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Mean arterial pressure

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Title: Mean arterial pressure  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Cardiovascular physiology, Vascular resistance, Blood pressure, Pulse pressure, Reflex bradycardia
Collection: Blood Pressure, Medical Signs
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Mean arterial pressure

The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a term used in medicine to describe an average blood pressure in an individual.[1] It is defined as the average arterial pressure during a single cardiac cycle.


  • Calculation 1
  • Estimation 2
  • Clinical significance 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR) is represented mathematically by the formula:

R = ΔP/Q[2]

R is TPR. ΔP is the change in pressure across the systemic circulation from its beginning to its end. Q is the flow through the vasculature (equal to cardiac output)

In other words:

Total Peripheral Resistance = (Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure) / Cardiac Output

Therefore, Mean arterial pressure can be determined from:[3]

MAP = (CO \cdot SVR) + CVP



At normal resting heart rates MAP can be approximated using the more easily measured systolic and diastolic pressures, SP and DP:[4][5][6]

MAP \simeq DP + \frac{1}{3}(SP - DP)

or equivalently

MAP \simeq \frac{2}{3}(DP) + \frac{1}{3}(SP)

or equivalently

MAP \simeq \frac{(2 \times DP) + SP}{3}

or equivalently

MAP \simeq DP + \frac{1}{3}PP

where PP is the pulse pressure, SP-DP

At high heart rates MAP is more closely approximated by the arithmetic mean of systolic and diastolic pressures because of the change in shape of the arterial pressure pulse.

For a generalized formula of MAP:

MAP \simeq DP + 0.01 \times exp(4.14 - 40.74 / HR) (SP - DP)

Where HR is the heart rate[7]

Clinical significance

MAP is considered to be the organs in the body.

It is believed that a MAP that is greater than 60 mmHg.[8] MAP may be used similarly to Systolic blood pressure in for target blood pressure. Both have been shown advantageous targets for sepsis, trauma, stroke, intracranial bleed, and hypertensive emergencies.[9]

If the MAP falls below this number for an appreciable time, vital organs will not get enough Oxygen perfusion, and will become hypoxic, a condition called ischemia.

See also


  1. ^ Zheng L, Sun Z, Li J, et al. (July 2008). "Pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure in relation to ischemic stroke among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in rural areas of China". Stroke 39 (7): 1932–7.  
  2. ^ Total peripheral resistance, WorldHeritage
  3. ^ Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts: Mean Arterial Pressure, Richard E. Klabunde, Ph.D
  4. ^ Physiology: 3/3ch7/s3ch7_4 - Essentials of Human Physiology
  5. ^ Cardiovascular Physiology (page 3)
  6. ^ Physiology Review
  7. ^ Calculation of mean arterial pressure during exercise as a function of heart rate.
  8. ^ impactEDnurse (May 31, 2007). "mean arterial pressure". Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  9. ^ Magder SA (2014). "The highs and lows of blood pressure: toward meaningful clinical targets in patients with shock.". Crit Care Med. 42 (5): 1241–51.  

External links

  • Mean Arterial Pressure Calculator
  • More Information on usage of the Mean Arterial Pressure
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