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Order of St. Stanislav

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Title: Order of St. Stanislav  
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Order of St. Stanislav

Order of Saint Stanislaus
(Polish: Order św. Stanisława Biskupa Męczennika)
(Russian: Орден Святого Станислава)
Cross of the Polish Order of Saint Stanislaus
Award of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Duchy of Warsaw
Kingdom of Poland
Russian Empire
Type Order of Merit[1]
Royal house Poniatowski(7 May 1765 - 25 November 1795
Wettin(9 June 1807 – 22 May 1815)
Romanov(9 June 1815 - 16 March 1917
Religious affiliation Roman Catholic (7 May 1765 - 22 May 1815)
None from 1815
Status Abolished, 16 March 1917
Established May 7, 1765[2]
Star of the Polish Order of Saint Stanislaus with Latin phrase Praemiando Incitat


The Order of Saint Stanislaus (Polish: Order św. Stanisława Biskupa Męczennika, Russian: Орден Святого Станислава), also spelled Stanislas, was an Order in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Poland between 1765 and 1831 and of the Russian Empire from 1831 to 1917.[1]

History of the Order of Saint Stanislaus

Stanisław August Poniatowski, King of Poland, established the Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr on May 8, 1765 to honor the service to the King.[3] Initially, the order was limited to 100 members who were required to prove four generations of nobility.[4]

After the partition of Poland it was recognized in the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. Since 1815 in the Polish (Congress) Kingdom, the Order, originally in a single class, was retained and divided into four classes. At 25 January 1831 Polish Parliament deposed tsar Nicholas I of Russia (also grand master of this Polish Order) from the throne of Poland. After the downfall of the November Uprising the Imperial House of Romanov created the Royal and Imperial Order of Saint Stanislaus and added it to the awards system of the Russian Empire in 1832, where it remained until 1917. The order was abolished with the fall of the Romanovs in 1917 but, unlike other Polish orders awarded by the Tsars, the Order of Saint Stanislaus was not revived by the newly independent Second Polish Republic (possibly because in its Russian form it was often awarded by the imperial government to those Poles who co-operated with Russia rule making the Order a symbol of subservience to an occupying power).[4] It was replaced by the Order of Polonia Restituta.[1]

The Insignia of the Polish and Russian Orders of St. Stanislaus

The original Polish badge of the order was a red enameled Maltese cross with white enameled Polish eagles between its arms and with a central medallion bearing an enameled image of Saint Stanislaus in his episcopal vestment surrounded by a gold laurel wreath. In the Russian version of this badge the Polish white eagles are replaced with gold Russian double-headed imperial eagles, their wings parially overlapping the arms of the cross and the central medallion bearing the letters "SS" in red on a white enamel background instead of the original image of the saintly bishop, surrounded by a green enamel laural wreath. There is also a semi-circle of gold rays between each of the points of arms of the Maltese cross. Both the Polish and Russian badges hung from a red ribbon with white strips near its borders (i.e., the colors of the Polish coat of arms and flag), a ribbon which they shared with the modern Order of Polonia Restituta.

The Order also had an eight-pointed star with straight rays with a central medallion bearing the letters "SS" surrounded by the Latin words "Praemiando incitat", which is in turn surrounded by a laurel wreath. The Star has essentially the same design in both its Polish and Russian forms.

In its original Polish form the knights of the Order wore a red, white and silver habit modelled on the traditional dress of a Polish nobleman (i.e., zupan, kontusz, pas kontuszowy and delia).

References

ru:Орден Святого Станислава
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