadas

(1926)
——
28 May 1926 coup d'état.
95 Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa
(1863–1929)
19 June
1926
9 July
1926
None 2nd Dict. Manuel Gomes da Costa
(1926)
——
96 António Óscar Fragoso Carmona
(1869–1951)
9 July
1926
18 April
1928
None 3rd Dict. António Óscar Carmona

(1926–1951)
——
97 José Vicente de Freitas
(1869–1952)
18 April
1928
8 July
1929
None 4th Dict.
5th Dict.
——
98 Artur Ivens Ferraz
(1870–1933)
8 July
1929
21 January
1930
None 6th Dict.
——
99 Domingos Augusto Alves da Costa e Oliveira
(1873–1957)
21 January
1930
5 July
1932
National Union 7th Dict.
——
Estado Novo – New State (1932–1974)
100 António de Oliveira Salazar
(1889–1970)
5 July
1932
25 September
1968
National Union 8th Dict.
9th Dict.
10th Dict.
1934, 1938, 1942, 1945, 1949, 1953, 1957, 1961, 1965 Craveiro Lopes
(1951–1958)
Spanish Civil War; Portugal neutrality during World War II; Marshall Plan; Repression of civil liberties and political freedoms; co-founder of United Nations, NATO, OCDE and EFTA; loss of Portuguese India; Portuguese Colonial War; 1962 Academic Crisis; Replaced after suffering a brain hemorrhage. Américo Tomás

(1958–1974)
101 Marcello José das Neves Alves Caetano
(1906–1980)
25 September
1968
25 April
1974
National Union
from 1970
People's National Action
11th Dict.
1969, 1973
Portuguese Colonial War; Carnation Revolution.

Third Republic (1974–present)

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party Elected Government President
(Mandate)
Provisional Governments of the Revolutionary Period (1974–1976)
-   National Salvation Junta
composed of:
António de Spínola
Francisco da Costa Gomes
Jaime Silvério Marques
Diogo Neto
Carlos Galvão de Melo
José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo
António Rosa Coutinho
25 April
1974
16 May
1974
None António de Spínola

(1974)
Military junta designated to maintain the government following the Carnation Revolution.
102 Adelino da Palma Carlos
(1905–1992)
16 May
1974
18 July
1974
Independent Prov. I
Lawyer, opponent of the Estado Novo, appointed by presidential nomination. Led a broad-based cabinet.
103 Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves
(1922–2005)
18 July
1974
19 September
1975
Independent Prov. II
Prov. III
1975 Cst. Prov. IV Francisco da Costa Gomes

(1974–1976)
Prov. V
Army colonel with ties with the Communist Party; Nationalization of banks and insurance companies after the events of 11 March 1975; Land reform; Introduction of a minimum wage; PREC
104 José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo
(1917–1983)
19 September
1975
23 June
1976
Independent Prov. VI
Coup of 25 November 1975; Approval of the new Constitution.
- Vasco Fernando Leotte de Almeida e Costa
(1932–2010)
interim[1]
23 June
1976
23 July
1976
Independent (Prov. VI)
Minister of Internal Administration under José Pinheiro de Azevedo; interim Prime Minister when Azevedo suffered a heart attack.
Prime Ministers heading Constitutional Governments (1976–Present)
105 Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares
(1924–)
23 July
1976
28 August
1978
Socialist 1976 I[Min.] António Ramalho Eanes

(1976–1986)
II (PS/CDS)
First democratically elected prime minister; 1976-1978 economic crisis; International Monetary Fund loan; Submission of the candidacy of Portugal to the EEC.
106 Alfredo Jorge Nobre da Costa
(1923–1996)
28 August
1978
22 November
1978
Independent III
Appointed by Presidential nomination. Resigned after his cabinet failed to gain Assembly majority.
107 Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto
(1936–1985)
22 November
1978
1 August
1979
Independent IV
Appointed by presidential nomination.
108 Maria de Lourdes Ruivo da Silva de Matos Pintasilgo
(1930–2004)
1 August
1979
3 January
1980
Independent V
Appointed by presidential nomination. Only female Prime Minister of Portugal.
109 Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro
(1934–1980)
3 January
1980
4 December
1980 (died)
Social Democratic
(within Democratic Alliance)
1979
1980
VI
First center-right Prime Minister since the Revolution; 1980 Azores Islands earthquake; Died in a tragic plane crash. The accident triggered a number of conspiracy theories.
110 Diogo Pinto de Freitas do Amaral
(1941–)
interim
4 December
1980
9 January
1981
Democratic and Social Centre
(within Democratic Alliance)
(VI)
Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister under Francisco Sá Carneiro; interim Prime Minister upon Sá Carneiro's death.
111 Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão
(1937–)
9 January
1981
9 June
1983
Social Democratic
(within Democratic Alliance)
VII
VIII
1982 constitutional revision; Extinction of the Council of the Revolution; Creation of the Constitutional Court; Resigns after a poor result in the local elections of 1982.
112 Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares
(1924–)
(2nd time)
9 June
1983
6 November
1985
Socialist 1983 IX (PS/PSD)
Central Block coalition; Portugal's entry to the EEC; 1983-1985 economic crisis; International Monetary Fund loan; Moimenta-Alcafache train crash.
113 Aníbal António Cavaco Silva
(1939–)
6 November
1985
28 October
1995
Social Democratic 1985 X[Min.] Mário Soares

(1986–1996)
1987 XI
1991 XII
Longest serving prime minister in democracy; economic expansion; privatization of many previously government-owned industries; 1989 and 1992 constitutional revisions; "Secos e molhados" police protests; Maastricht Treaty; end of the Cold War; Gulf War; Early 1990s recession; Riots against tolls on Ponte 25 de Abril.
114 António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres
(1949–)
28 October
1995
6 April
2002
Socialist 1995 XIII[Min.]
1999 XIV[Min.] Jorge Sampaio

(1996–2006)
Expo 98; Macau handover; East Timor issue; 1997 and 2001 constitutional revisions; Hintze Ribeiro disaster; Portugal joins the European single currency; Resigns after a disastrous result in the 2001 local elections.
115 José Manuel Durão Barroso
(1956–)
6 April
2002
17 July
2004
Social Democratic 2002 XV (PSD/CDS-PP)
Prestige disaster; Casa Pia child sexual abuse scandal; Iraq War; UEFA Euro 2004; 2004 constitutional revision; Resigns to become President of the European Commission.
116 Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes
(1956–)
17 July
2004
12 March
2005
Social Democratic XVI (PSD/CDS-PP)
Mayor of Lisbon (2002-2004, 2005). Replaced José Manuel Barroso as Prime Minister; resigned due to the dissolution of Parliament by the President.
117 José Sócrates de Carvalho Pinto de Sousa
(1957–)
12 March
2005
21 June
2011
Socialist 2005 XVII
2009 XVIII[Min.] Aníbal Cavaco Silva

(2006–present)
First time the Socialist Party won an absolute majority; 2005 constitutional revision; 2007 Abortion referendum; Treaty of Lisbon; Independente affair; Face Oculta scandal; Same-sex marriage legislation; 2011 Portuguese protests; 2010–13 Portuguese financial crisis.
118 Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho
(1964–)
21 June
2011
Incumbent Social Democratic 2011 XIX (PSD/CDS-PP)
2015 XX (PàF)[Min.]
Elected during the 2010–13 Portuguese financial crisis; Secret Services and Ongoing espionage scandal; September 15, 2012 mass protests; European Fiscal Union approval; 2013 governmental crisis and reshuffle; 2014 BES and ESFG corruption and money laundering scandal.

Timeline

See also

Notes

Min. Minority government

References

  1. ^ [2]

External links

  • WORLD STATESMEN.org (Portugal)
  • Prime Ministers since 1910
  • Portuguese General Elections since 1820
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