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Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor

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Title: Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bradykinin receptor, Antigonadotropin, Prolactin receptor, Growth hormone receptor, List of human hormones
Collection: G Protein Coupled Receptors, Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Gonadotropins, Signal Transduction
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Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor

Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols  ; HHG; LCGR; LGR2; LH/CG-R; LH/CGR; LHR; LHRHR; LSH-R; ULG5
External IDs IUPHAR: ChEMBL: GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a uterus and breasts. The receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Its activation is necessary for the hormonal functioning during reproduction.

Contents

  • LHCGR gene 1
  • Receptor structure 2
  • Ligand binding and signal transduction 3
    • Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases 3.1
  • Action 4
    • Ovary 4.1
    • Testis 4.2
    • Extragonadal 4.3
  • Receptor regulation 5
    • Upregulation 5.1
    • Desensitization 5.2
    • Downregulation 5.3
    • Modulators 5.4
  • LHCGR abnormalities 6
  • History 7
  • Interactions 8
  • References 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11

LHCGR gene

The gene for the LHCGR is found on chromosome 2 p21 in humans, close to the FSH receptor gene. It consists of 70 kbp (versus 54 kpb for the FSHR).[1] The gene is similar to the gene for the FSH receptor and the TSH receptor.

Receptor structure

The LHCGR consists of 674 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 85–95 kDA based on the extent of glycosylation.[2]

The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G protein-coupled receptor such as LHCGR

Like other GPCRs, the LHCG receptor possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices.[3] The extracellular domain of the receptor is heavily glycosylated. These transmembrane domain contains two highly conserved cysteine residues, which build disulfide bonds to stabilize the receptor structure. The transmembrane part is highly homologous with other members of the rhodopsin family of GPCRs.[4] The C-terminal domain is intracellular and brief, rich in serine and threonine residues for possible phosphorylation.

Ligand binding and signal transduction

Upon binding of LH to the external part of the membrane spanning receptor, a transduction of the signal takes place that activates the G protein that is bound to the receptor internally. With LH attached, the receptor shifts conformation and thus mechanically activates the G protein, which detaches from the receptor and activates the cAMP system.[5]

It is believed that a receptor molecule exists in a conformational equilibrium between active and inactive states. The binding of LH (or CG) to the receptor shifts the equilibrium between active and inactive receptors. LH and LH-agonists shift the equilibrium in favor of active states; LH antagonists shift the equilibrium in favor of inactive states. For a cell to respond to LH only a small percentage (~1%) of receptor sites need to be activated.

Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was activated by the LHCG-receptor) via adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These protein kinases are present as tetramers with two regulatory units and two catalytic units. Upon binding of cAMP to the regulatory units, the catalytic units are released and initiate the phosphorylation of proteins leading to the physiologic action. The cyclic AMP-regulatory dimers are degraded by phosphodiesterase and release 5’AMP. DNA in the cell nucleus binds to phosphorylated proteins through the cyclic AMP response element (CRE), which results in the activation of genes.[1]

The signal is amplified by the involvement of cAMP and the resulting phosphorylation. The process is modified by prostaglandins. Other cellular regulators that participate are the intracellular calcium concentration modified by phospholipase, nitric acid, and other growth factors.

In a feedback mechanism, these activated kinases phosphorylate the receptor. The longer the receptor remains active the more kinases are activated and the more receptors are phosphorylated.

Other pathways of signaling exist for the LHCGR.[2]

Action

Ovary

In the ovary, the LHCG receptor is necessary for follicular maturation and ovulation, as well as luteal function. Its expression requires appropriate hormonal stimulation by FSH and estradiol. The LHCGR is present on granulosa cells, theca cells, luteal cells, and interstitial cells[2] The LCGR is restimulated by increasing levels of chorionic gonadotropins in case a pregnancy is developing. In turn, luteal function is prolonged and the endocrine milieu is supportive of the nascent pregnancy.

Testis

In the male the LHCGR has been identified on the Leydig cells that are critical for testosterone production, and support spermatogenesis.

Normal LHCGR functioning is critical for male fetal development, as the fetal Leydig cells produce testosterone to induce masculinization.

Extragonadal

LHCGR have been found in many types of extragonadal tissues, and the physiologic role of some has remained largely unexplored. Thus receptors have been found in the uterus, sperm, seminal vesicles, prostate, skin, breast, adrenals, thyroid, neural retina, neuroendocrine cells, and (rat) brain.[2]

Receptor regulation

Upregulation

Upregulation refers to the increase in the number of receptor sites on the membrane. Estrogen and FSH upregulate LHCGR sites in preparation for ovulation. After ovulation, the luteinized ovary maintains LHCGR s that allow activation in case there is an implantation.

Desensitization

The LHCGRs become desensitized when exposed to LH for some time. A key reaction of this downregulation is the phosphorylation of the intracellular (or cytoplasmic) receptor domain by protein kinases. This process uncouples Gs protein from the LHCGR. Another way to desensitize is to uncouple the regulatory and catalytic units of the cAMP system.

Downregulation

Downregulation refers to the decrease in the number of receptor sites. This can be accomplished by metabolizing bound LHCGR sites. The bound LCGR complex is brought by lateral migration to a coated pit, where such units are concentrated and then stabilized by a framework of clathrins. A pinched-off coated pit is internalized and degraded by lysosomes. Proteins may be metabolized or the receptor can be recycled. Use of long-acting agonists will downregulate the receptor population.

Modulators

Antibodies to LHCGR can interfere with LHCGR activity.

LHCGR abnormalities

Loss-of-function mutations in females can lead to infertility. In 46, XY individuals severe inactivation can cause male pseudohermaphroditism, as fetal Leydig cells during may not respond and induce masculinization.[6] Less severe inactivation can result in hypospadias or a micropenis.[2]

History

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology for the discovery of the G Protein System.

Interactions

Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor has been shown to interact with GIPC1.[7]

References

  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c d e
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^

Further reading

External links

  • GRIS: Glycoprotein-hormone Receptor Information System
  • LH-hCG Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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