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List of female scientists

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List of female scientists

This is a historical list, intended to deal with the time period when women working in science were rare. For this reason, this list ends with the 20th century.

Antiquity

  • Agamede (12th century BCE), (possibly mythical) physician in Ancient Greece
  • Aglaonike (2nd century BCE), the first woman astronomer in Ancient Greece
  • Agnodike (4th century BCE), the first woman physician to practice legally in Athens[1]:2
  • Arete of Cyrene (5th–4th centuries BCE), natural and moral philosopher, North Africa
  • Artemisia of Caria (c. 300 BCE), botanist
  • Aspasia (4th century BCE), philosopher and scientist
  • Cleopatra the Alchemist - wrote the alchemical book, Chrysopoeia, or "gold-making".[2]
  • Diotima of Mantinea (4th century BCE), philosopher and scientist, ancient Greece (sources vary as to her historicity; possibly a fictionalized character based on Aspasia of Miletus)
  • Enheduanna (c. 2285–2250 BCE), Sumerian/Akkadian astronomer and poet
  • Hypatia (370–415), mathematician and astronomer, Egypt[1]:137

Middle Ages

  • Abella (14th century), Italian physician
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1099–1179), German natural philosopher[1]:126
  • Dorotea Bocchi (fl. 1390), Italian professor of medicine
  • Constance Calenda (15th century), Italian surgeon specialising in diseases of the eye[4][5]
  • Constanza, Italian physician[4]
  • Calrice di Durisio (15th century), Italian physician
  • Jacobina Félicie (fl. 1322), Italian physician
  • Alessandra Giliani (fl. 1318), Italian anatomist
  • Rebecca de Guarna (14th century), Italian physician[4][5]
  • Heloise (12th century), French mathematician and physician
  • Herrad of Landsberg (c.1130–1195), German/French author of the encyclopedia and technological compendium Garden of Delight
  • Maria Incarnata, Italian surgeon[5]
  • Lilavati (c. 12th century), daughter featured in Bhāskara II's treatise on mathematics, who solves mathematical exercises
  • Margarita (14th century), Italian physician[5]
  • Thomasia de Mattio, Italian physician[5]
  • Mercuriade (14th century), Italian physician and surgeon[4]
  • Empress Theodora (500–545), Byzantine philosopher and mathematician
  • Trotula of Salerno (c. 1090), Italian physician[1]:298
  • Walborg and Karin Jota (c. 1350), Swedish officials of the court

15th to 17th centuries

18th century

19th century

Anthropology

Archeology

  • Zsófia Torma (1832–1899), Hungarian archeologist, paleologist, anthropologist

Astronomy

Natural History or Biology

Biophysicist

Chemistry

  • Vera Bogdanovskaia (1868-1897), Russian chemist[7]:64
  • Ida Freund (1863-1914), first woman to be a university chemistry lecturer in the United Kingdom[7]:59–60
  • Louise Hammarström (1849–1917), Swedish chemist
  • Julia Lermontova (1846-1919), Russian chemist[7]:61–64
  • Laura Linton (1853-1915), American chemist [7]:57–58
  • Rachel Lloyd (1839-1900), [7]:55–56
  • Mary Engle Pennington (1872–1952), American chemist
  • Vera Popova (1867–1896), Russian chemist
  • Nadezhda Olimpievna Ziber-Shumova (d. 1914), Russian chemist
  • Agnes Pockels (1862-1935), German chemist
  • Anna Sundström (1785–1871), Swedish chemist
  • Ellen Swallow Richards (1842–1911), American industrial and environmental chemist[1]:254[7]:51–54
  • Anna Volkova (1800–1876), Russian chemist
  • Dorothy Hodgkin(1910–1994),British chemist

Engineers

Geology

Inventors

  • Ellen Eglui (19th century) inventor
  • Hanna Hammarström (1829–1909), Swedish inventor
  • Mary Kies (19th century), American inventor

Mathematics

Microbiology

Medicine

Nuclear Physics

  • Lise Meitner(1878–1968),Austrian,Swedish,nuclear physicist

Physics

Psychology

Science Education

  • Jane Webb Loudon (1807–1858), Writer of introductory gardening books
  • Jane Haldimand Marcet (1769–1858), Writer of introductory science books
  • Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps (1793–1884), American science educator


20th century

Anthropology

Astronomy

Biology

  • Nora Lilian Alcock(1874-1972), British plant pathologist
  • June Almeida (1930–2007), British virologist
  • E. K. Janaki Ammal (1897–1984), Indian botanist
  • Caroline Austin, British molecular biologist
  • Yvonne Barr (1932–), British virologist (co-discovery of Epstein-Barr virus)
  • Gillian Bates, British geneticist (Huntingdon's disease)
  • Val Beral (1946–), British–Australian epidemiologist
  • Alice Middleton Boring (1883–1955), American biologist
  • Linda B. Buck (1947–), American neuroscientist (Nobel prize for olfactory receptors)
  • Martha Chase (1927–2003), American molecular biologist
  • Ursula M. Cowgill, American biologist and anthropologist
  • Suzanne Cory (1942–), Australian immunologist/cancer researcher
  • Gerty Theresa Cori (1896–1957), American biochemist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947)
  • Janet Darbyshire, British epidemiologist
  • Dian Fossey (1932–1985), American zoologist
  • Birutė Galdikas (1946–), German primatologist and conservationist
  • Jane Goodall (1934–), British biologist, primatologist
  • Isabella Gordon (1901-1988), Scottish marine biologist
  • Susan Greenfield (1951–), British neurophysiologist (neurophysiology of the brain, popularisation of science)
  • Asha Kolte, Indian biologist (1941–)
  • Marian Koshland (1921–1997), American immunologist
  • Misha Mahowald (1963–1996), American neuroscientist
  • Lynn Margulis (1938–2011), American biologist
  • Barbara McClintock (1902–1992), American geneticist
  • Anne McLaren (1927–2007), British developmental biologist
  • Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909–2012), Italian neurologist (Nobel prize for growth factors)
  • Ann Haven Morgan (1882–1966), American zoologist
  • Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1942–), German geneticist and developmental biologist (Nobel prize for homeobox genes)
  • Daphne Osborne (1930–2006), British plant physiologist (plant hormones)
  • Theodora Lisle Prankerd (1878-1939), British botanist
  • Joan Beauchamp Procter (1897-1931), British zoologist (herpetologist)
  • F. Gwendolen Rees (1906–1994), British parasitologist
  • Anita Roberts (1942–2006), American molecular biologist, "mother of TGF-Beta"
  • Margaret A. Stanley, British virologist and epithelial biologist
  • Phyllis Starkey (1947–) British biochemist and medical researcher
  • Maria Telkes (1900–1995), Hungarian-American biophysicist
  • Karen Vousden, British cancer researcher
  • Elisabeth Vrba, South African paleontologist
  • Jane C. Wright (1919-2013), American oncologist

Chemistry

Geology

Mathematics or Computer Science

  • Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854–1923), British mathematician and electrical engineer (electric arcs, sand ripples, invention of several devices, geometry)
  • Mary L. Cartwright (1900–1998), British mathematician[12]
  • Amanda Chessell British computer scientist
  • Ingrid Daubechies, (1954–) Belgian mathematician (Wavelets - first woman to receive the National Academy of Sciences Award in Mathematics)
  • Tatjana Ehrenfest-Afanassjewa (1876–1964), Russian/Dutch mathematician
  • Evelyn Boyd Granville (1924–), American mathematician, second African-American woman to get a Ph.D. in mathematics
  • Marion Cameron Gray (1902-1979), Scottish mathematician
  • Grace Hopper (1906–1992), American computer scientist
  • Rózsa Péter (1905–1977) Hungarian mathematician
  • Dorothy Wrinch (1894–1976), British mathematician and theoretical biochemist
  • Yelena Saparina Russian scientist and writer.

Science Education

  • Susan Blackmore (1951–), British science writer (memetics, evolutionary theory, consciousness, parapsychology)

Engineering

  • Kate Gleason (1865–1933), American engineer
  • Frances Hugle (1927 – 1968) American engineer
  • Mary Olliden Weaver (20th century), inventor

Medicine

Paleoanthropology

  • Mary Leakey (1913–1996),British Paleoanthropologist

Physics

Psychology

  • Lera Boroditsky, American psychologist
  • Mamie Clark (1917-1983), African-American psychologist active in the civil rights movement
  • Helen Flanders Dunbar (1902–1959) important early figure in U.S. psychosomatic medicine[73]
  • Margaret Kennard (1899-1975) did pioneering research on age effects on brain damage, which produced early evidence for neuroplasticity
  • Margo Wilson (1945–2009), Canadian evolutionary psychologist
  • Catherine G. Wolf (1947–), American psychologist and expert in human-computer interaction


See also

Notes

References

External links

  • 4000 Years of Women in Science
  • Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics
  • Royal Society panel)
  • 10 Famous Women Scientists in History
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