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National Endowment for Democracy

 

National Endowment for Democracy

National Endowment for Democracy
Founded November 18, 1983 (1983-11-18)
Type non-profit
NGO
Location
Origins U.S. Congress resolution H.R. 2915
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Carl Gershman (President)
Mission democracy promotion
Website .org.nedwww
The President of the National Endowment for Democracy, Carl Gershman (pictured, second from the left), presents an award to a Tunisian leader of the Arab Spring in November 2011.

The National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is a U.S. non-profit

  • Official site
  • International Endowment for Democracy Activist organization critical of the NED

External links

  •  
  •  
  • Robinson, William I. (1996). Promoting polyarchy: Globalization, US intervention, and hegemony. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Michael Barker, "The New York Times 'Reports' On The National Endowment For Democracy," Swans.com (October 20, 2008). An article about organizations supported by NED.
  • Thierry Meyssan, "NED : The networks of "democratic" interference," Voltaire Network (Jan. 22, 2004).
  • Michael Barker, "Catalyst for Iranian Resistance: US “democracy promoters” and regime change in Iran," Znet (December 18, 2006).

Further reading

  1. ^ Lowe, David. "Idea to Reality: NED at 25". 
  2. ^ a b "History". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  3. ^ "Grants". National Endowment for Democracy. Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  4. ^ "2008 Independent Auditors’ Report" (PDF). National Endowment for Democracy. 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010. 
  5. ^ Thomas Carothers, "The NED at 10", Foreign Policy, No. 95 (Summer, 1994), pp. 123–138. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1149427
  6. ^ "Recipient Grants: National Endowment for Democracy".  
  7. ^ World Movement for Democracy, Carl Gershman
  8. ^ "Meet Our President". National Endowment for Democracy. July 9, 2008. Archived from the original on April 26, 2008. Retrieved November 2, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Grants Program – 2004". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  10. ^ McFaul, Michael. Meddling' In Ukraine: Democracy is not an American plot"'".  
  11. ^ Dominguez, Francisco (2009). "US Support is Propping Up Honduran Military Coup". London Progressive Journal (79). Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. 
  12. ^  
  13. ^ "Fellowship Programs – Past Fellows". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Publications". National Endowment for Democracy. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  15. ^ "Hugo Chavez Accuses U.S. of Spending Over $1 Million To Help Oust Him".  
  16. ^ "Buying Venezuela’s Press With U.S. Tax Dollars".  
  17. ^ "Venezuela National Endowment for Democracy". Retrieved March 17, 2014. 
  18. ^ Barahona, Diana (May 17, 2005) Reporters Without Borders Unmasked, CounterPunch.
  19. ^ Diuk, Nadia (December 3, 2004). "In Ukraine, Homegrown Freedom". Washington Post. Retrieved November 3, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Ukraine: National Endowment for Democracy". Retrieved March 17, 2014. 
  21. ^ "National Endowment for Democracy: Russia". National Endowment for Democracy. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  22. ^ Radio Gives Hope to North Koreans, CNN, February 27, 2008.
  23. ^ a b "About CIMA". 
  24. ^ Ben A. Franklin, "Democracy Project Facing New Criticisms," The New York Times (December 4, 1985). Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  25. ^ http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2005-07-20/pdf/CREC-2005-07-20-pt1-PgH6117-3.pdf#page=53
  26. ^ Loose Cannon: The National Endowment for Democracy, Cato Institute

References

See also


"French democracy in the 1980s did not appear to be so fragile that it required financial assistance from American taxpayers to sustain itself. The government of François Mitterrand was duly elected within a democratic system nearly as old as America's. The AFL-CIO, however, determined that France's socialist government was permitting a dangerous rise of communist influence. According to the late Irving Brown, Paris-based director of international relations for the AFL-CIO at the time of the incident: "France . . . is threatened by the Communist apparatus. . . . It is a clear and present danger if the present is thought of as 10 years from now." That mentality has resulted in AFL-CIO support for highly controversial causes. One of the French groups that received funding, the National Inter-University Union, was widely viewed as a cauldron of rightist extremism and xenophobia and rumored also to have ties to terrorists. Surely, the U.S. government did not intend to fund authoritarian groups that work to undermine the government of a stable democratic nation.[26]

The Cato Institute criticized money spent in France in the 1980s saying that:

One criticism of the organization includes a lack of openness and public accountability in its stewardship of millions of dollars a year in taxpayer funds in the year 1985.[24] [25]

Criticisms

The Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) “works to strengthen the support, raise the visibility, and improve the effectiveness of independent media development throughout the world. The Center provides information, builds networks, conducts research, and highlights the indispensable role independent media play in the creation and development of sustainable democracies.”[23] "CIMA convenes working groups, commissions research reports, and holds events. The Center distributes a comprehensive list of digital media information and maintains a bibliographic database of international media assistance resources." [23]

Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA)

Others

  • ANGO Resource Center: $30,086
  • Association of Ukrainian Law Enforcement Monitors: $44,900
  • Bakhchisarai Center of Regional Development "Top-Kaya: $15,526
  • Bukovyna Partnership Agency: $48,295
  • Center for International Private Enterprise: $359,945
  • Center for Political Studies and Analysis: $27,940
  • Center for Progressive Young People “Apelsin”: $25,000
  • Center for Research on Social Perspectives in the Donbas: $39,776
  • Center for the Study of Social Processes and Humanitarian Issues: $30,060
  • Center UA: $26,920
  • Cherkasy Committee Voters of Ukraine: $34,993
  • Chernihiv Youth Educational Center "Initiative": $27,930
  • Chernivtsi Committee of Voters of Ukraine: $29,920
  • "Civic Space" Information and Analytical Center: $31,535
  • Civil Initiative Support Center: $48,486
  • Democratic Initiatives Foundation: $73,464
  • Dniprovsky Center for Social Research: $25,000
  • Dniprovsky Center for Social Research: $25,000 (SIC from NED website)
  • Donetsk Press Club: $39,810
  • Donetsk Committee of Voters of Ukraine: $52,930
  • East European Democratic Center: $78,969
  • East European Democratic Center: $41,584
  • Foundation for Promotion of Civil Activity: $27,130
  • Garage Gang Collective: $37,637
  • Human Rights Training Center: $19,370
  • Independent Association of Broadcasters: $39,271
  • Independent Center of Political Researchers and Journalists: $33,611
  • Institute for Euro-Atlantic Cooperation: $48,120
  • Institute of Mass Information: $34,470
  • Institute of Political Education: $47,994
  • Institute of the Republic: $29,990
  • International Republican Institute: $250,000
  • International Republican Institute: $35,000
  • International Republican Institute: $95,000
  • Journal Ji Analytical Center: $34,981
  • Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group: $47,200
  • Kherson Association of Journalists "South": $31,675
  • Kherson Association of Journalists "South": $39,578
  • Kherson Committee of Voters of Ukraine: $40,890
  • Krytyka Journal: $47,000
  • Luhansk Business Club "European Choice": $32,000
  • Lutsk Center for Political Analysis and Electoral Consulting: $26,523
  • "Moloda Cherkaschyna" Coalition of Cherkassy Youth NGOs: $31,855
  • National Democratic Institute for International Affairs: $345,000
  • Odesa Committee of Voters of Ukraine : $41,851
  • Our House - Svatovschina: $21,945
  • Policy Association for an Open Society: $39,934
  • Polissya Foundation for International and Regional Research: $25,000
  • "Postup" Human Rights Center: $24,030
  • Razumkov Center for Economic and Political Research: $39,990
  • School for Policy Analysis of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy: $52,750
  • Smoloskyp: $36,294
  • Spilnyi Prostir Association: $50,000
  • Sumy Regional Committee of Youth Organizations: $56,260
  • Sumy Regional Organization "Bureau of Political Analysis": $31,293
  • "Tamarisk" Center for Support of Civic and Cultural Initiatives: $30,890
  • Telekritika" $69,800
  • Ukrainian Catholic University: $35,000
  • Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research: $56,950
  • Ukrainian Helsinki Human Rights Union: $47,994
  • Ukrainian Youth Association of Ukraine: $42,900
  • Vinnitsa Youth Organization "Nashe Podillya": $52,046
  • Volyn Resource Center: $16,170
  • Youth Alternative: $42,143

In their 2012 report,[20] NED indicated that it spent US$3,381,824 (from the US federal budget) on the following programs in the Ukraine:

The NED played a significant role in the all these breakthrough elections have been accomplished with the vigorous participation of civic groups that support free and fair elections by monitoring the media, carrying out voter education, publicizing the platforms of candidates in the absence of a free press, training election observers, conducting polls and so on."[19]

Ukraine, Georgia, Serbia, Slovakia

During the 1980s and 1990s, NED invested millions of dollars in Eastern Europe.

Eastern Europe

More recently, the NED has provided funding to the French NGO Reporters Without Borders (RSF), which promotes freedom of press, particularly in Cuba.[18]

NED also funded political groups in the democracies of Western Europe in the 1980s. The French newspaper Libération published a report which claimed that the U.S. funded the National Inter-University Union.

Western Europe

  • Improved Training and Communication Skills for Political Activists : $295,050

Strengthening Political Institutions

  • Providing Legal Assistance : $33,000

Rule of Law

  • Training Candidates for the Municipal Elections : $48,000
  • Strengthening Democratic Good Governance at the Local Level : $35,000
  • Promoting Greater Oversight of Elections : $155,000 (Supplement: $20,000)
  • Fostering Citizen Participation in Local Elections and Local Governance : $60,350

Political Processes

  • Protecting Indigenous Human Rights : $49,990
  • Promoting Social Cohesion, Democratic Governance and Respect for Human Rights : $70,000
  • Protection and Promotion of Human Rights : $48,000
  • Promoting Participation and Human Rights : $35,000

Human Rights

  • Assessing Media's Contribution to Democracy in Venezuela : $53,000
  • Emerging Leadership, Communications and Social Networks : $63,000
  • Monitoring Freedom of Press : $50,872
  • Encouraging Participation and Transforming the Electoral Culture : $40,000

Freedom of Information

  • Promoting a Civic Culture and Democratic Values Among Informal Sector Workers : $60,000

Freedom of Association

  • Fostering Entrepreneurship in Defense of Democracy and Free Markets : $149,413

Developing Market Economy

  • Promoting Youth Participation in Local Governance : $39,980
  • Promoting Independent Political Research : $44,000
  • Political Leadership with a Gender Perspective : $50,000

Democratic Ideas and Values

  • Promoting Democratic Values and Leadership among Venezuelan Youth : $52,000
  • Promoting New Leadership at the Community Level : $34,145
  • Youth and the Future of the Country : $58,000
  • Promoting Youth Leadership : $20,000
  • Activists without Censorship : $37,000
  • Promoting Dialogue and Consensus Building : $75,000 (Supplement: $15,000)

Civic Education

  • Building Local Government Capacity in Public Security Policies: $41,500
  • Promoting Public Dialogue, Accountability, and Decentralization in Caracas: $55,000

Accountability

The National Endowment for Democracy, on their Venezuela page[17] indicate that the National Endowment for Democracy spent $1,752,300 on grants for the following programs in Venezuela (with specific areas indicated) in 2013:

In 2004, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez publicized documents which purported to show that the NED funded civil associations in the country, including a tripling of funding from about $250,000 to nearly $900,000 between 2000 and 2001.[15] As of July, 2010, the NED is accused of funding several journalists in Venezuela who work for opposition media outlets.[16]

Venezuela

NED supports a wide range of programs in Ecuador including the Asociación de Mujeres Municipalistas del Ecuador (AMUME) which “advocates on behalf of women elected officials during legislative reform efforts by facilitating debate, analysis and women’s participation,” and Asylum Access which provides legal support for refugee communities.

Ecuador

Latin America and the Caribbean

In 2002, Mehangiz Kar, an Iranian women activist received the annual Democracy award from then-First Lady Laura Bush.[14]

Iranians who have served as fellows at NED include:[13]

According to the NED's online Democracy Projects Database it has given funding the following groups for programs relating to Iran (1990–2006):

Iran

To enhance the ability of Uyghur prodemocracy groups and leaders to implement effective human rights and democracy campaigns. The World Uyghur Congress will organize a conference and training workshop for pro-democracy Uyghur youth, as well as young and mid-career professionals, on the use of new media and social networking technology for advocacy and outreach, Internet security, and innovative tactics in promoting and defending human rights.

To raise awareness of Uyghur human rights issues and advance religious freedom and human rights. The UAA’s Uyghur Human Rights Project will research, document and bring to international attention, independent and accurate information about human rights violations affecting the Turkic populations of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

To promote freedom of expression for writers working in the Uyghur language. The International Uyghur PEN Club will maintain a website that features banned writings and the works of persecuted poets, historians, journalists, and others, and will conduct international advocacy campaigns on behalf of imprisoned writers.

To advance the human rights of Uyghur women and children. The Foundation will maintain an English- and Uyghur-language website on the human rights situation of Uyghur women and children; conduct a civic education seminar for Uyghur women; and conduct advocacy on behalf of the human rights of Uyghurs in China.

According to the NED's online Democracy Projects Database it has given funding the following groups for programs relating to China's Xinjiang province and its Uyghur people.

Xinjiang

Of the 28 Asian NGOs the NED funds, 18 are related to China. Most of these grants go to organizations promoting democracy, human rights, or in the case of Hong Kong, Human Rights in China, the China Strategic Institute, and the Laogai Research Foundation. The NED also promotes the Republic of China as a "model of democratization".[12]

Democracy and human rights advocacy

China

The International Republican Institute (IRI) received about $1.2 million from NED in 2009 in order to support think tanks and advocacy groups to "support initiatives to implement political positions during the campaigns in 2009".[11]

Central America

[10] NED has also supported, provided training, and consulted with groups which approve of democracy, but criticize the United States, in countries such as

NED does not directly fund any political party, as this is forbidden by law. According to NED, it funds election monitoring and also civic education about voting, such as student-led "get-out-the-vote" campaigns.[9]

Funding of election monitors and democratic advocacy

The NED has supported programs in countries outside the United States.

Activities

The Endowment's bipartisan board is composed of a wide range of people. The group includes government officials like former Congressmen Azir Nafisi of Johns Hopkins SAIS, as well as Senior associates at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Michele Dunne and Moises Naim. Other members include business leader Marilyn Nelson of Carlson, Attorney Jayne M. Kurzman, union leaders James Boland and Fred Redmond, and Vice President of Global Public Policy at Facebook, Marne Levine. The Board also includes: John Bohn, Republican political advisor Barry Jackson, Progressive Policy Institute President Will Marshall, and former World Bank President Robert Zoellick.

NED's long-serving president (since April 30, 1984[7]) is Carl Gershman, former Senior Counselor to the United States Representative to the United Nations and former Executive Director of Social Democrats USA.[8]

Board

The NED has received funding from foundations, such as the Smith Richardson Foundation, the John M. Olin Foundation, and others. The Bradley Foundation supported the Journal of Democracy with $1.5 million during 1990–2008.[6]

From 1984 to 1990 the NED received $15–18m of congressional funding annually, and $25–$30m from 1991 to 1993. At the time the funding came via the United States Information Agency. In 1993 the NED nearly lost its congressional funding, after the House of Representatives initially voted to abolish its funding. The funding (of $35m, a rise from $30m the year before) was only retained after a vigorous campaign by NED supporters.[5]

The NED receives an annual appropriation from the U.S. budget (it is included in the chapter of the Department of State budget destined for the U.S. Agency for International Development-USAID) and is subject to congressional oversight even as a non-governmental organization. In the financial year to the end of September 2009 NED had an income of $135.5 million, nearly all of which came from U.S Government agencies.[4]

Source of funding

The Endowment has come a long way from opposition between both political parties in its earlier stages to widespread bipartisan endorsement on the Hill. And even though the American government has implemented its own democracy promoting capabilities through USAID (United States Agency for International Development), NED's independence plays a key factor in its relevance. The organizations independence gives it an ability to work in situations that official bodies may have to avoid and its non-bureaucratic nature enables it to move quickly in rapidly changing situations. NED has become a universal model and has influenced other nations to create their own institutions for the promotion of democracy.

[3] NED is structured to act as a grant-making foundation, distributing funds to private non-governmental organizations for the purpose of promoting democracy abroad. The Endowment serves as the umbrella organization in which half of NED's funding is allocated annually to four main U.S. organizations: the

Overview

Under the reauthorization of NED several factors were added to the organizations guidelines: the NED Act had to arrange the Board's prohibition on the use of funds for partisan political purposes, including funding for national party operations; mandate that NED consult with the State Department on any overseas programs it funds prior to the commencement of their activities; move the required date of reporting to Congress on all grants from December 31 to February 4, and lastly despite its non-governmental status, comply fully with the requirements of the Freedom of Information Act.

Later history

[2] In 1983, the House Foreign Affairs Committee proposed legislation to provide initial funding of $31.3 million for NED as part of the

In a 1982 speech at the

A bill was introduced in April 1967 by Congressman Dante Fascell (D-Fla.) to create an institute of International Affairs. And although the bill did not pass it led to discussions on Capitol Hill to establish an institution in which democracy efforts abroad would benefit the U.S. as well as countries struggling for freedom and self- government.

Founding

History

Contents

  • History 1
    • Founding 1.1
    • Later history 1.2
  • Overview 2
    • Source of funding 2.1
    • Board 2.2
  • Activities 3
    • Funding of election monitors and democratic advocacy 3.1
    • Central America 3.2
    • China 3.3
      • Democracy and human rights advocacy 3.3.1
      • Xinjiang 3.3.2
    • Iran 3.4
    • Latin America and the Caribbean 3.5
      • Ecuador 3.5.1
      • Venezuela 3.5.2
    • Western Europe 3.6
    • Eastern Europe 3.7
      • Ukraine, Georgia, Serbia, Slovakia 3.7.1
    • Others 3.8
  • Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) 4
  • Criticisms 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

. Center for International Media Assistance, and the Network of Democracy Research Institutes, the Reagan–Fascell Fellowship Program, the International Forum for Democratic Studies, the World Movement for Democracy, the Journal of Democracy In addition to its grants program, NED also supports and houses the [1]

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