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Orange, NJ

Orange, New Jersey
Township
City of Orange Township

Map of City of Orange in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.

Census Bureau map of Orange, New Jersey

Coordinates: 40°46′05″N 74°14′08″W / 40.76804°N 74.235692°W / 40.76804; -74.235692Coordinates: 40°46′05″N 74°14′08″W / 40.76804°N 74.235692°W / 40.76804; -74.235692[1][2]

Country United States
State New Jersey
County Essex
Incorporated November 27, 1806 (as township)
Reincorporated April 3, 1872 (as city)
Government[6]
 • Type Faulkner Act Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Dwayne D. Warren (term ends June 30, 2016)[3][4]
 • Administrator [5]
 • Clerk Dwight Mitchell[5]
Area[2]
 • Total 2.201 sq mi (5.700 km2)
 • Land 2.199 sq mi (5.694 km2)
 • Water 0.002 sq mi (0.005 km2)  0.09%
Area rank 393rd of 566 in state
19th of 22 in county[2]
Elevation[7] 197 ft (60 m)
Population (2010 Census)[8][9][9][10][11]
 • Total 30,134
 • Estimate (2012[12]) 30,744
 • Rank 75th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county[13]
 • Density 13,705.7/sq mi (5,291.8/km2)
 • Density rank 17th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county[13]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 07050-07051[14]
Area code(s) 862/973
FIPS code 3401313045[15][2][16]
GNIS feature ID 1729742[17][2]
Website http://www.ci.orange.nj.us

The City of Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 30,134,[8][9][10] reflecting a decline of 2,734 (-8.3%) from the 32,868 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,943 (+9.8%) from the 29,925 counted in the 1990 Census.[18]

Orange was originally incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 27, 1806, from portions of Newark Township. Portions of the township were taken on April 14, 1834, to form the now-defunct Clinton Township. On January 31, 1860, Orange was reincorporated as a town. Portions of the town were taken to form South Orange Township (April 1, 1861, now known as Maplewood), Fairmount (March 11, 1862, now part of West Orange), East Orange Township (March 4, 1863) and West Orange Township (April 10, 1863). On April 3, 1872, Orange was reincorporated as a city.[19] In 1982, the name was changed to the "City of Orange Township" to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies.[20][21] Orange is often joined with neighboring East Orange, South Orange and West Orange and referred to as part of "the Oranges".

Geography

City of Orange Township is located at 40°46′05″N 74°14′08″W / 40.76804°N 74.235692°W / 40.76804; -74.235692 (40.76804,-74.235692). According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 2.201 square miles (5.700 km2), of which, 2.199 square miles (5.694 km2) of it is land and 0.002 square miles (0.005 km2) of it (0.09%) is water.[1][2]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18102,266
18202,83024.9%
18303,88737.3%
18403,264*−16.0%
18504,38534.3%
18608,877102.4%
18709,348*5.3%
188013,20741.3%
189018,84442.7%
190024,14128.1%
191029,63022.7%
192033,26812.3%
193035,3996.4%
194035,7170.9%
195038,0376.5%
196035,789−5.9%
197032,566−9.0%
198031,136−4.4%
199029,925−3.9%
200032,8689.8%
201030,134−8.3%
Est. 201230,744[12]2.0%
Population sources: 1810-1920[22]
1840-1900[23] 1840[24] 1850-1870[25]
1850[26] 1870[27] 1880-1890[28]
1890-1910[29] 1860-1930[30]
1930-1990[31] 2000[32][33] 2010[8][9][10]
* = Lost territory in previous decade.[19]

2010 Census

Template:USCensusDemographics

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $40,818 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,616) and the median family income was $44,645 (+/- $4,033). Males had a median income of $34,986 (+/- $3,168) versus $36,210 (+/- $2,706) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,816 (+/- $1,027). About 16.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over.[34]

2000 Census

As of the 2000 United States Census[15] there were 32,868 people, 11,885 households, and 7,642 families residing in the township. The population density was 14,903.7 people per square mile (5,742.3/km2). There were 12,665 housing units at an average density of 5,742.8 per square mile (2,212.7/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 13.20% White, 75.10% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 1.26% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 5.21% from other races, and 4.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.47% of the population.[32][33]

There were 11,885 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.7% were married couples living together, 26.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.7% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.38.[32][33]

In the township the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males.[32][33]

The median income for a household in the township was $35,759, and the median income for a family was $40,852. Males had a median income of $33,442 versus $29,520 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $16,861. About 15.4% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.[32][33]

As part of the 2000 Census, 75.10% of Orange's residents identified themselves as being African American, one of the highest percentages of African American people in the United States, and the fourth-highest in New Jersey (behind Lawnside at 93.60%, East Orange at 89.46%, and Irvington at 81.66%) of all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry.[35]

Orange has a large Haitian American population, with 11.4% of residents identifying themselves as being of Haitian ancestry, the highest of any municipality in New Jersey and the eighth-highest in the United States.[36]

Although still a small percentage of total residents, Orange and East Orange have the largest concentrations of Guyanese Americans in the country. In the 2000 Census, 2.9% of Orange residents identified as being of Guyanese ancestry. While Queens and Brooklyn had larger populations in terms of raw numbers, Orange and East Orange (with 2.5%) had the highest percentages of people of Guyanese ancestry as a portion of the total population of all places in the United States.[37]

Government


Local government

Orange is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) form of municipal government, with a directly elected mayor and a City Council consisting of four ward representatives and three at-large representatives. Councilmembers serve four-year terms of office on a staggered basis with the four ward seats and the three at-large seatscoming up for election on an alternating cycle, and are elected on a non-partisan basis every two years.[6]

As of 2013, the Mayor of Orange is Dwayne D. Warren, whose term of office ends June 30, 2016[38] Members of the City Council are Council President Tency A. Eason (North Ward, 2014), Council Vice President Donna K. Williams (At-Large, 2016), Elroy A. Corbitt (At-Large, 2016), Hassan Abdul Rasheed (West Ward, 2014), Linda Jones-Bell (East Ward, 2014), April Gaunt-Butler (At-Large, 2016) and Edward B. Marable, Jr. (South Ward, 2014).[39][40]

Federal, state and county representation

City of Orange Township is located in the 10th Congressional District[41] and is part of New Jersey's 34th state legislative district.[9][42][43] Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Orange had been in the 27th state legislative district.[44]

New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark).[45] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark)[46] and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).[47][48]

The 34th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nia Gill (D, Montclair) and in the General Assembly by Thomas P. Giblin (D, Montclair) and Sheila Y. Oliver (D, East Orange).[49] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[50] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[51]

Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders.[52] As of 2013, the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr.[53] The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end in 2014.[52][54][55] Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark)[56], Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston)[57], Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark)[58], Gerald M. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.)[59] Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark)[60], D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington)[61], Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange)[62] and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell),[63] and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair).[64][65][66] Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015),[67] Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015)[68] and Surrogate Thomas N. Stephen, II (2016).[69][54][70]

Politics

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 14,943 registered voters in Orange, of which 8,490 (56.8%) were registered as Democrats, 302 (2.0%) were registered as Republicans and 6,147 (41.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were no voters registered to other parties.[71]

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 95.5% of the vote here (10,001 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 3.8% (397 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (27 votes), among the 10,476 ballots cast by the city's 15,388 registered voters, for a turnout of 68.1%.[72] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 89.6% of the vote here (8,000 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 9.1% (811 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (67 votes), among the 8,931 ballots cast by the city's 14,409 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 62.0.[73]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 91.7% of the vote here (4,993 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 5.5% (302 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 1.4% (74 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (31 votes), among the 5,442 ballots cast by the city's 14,891 registered voters, yielding a 36.5% turnout.[74]

Emergency services

Fire Department

The City of Orange is served by the professional firefighters of the city of Orange Fire Department (OFD). Founded in 1872, the OFD operates out of one Fire Station, located at 419 Central Avenue, and operates a fire apparatus fleet of three engines, one truck, and numerous other special, support, and reserve units. The current Chief of Department is Robert Manganelli.[75]

History

Orange had its origins in Connecticut's New Haven Colony. In 1666, a group of 30 of New Haven's families traveled by water to found "a town on the Passayak" River. They arrived on territory now encompassing Newark, the Oranges, and several other municipalities. The area was situated in the northeast portion of a land grant conveyed by King Charles II of England to his brother James, Duke of York. In 1664, James conveyed the land to two proprietors, Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Since Carteret had been Royal Governor of the Isle of Jersey, the territory became known as "New Jersey."

Orange was initially a part of the city of Newark, but it was originally known as "Newark Mountains". On June 7, 1780, the townspeople of Newark Mountains officially voted to adopt the name Orange.[76] At the time, there was a significant number of people in favor of secession from Newark. However, this would not occur until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of the Oranges was finally detached. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected, but not until March 13, 1860 was Orange officially incorporated as a city. Immediately, the new city began fragmenting into smaller communities, primarily because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police, fire, and street departments. South Orange was organized on January 26, 1861; Fairmount (later to become part of West Orange) on March 11, 1862; East Orange on March 4, 1863; and West Orange (including Fairmount) on March 14, 1863.[19]

Orange is located on the Newark and Mount-Pleasant Turnpike, the main road from Newark to Morristown, and ultimately to Easton, Pennsylvania. The town became a busy thoroughfare for travelers, and hotels abounded. Initially, the stagecoach was the primary method of transportation. Omnibuses of the Eclipse and the Morris & Newark Lines serviced Orange. The Morris and Essex Railroad arrived in Orange in November 1836, its first cars drawn by horses. On October 2, 1837, the first steam locomotive appeared, and the horses were, with minor exception, relegated to pasture. The "M&E" later became a part of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (DL&W), which exists today as New Jersey Transit's Morristown Line. Trolley cars appeared much later, with the Orange and Newark Horse Car Railroad Company running its first car up Main Street in May 1862. The Orange Crosstown Line, eventually extending from Morris Street, Orange, to Bloomfield, was started in June 1888. (The first electric trolley in the State of New Jersey operated over a section of this line.) Eventually, all of the trolleys, and the buses that replaced them, became part of the sprawling Public Service Coordinated Transport System.

Orange was an industrial city from the outset. Early settlers found a profuse growth of hemlock trees, an ideal supply of tannic acid for the tanning industry, and boot and shoemaking factories soon flourished.


Hatmaking was the essential industry, and can be traced to 1792. By 1892, 21 firms were engaged in that trade, employing over 3,700 people in plants that produced about 4.8 million hats, which had a combined value in excess of $1 million. By 1921, however, only five firms were left, and by 1960, all had departed for places such as Norwalk and Danbury, Connecticut.

Beer was a major revenue producer in Orange beginning in the early 1900s, when the three Winter Brothers of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, arrived in the city and built the first brewery. The Orange Brewery was constructed in 1901 at a reported cost of $350,000. The production of beer ceased with prohibition in 1920, and after the repeal of the Volstead Act in 1933, the brewery was sold to John F. Trommers of Philadelphia. Trommers brewed beer under that label until 1950, when the concern was again sold to Liebmann Breweries, Incorporated, which bottled Rheingold Beer. Eventually, after several additional owners, the plant was closed permanently in 1977.

Other notable firms located in Orange were the Monroe Calculating Company, manufacturers of the patented adding machines of the same name, and the Bates Manufacturing Company, producers of office accessories such as staplers and stampers. The United States Radium Corporation was a notorious resident of Orange. This firm refined ore and extracted the radium used to make luminous paint for dials and hands of watches and other indicators. It was only years later that the terrible carcinogenic effects of this material became known, and the polluted site of the factory became a thorn in the side of the city.[77]

Orange has produced such notables as baseball's Monte Irvin and Heavyweight Boxer Tony Galento. Actor William Bendix lived and worked here for a short while. It was once the barmaking capital of the United States, as several brothers founded the "No-Name Hat Company," before one of them moved on to make fedoras in Philadelphia under the family name, "Stetson". Presidents, presidential candidates, and governors visited. Orange threw a grand party on its 100th anniversary, and another when it turned 150.

Once a multiethnic, economically diverse city, Orange suffered indirectly from the 1967 riots in Newark (even though Newark and Orange do not share a border) and directly from the construction of Interstate 280 through the heart of the downtown area, triggering middle-class "white flight" from aging industrial towns to the new automobile suburbs being built in western Essex County and elsewhere. By the end of the 1970s, Orange had many of the urban ills normally associated with larger cities.

In 1982, citizens voted overwhelmingly to change the designation of Orange from a city to a township, thereby making it eligible for federal Revenue Sharing funds.[21] In 1985, the State of New Jersey named Orange as a State Urban Enterprise Zone, creating tax breaks and investment incentives.[21]

Education


The Orange Board of Education serves public school students in kindergarten through 12th grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott districts statewide,[78] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[79][80]

Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[81]) are eight elementary schools — Central School[82] (243 students; grades K-2), Cleveland Street School[83] (289; K-7), Forest Street School[84] (386; PreK-7), Heywood Avenue School[85] (370; PreK-7), Lincoln Avenue School[86] (562; K-7), Oakwood Avenue School[87] (264; PreK-7), Park Avenue School[88] (347; K-7) and Rosa Parks School[89] (635; 2-7, formerly Main Street School) — Orange Preparatory Academy[90] for grades 8-9 (520, formerly Orange Middle School) and Orange High School[91] for grades 9–12 (780).[92]

The Orange Public Library collection contains 150,000 volumes and circulates 56,000 items annually.[93] Built as the Stickler Memorial Library,[94] the imposing structure designed by McKim, Mead, and White opened in 1901.[95]

Commerce

Portions of Orange are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.[96]

Transportation

The Orange and Highland Avenue stations provide New Jersey Transit train service along the Morris & Essex Lines (formerly Erie Lackawanna Railway). Service is available via the Kearny Connection to Secaucus Junction and Penn Station in Midtown Manhattan and to Hoboken Terminal. Passengers can transfer at Newark Broad Street or Summit to reach the other destination if necessary.

New Jersey Transit buses in Orange include the 21, 24, 34, 41, 44, 71, 73 and 79 routes providing service to Newark and local service on the 92 and 97 routes.[97]

Notable people

Notable current and former residents include:

Points of interest

See also

References

External links

  • City of Orange Township website
  • Orange Board of Education
  • New Jersey Department of Education
  • National Center for Education Statistics
  • Citizens for Responsible Government website
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