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Lithium chloride

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Title: Lithium chloride  
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Subject: Lithium, Lithium bromide, Lithium aluminium hydride, Organozinc compound, Lithium chlorate
Collection: Alkali Metal Chlorides, Chlorides, Desiccants, Lithium Compounds, Metal Halides, Mood Stabilizers
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Lithium chloride

Lithium chloride
Unit cell model of lithium chloride
Sample of lithium chloride in a watch glass
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Lithium chloride
Systematic IUPAC name
Lithium(1+) chloride
Identifiers
 Y
ChEBI  Y
ChEMBL  N
ChemSpider  Y=  N
EC number 231-212-3
Jmol-3D images Image
MeSH
PubChem
RTECS number OJ5950000
UNII  Y
UN number 2056
Properties
ClLi
Molar mass 42.39 g·mol−1
Appearance white solid
hygroscopic, sharp
Density 2.068 g/cm3
Melting point 605–614 °C (1,121–1,137 °F; 878–887 K)
Boiling point 1,382 °C (2,520 °F; 1,655 K)
68.29 g/100 mL (0 °C)
74.48 g/100 mL (10 °C)
84.25 g/100 mL (25 °C)
88.7 g/100 mL (40 °C)
123.44 g/100 mL (100 °C)[1]
Solubility soluble in hydrazine, methylformamide, butanol, selenium(IV) oxychloride, propanol[1]
Solubility in methanol 45.2 g/100 g (0 °C)
43.8 g/100 g (20 °C)
42.36 g/100 g (25 °C)[2]
44.6 g/100 g (60 °C)[1]
Solubility in ethanol 14.42 g/100 g (0 °C)
24.28 g/100 g (20 °C)
25.1 g/100 g (30 °C)
23.46 g/100 g (60 °C)[2]
Solubility in formic acid 26.6 g/100 g (18 °C)
27.5 g/100 g (25 °C)[1]
Solubility in acetone 1.2 g/100 g (20 °C)
0.83 g/100 g (25 °C)
0.61 g/100 g (50 °C)[1]
Solubility in liquid ammonia 0.54 g/100 g (-34 °C)[1]
3.02 g/100 g (25 °C)
Vapor pressure 1 torr (785 °C)
10 torr (934 °C)
100 torr (1130 °C)[1]
1.662 (24 °C)
Viscosity 0.87 cP (807 °C)[1]
Structure
Octahedral
Linear (gas)
7.13 D (gas)
Thermochemistry
48.03 J/mol·K[1]
59.31 J/mol·K[1]
-408.27 kJ/mol[1]
-384 kJ/mol[1]
Hazards
Safety data sheet See: data page
ICSC 0711
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[3]
GHS signal word Warning
H302, H315, H319, H335[3]
P261, P305+351+338[3]
Harmful Xn
R-phrases R22, R36/37/38
S-phrases S26, S36/37/39
NFPA 704
0
1
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (Median dose)
526 mg/kg (oral, rat)[4]
Related compounds
Other anions
Lithium fluoride
Lithium bromide
Lithium iodide
Other cations
Sodium chloride
Potassium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl. The salt is a typical ionic compound, although the small size of the Li+ ion gives rise to properties not seen for other alkali metal chlorides, such as extraordinary solubility in polar solvents (83.05 g/100 mL of water at 20 °C) and its hygroscopic properties.[5]

Contents

  • Chemical properties 1
  • Preparation 2
  • Uses 3
  • Precautions 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Chemical properties

The salt forms crystalline hydrates, unlike the other alkali metal chlorides.[6] Mono-, tri-, and pentahydrates are known.[7] The anhydrous salt can be regenerated by heating the hydrates. Molten LiCl and LiCl-based mixtures react under a humid atmosphere to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen chloride. Molten LiCl hydrolyzes to give LiOH and HCl.[8] LiCl also absorbs up to four equivalents of ammonia/mol. As with any other ionic chlorides, solutions of lithium chloride can serve as a source of chloride ion, e.g., forming a precipitate upon treatment with silver nitrate:

LiCl + AgNO3 → AgCl + LiNO3

Preparation

Lithium chloride is produced by treatment of lithium carbonate with hydrochloric acid. It can in principle also be generated by the highly exothermic reaction of lithium metal with either chlorine or anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas. Anhydrous LiCl is prepared from the hydrate by heating with a stream of hydrogen chloride.

Uses

Lithium chloride is mainly used for the production of Stille reaction. Also, in biochemical applications, it can be used to precipitate RNA from cellular extracts.[9]

Lithium chloride is also used as a flame colorant to produce dark red flames.

Lithium chloride is used as a relative humidity standard in the calibration of hygrometers. At 25 °C (77 °F) a saturated solution (45.8%) of the salt will yield an equilibrium relative humidity of 11.30%. Additionally, lithium chloride can itself be used as a hygrometer. This deliquescent salt forms a self solution when exposed to air. The equilibrium LiCl concentration in the resulting solution is directly related to the relative humidity of the air. The percent relative humidity at 25 °C (77 °F) can be estimated, with minimal error in the range 10–30 °C (50–86 °F), from the following first order equation: RH=107.93-2.11C, where C is solution LiCl concentration, percent by mass.

Molten LiCl is used for the prepration of carbon nanotubes,[10] graphene[11] and lithium niobate.[12]

Precautions

Lithium salts affect the central nervous system in a variety of ways. While the citrate, carbonate, and orotate salts are currently used to treat bipolar disorder, other lithium salts including the chloride were used in the past. For a short time in the 1940s lithium chloride was manufactured as a salt substitute, but this was prohibited after the toxic effects of the compound were recognized.[13][14][15]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=614
  2. ^ a b Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1952). [Google Books Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds] . Van Nostrand. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  3. ^ a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Lithium chloride. Retrieved on 2014-05-09.
  4. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/7447-41-8
  5. ^ a b Ulrich Wietelmann, Richard J. Bauer "Lithium and Lithium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim.
  6. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. Inorganic Chemistry Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  7. ^ Andreas Hönnerscheid, Jürgen Nuss, Claus Mühle, Martin Jansen "Die Kristallstrukturen der Monohydrate von Lithiumchlorid und Lithiumbromid" Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, 2003, volume 629, p. 312-316.doi:10.1002/zaac.200390049
  8. ^ A.R.Kamali, D.J.Fray,C.Swandt, J Therm Anal Calorim (2011) 104:619–626 DOI 10.1007/s10973-010-1045-9
  9. ^ Cathala, G., Savouret, J., Mendez, B., West, B. L., Karin, M., Martial, J. A., and Baxter, J. D. (1983). "A Method for Isolation of Intact, Translationally Active Ribonucleic Acid". DNA 2 (4): 329–335.  
  10. ^ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.05.089
  11. ^ Nanoscale , 2015,7, 11310
  12. ^ DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.07.085
  13. ^ Talbott J. H. (1950). "Use of lithium salts as a substitute for sodium chloride". Arch Med Interna. 85 (1): 1–10.  
  14. ^ L. J. Stone, M. luton, lu3. J. Gilroy. (1949). "Lithium Chloride as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in the Diet". Journal of the American Medical Association 139 (11): 688–692.  
  15. ^ "Case of trie Substitute Salt".  
  • Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 71st edition, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990.
  • N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  • R. Vatassery, titration analysis of LiCl, sat'd in Ethanol by AgNO3 to precipitate AgCl(s). EP of this titration gives %Cl by mass.
  • H. Nechamkin, The Chemistry of the Elements, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968.

External links

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