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List of heads of state of Ghana

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Title: List of heads of state of Ghana  
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Subject: John Dramani Mahama, Supreme Military Council (Ghana), Government of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1964
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List of heads of state of Ghana

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Ghana

This is a list of the heads of state of Ghana, from the independence of Ghana in 1957 to the present day.

From 1957 to 1960 the head of state under the Ghana Independence Act 1957 was the Monarch, who was the same person as the Monarch of the United Kingdom and of the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch was represented in Ghana by a Governor-General. Ghana became a republic under the Constitution of 1960 and the monarch and Governor-General were replaced by an executive President.

Monarch (1957–1960)

The succession to the throne of Ghana was the same as the succession to the throne of the United Kingdom, governed by the Act of Settlement 1701.

{class="wikitable"|- ! colspan=3|Monarch ! colspan=3|Reign ! rowspan=2|Royal House ! rowspan=2|Prime Minister(s) |- ! # ! Portrait ! Name ! Reign start ! Reign end ! Duration |- ! 1 | | Queen Elizabeth II
(1926–) | 6 March 1957 | 1 July 1960 | , | House of Windsor | Nkrumah |- |}

Governors-General

Standard of the Governor-General of Ghana

The Governor-General was the representative of the monarch in Ghana and exercised most of the powers of the monarch. The Governor-General was appointed for an indefinite term, serving at the pleasure of the monarch. After the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Governor-General was appointed solely on the advice of the Cabinet of Ghana without the involvement of the British government. In the event of a vacancy the Chief Justice served as Officer Administering the Government.

Status
Governor-General Term of Office Monarch(s) Prime Minister(s)
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
1 Sir Charles Arden-Clarke
(1898–1962)
6 March 1957 24 June 1957 110 days}} Elizabeth II Nkrumah
2 The Earl of Listowel
(1906–1997)
24 June 1957 1 July 1960 3 years}}, Elizabeth II Nkrumah

First Republic (1960–1966)

Under the 1960 Constitution, the first constitution of the Republic of Ghana, the President replaced the monarch as executive head of state. The President was elected by Parliament for a -year term. In the event of a vacancy the served as Acting President.

President Term of office Political party
(at time of election)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
1 Kwame Nkrumah
(1909–1972)
1 July 1960 26 February 1966
(Deposed)
5 years}}, Convention People's Party

Military rule (1966–1969)

Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
2 Lieutenant-General Joseph Ankrah
(1915–1992)
24 February 1966 2 April 1969 3 years}}, National Liberation Council
3 Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa
(1936–1979)
2 April 1969 3 September 1969 154 days}} National Liberation Council

Second Republic (1969–1972)

President Term of office Political party
(at time of election)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
(3) Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa
(1936–1979)
3 September 1969 7 August 1970 338 days}} Military
4 Nii Amaa Ollennu
(1906–1986)
7 August 1970 31 August 1970 24 days}} Independent
5 Edward Akufo-Addo
(1906–1979)
31 August 1970 13 January 1972
(Deposed)
1 year}}, Independent

Military rule (1972–1979)

General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong led a coup d'état which overthrown the President Akufo-Addo, Prime Minister Abrefa Busia and his government, all political parties and Parliament was also dissolved.

Lieutenant General Fred Akuffo led a coup d'état which overthrew the General Acheampong then Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings led a coup d'état which overthrown the Supreme Military Council

Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
6 General Ignatius Kutu Acheampong
(1931–1979)
13 January 1972 9 October 1975 , National Redemption Council
9 October 1975 5 July 1978
(Deposed)
Supreme Military Council
7 Lieutenant-General Fred Akuffo
(1937–1979)
5 July 1978 4 June 1979
(Deposed)
1 year}}, Supreme Military Council
8 Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
4 June 1979 24 September 1979 112 days}} Armed Forces Revolutionary Council

Third Republic (1979–1981)

Under the 1979 Constitution the President is head of both state and government. The President is elected by Parliament and serves a four-year term that expires at the next general election; a President may serve a maximum of two terms. In the event of a vacancy the Vice President serves as Acting President.

President Term of office Political party
(at time of election)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
9 Hilla Limann
(1934–1998)
24 September 1979 31 December 1981
(Deposed)
2 years}}, People's National Party

Military rule (1981–1993)

Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings led a coup d'état which overthrown the President Limann and his government, all political parties and Parliament was also dissolved.
Head of State Term of Office Military
# Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Duration
(8) Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
31 December 1981 7 January 1993 11 years}}, Provisional National Defence Council

Fourth Republic (1993–present)

Under the current Constitution the President is head of both state and government. The President is elected by Parliament and serves a four-year term that expires at the next general election; a President may serve a maximum of two terms. In the event of a vacancy the Vice President serves as Acting President.

President Term of office Political party
(at time of election)
# Portrait Name Took office Left office Duration
(8)
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